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TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Archaeological Society 

FOR 

1902. 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

Bristol ano Gloucestershire 
Brcbarologkal Society 

FOR 

1902. 

Edited by Rev. C. S. TAYLOR, M.A., F.S.A. 
VOL. XXV. 



BRISTOL: 

PRINTEP FOR THE SOCIETY BY J. W. ARROWSMITH, QUAY STREET. 



The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological 
Society desires that it should be distinctly understood that the 
Council is not responsible for any statement made, or opinions 
expressed, in the Transactions of the Society. The Authors are 
alone responsible for their several Papers and Communications, and 
the Editor, the Rev. C. S. Taylor, M.A., F.S.A., Banwell Vicarage, 
Somerset, for the Notices of Books. 



1396SS6 



TABLE OF CONTENTS OF VOL. XXV. 

Page 

Proceedings at the Spring Meeting at Yatton, 

Wrington and Banwell ...... I 

Proceedings at the Annual Summer Meeting at 

Tewkesbury . . . . $c> < . . 26 

The Monks of the Monastery of S. Mary at Tewkesbury 77 

On Certain Rare Monumental Effigies .... 94 

Bristol Cathedral Heraldry ...... 102 

Notes on French Jubes or Roodlofts .... 133 

Monumental Effigies in Bristol and Gloucestershire 148 

Rural Deanery of Bisley . . . . . .150 

Rural Deanery of South Forest . . . .159 

Rural Deanery of Bitton 170 

Rural Deanery of Cheltenham ...... 251 

Rural Deanery of Cirencester ...... 270 

Rural Deanery of Stapleton . . . . . . 273 

Heraldry of the Winterbourne Excursion . . , 183 

Heraldry of the Chipping Campden Meeting . . . 187 

The Story of the Two Lantonys ..... 212 

Deerhurst, Pershore and Westminster .... 230 

The Arrangement of the Chancel at Deerhurst . . 285 

The Grave of Bishop Carpenter . . . . 294 

Notices of Publications ....... 296 

In Memoriam : Professor Earle . , , r , 320 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page 

Nave of Banwell Church . 4 

Roof of Banwell Church . . . . . 5 

Yatton Church ......... 7 

Newton Chapel, Yatton ....... 8 

Chancel Arch, Yatton . . ... . . . 9 

Newton Tomb, Yatton . 10 

Newton Canopied Tomb, Yatton . , . . . . 13 

Wrington Church ... . . . . . 14 

Chancel Niche, Wrington . . . . . . .15 

Nave, Wrington . . . . ... . . 17 

Altar Piece, Wrington ....... 19 

Banwell Tower . . .. . . . . . . . 20 

Screen, Banwell . . .. . . . . . . 22, 23 

Arrow Heads from Banwell Camp . . . . 24 

Ground Plan of Tewkesbury Abbey 37 

Nave at Tewkesbury . . 38 

Beauchamp Chantry . 38 

North Transept, Tewkesbury 39 

Tower and Turret .40,41 

Tewkesbury in 1732 . . ... . , . . 42 

Abbot Wakeman's Cenotaph . . . . . 43 

Great Malvern Priory 55 

Martyrdom of S. Werstan 59 

Miserere, Great Malvern . . . . . . . 61 

Guesten Hall, Great Malvern , , . , t 62 



UST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. vii. 

Page 

Windows, Little Malvern . . . . • . 64, 65 

Ground Plan of Deerhurst . . . . • 69 

Nave, Deerhurst 71 

Brasses, Deerhurst ........ 74 

Roodloft, Troyes . . . . . . • • 133 

Roodloft, Paris 134 

Roodloft, Albi . . . . ... . . 135 

Cecilia de Muchegros, Effigy ...... 168 

Hawisia de Muchegros, Effigy 169 

The West Front of Old Lantony to face 222 

Old Lantony from the South Side . . . ,, 223 



Bristol mh §knmkx^m ^xt^mlo^xal Sorktg. 



PROCEEDINGS 
At the Annual Spring Meeting, 
At Yatton, Wrington, and Ban well, 
Monday, May 26th, 1902. 



When a County Archaeological Society holds a meeting outside its own 
district, its members may fairly be called upon to justify their action. 
And in recent cases we can certainly do this. In 1900 we visited Bath, but 
Mercia has at least an equal share in ancient Bath with Wessex ; at 
Oxford the centre of interest lay in the remains of the old Benedictine 
Hall which took its name from Gloucester Abbey, and where the shield of 
Winchcombe Abbey is yet to be seen ; while we went to Monmouth because 
it was from Gloucester, and under the guidance of the Lords of the Honour 
of Gloucester, that the South Welsh were conquered. So in visiting 
Somerset we felt that we were but following in the footsteps of a leader 
greater than ourselves. On September 16th, 1851, Mr. E. A. Freeman, of 
Dursley, Gloucestershire, was elected a corresponding member of the 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. Gloucester- 
shire gave Mr. Freeman to Somerset, and a Gloucestershire Society may 
therefore venture to hope that it will not be unwelcome when it visits 
churches which were specially dear to Mr. Freeman in order that its 
members may profit by the work which he did so well. Some of Mr 
Freeman's best work on ecclesiastical architecture is contained in two 
articles — " On the Perpendicular Style, as Exhibited in the Churches of 
Somerset," which appeared in the Proceedings of the Somersetshire Society for 
1851 and 1852, from which it is only possible to give extracts here. The 
references to Mr. Freeman's writings are given by the number of the 
article and the page on which the passage occurs. Another reason why 
we might rightly visit Somerset lies in the fact that of the two shires 
which form the district of our Society, one— Bristol— is architecturally a 
part of Somerset; as Mr. Freeman says: "The architectural march, 
indeed, extends a good way into Gloucestershire ; but Bristol is an integral 
part of the mother county. Its churches certainly form, in some respects, 

2 

Vol. XXV. 



2 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



a marked class by themselves, but they only differ as the type of Wringtoru 
differs from that of Taunton, and must be considered as forming a portion 
of the same whole." 1 St. Mary Redcliffe "is perhaps the only parish 
church in England conceived throughout on the cathedral model with the 
sole and unfortunate exception of the absence of a central tower ; and it 
is one which Somersetshire may claim as its own with the most perfect 
right. It is throughout an example of Somersetshire Perpendicular, a 
development on the cathedral type of the style of Wrington and Banwell. 
And I am by no means sure that we ought not to point to St. Mary 
Redcliffe as the cradle of the style." 2 We may, however, remark that 
though now it is quite true that St. Mary Redcliffe wants a central tower, 
it is equally true that it once possessed one. William Worcestre writes 
(Dallaway, 64; Nasmith, 191): " Columna principalis quatuor colum- 
pnarum, quae portant turrim competentem coram hostium chori occi- 
dentalis ecclesiae Redcliffe continet 103 bowtells." "Each chief column 
of the four columns which carry the small tower before the western part 
of the choir of Redcliffe Church contains 103 mouldings." Archdeacon 
Norris found the ragged upper part of the walls of this tower under the 
lead roof. It was no doubt a lantern tower like that which stood in the 
same position in the ancient Church of St. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol,, 
or like the one which still survives in the Church of St. John the Baptist, 
Broad Street. But we may learn from contrast as well as from resem- 
blance: "The Perpendicular, even of Gloucestershire, except in some of 
the southern parts where Bristol influence is at work, is widely different 
from that of Somerset ; the Perpendicular parts of Gloucester Cathedral 
are clearly not of the same class as Redcliffe and Sherborne ; nor does 
Cirencester present any marked resemblance to the great Somersetshire 
Parish Churches. Less elaborate buildings, as Dursley, and even North- 
leach, differ still more widely from Somersetshire churches of the second 
order. In few of them is the Perpendicular notion so fully carried out ; 
in still fewer do we find the same retention of earlier details." 3 

"The typical Somersetshire Perpendicular Church consists of a lofty 
and elaborate western tower, standing disengaged from the aisles ; a nave 
and aisles with or without a clerestory, according to circumstances, with 
very commonly a large southern porch as high as the aisles ; a high roofed 
and comparatively insignificant chancel, containing traces, more or less 
extensive, of earlier work, but with Perpendicular chapels on either side. 
Transepts are not uncommon, but cannot be called typical. There is a 
tendency to polygonal turrets in various positions : west of the aisles as at 
St. Cuthbert's, Wells ; east of the nave, as at Banwell ; flanking a west 
front without towers, as at Crewkerne and Bath Abbey; — pierced and 
other enriched parapets are common. The roofs are of various kinds, but 

1 I. 37- 2 t. 37. 3 n. 33- 



Annual Spring Meeting. 



different forms of the coved roof are common here, as in the rest of the 
West of England and South Wales. The interiors are rich in screens and 
other kinds of woodwork." 1 

"A Perpendicular church seems to have been very seldom entirely 
erected from the ground ; the chancel at least of the old building is 
generally retained, and too frequently from its smaller size and inferior 
architecture, it forms a sad blot on some of the most stately fabrics of all. 
I may mention Wrington and Yatton, the latter especially." "I suspect 
that in many cases, where the church was not cruciform, they first erected 
the tower to the west of the old nave, and afterwards attempted to bring 
the rest of the church into harmony with it oy rebuilding the nave (or 
what is practically much the same, adding aisles to it), and subjecting the 
chancel to greater or less modifications in detail." 2 At Yatton, which 
is a cruciform church, a magnificent nave was added to the west of the 
tower, and it stands a thing of itself. At Wrington and Banwell a nave 
was built up between an existing tower and chancel ; but while at 
Wrington the nave is cramped for want of length, at Banwell the work 
was done with such consummate skill that few would notice that it is later 
than the tower and chancel walls. The passage in which Mr. Freeman 
contrasts the naves of Wrington and Banwell is well worth quoting at 
length : — 

" I am inclined, on the whole, to set down the nave and aisles of 
Banwell as, externally, the most thoroughly beautiful I know among 
churches of its own kind — that is churches of considerable size, which 
neither make any approach to cathedral character, nor yet exhibit the 
common parochial type on the exaggerated scale of Boston or Coventry. 
The proportions of the aisles and clerestory are absolutely perfect. I have 
hinted that the Perpendicular clerestories are, if anything, a little too low, 
and the windows a little too small. Banwell has hit the exact mean ; its 
range of three light windows with pointed arches is most stately. It 
surpasses both Wrington and Yatton in its proportions, and also in the 
pinnacles, which divide the bays of the clerestory, instead of merely 
rising from the parapet. Again, the turrets at the east end of the nave 
are extremely noble, and as the chancel in its roof and character does not 
harmonise with the rest, it is a gain that the aisles are not continued 
beyond the chancel arch, so that we are spared the lean-to roofs abutting 
against space, as in Wrington and other cases. I also prefer the porch 
rising to the full height of the aisle, rather than the smaller one at 
Wrington. The only defect is the important one of masonry, where we 
miss the fine ashlar of Wrington. On the whole, I have no doubt in 
assigning Banwell the first place in these respects ; but Wrington, even in 
the body, comes so very near to it, and so infinitely surpasses Banwell and 
mC 1 I- 41- t 2 1. 39 . 



4 Transactions for the Year 1902. 




W. Moline, Photo. 

NAVE OF BANWELL CHURCH. 



every other church of its class in its inimitable tower, that I must, on the 
whole, assign to it the highest rank among genuine parochial churches in 
Somerset, and, therefore, in England." 1 

Mr. Freeman classed the Somerset towers in three groups: — (1) The 
Taunton type, with a staircase turret and pinnacles of equal height. 
(2) The Bristol type, with a prominent staircase turret crowned with a 
single large pinnacle. (3) The Wrington type, panelled, with two enor- 
mously lofty belfry windows. Yatton tower is an example of the first 
group. Banwell tower would be classed in the second group ; and some 
people, at any rate, will think that Banwell and its twin daughters of 
Wells Cathedral at Cheddar and Winscombe are not unworthy to be 
compared in dignity, though not in elaboration of detail, with the 
Glastonbury towers of Wrington and St. Stephen's, Bristol. 

It has been seen that the Somerset type of Perpendicular architecture 
extends into South Gloucestershire, and certainly such towers as St. 
Stephen's and Thornbury, Westerleigh and several of those in Bristol, 
would be at home in any part of Somerset. Westerleigh stood on a Wells 
Cathedral estate, and probably marks the northern limit of the Somerset 
influence. 

Internally, "when the roof is low, that is, when there is a clerestory, 
we generally find exceedingly fine tie-beamed roofs, as at Martock, 

1 II. 17. 



Annual Spring Meeting. 



5 



Somerton, Wrington. When the roof is high, different forms of the 
cradle roof occur. This is the local roof of Somersetshire and the West 
of England in general, and I would impress on the minds of all who are 
concerned in such matters the necessity of carefully preserving this noble 
feature, which, in too many so-called restorations, I have found destroyed. 
Would that the opposite example of Banwell were followed throughout 
the country. This sort of roof has this advantage, that it can be made of 




W- Moline, Photo. 

ROOF OF BANWELL CHURCH. 



any degree of plainness or richness, and still more that it allows any 
amount of decoration to be super-added to an originally plain design." 1 
" There is an extremely local practice, which looks like an attempt to 
bring the roof and clerestory into some degree of that connection with 
each other which the vault alone can completely effect. Both at Wrington 
and Banwell a trefoil arch is thrown across from the capitals under the 
roof, the rear-aich of the clerestory window fitting into its upper foil. It 
has qnite the aspect of an arch traced out for vaulting, yet such could 
hardly have been its intention. In the aisles of Yatton and the nave of 
Congresbury we find the arches nearly similarly employed, and the 
spandrils filled up with panelling, which probably was the intention in the 
others also, unless indeed a timber vault was at any time contemplated." 2 

i II. 37- 2 It. 40. 



6 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



It was found that the three churches visited afforded good illustrations 
of the points to which attention is drawn by Mr. Freeman. Several 
members and their friends travelled from Cheltenham, Cirencester, 
•Gloucester, and places still more distant from Bristol ; and when they 
had quitted their trains at Temple Meads they found a string of drags 
and breaks drawn up, in which, with the Bristol contingent, they were 
•conveyed to Yatton, Wrington, and Banwell, arrangements having been 
made for visiting the churches in these villages. The party included the 
following: — Mr. Francis F. Fox (Vice-President), the Rev. C. S. Taylor 
(Hon. Editor), Canon Bazeley (Hon. General Secretary), Mr. G. M. 
Currie (Hon. Treasurer), Mrs. Currie (Cheltenham), Mr. F. J. Cullis 
(Gloucester), Mr. E. J. Swann, Major Selwyn-Payne (Cheltenham), 
Lt.-Col. Cary Batten, Mrs, Batten, Mr. E. J. Taylor, Mrs. Taylor, 
Lt.-Col. J. R. Bramble, Mr. John E. Pritchard (Hon. Secretary for 
Bristol), Miss Garside. Mr. E. Sidney Hartland (Gloucester), Dr. 
Oscar Clark, Mrs. Clark (Gloucester), Dr. T. M. Carter, Mrs. Carter, 
Dr. L. M. Griffiths, Dr. H. Ormerod, Mr. W. Moline, Mr. J. Hudson 
Smith, Mrs. Walter Brown, Mr. Edward A. Harvey, Mrs. Harvey, 
Mr. Francis Were, Mr. G. H. D. Chilton, Mr. Guy Chilton, Mrs. 
Guy Chilton, the Rev. A. H. Veasey (Kemble), the Rev. James Dumas 
(Chipping Sodbury), the Rev. S. N. Tebbs, the Rev. A. Richardson, the 
Rev. D. Lee Pitcairn, Mrs. Pitcairn (Monkton Combe), Mr. A. E. 
Smith, Miss Smith (Nailsworth), Mrs. Stables, Mrs. Sorby, Mr. J. W. S. 
Dix, Mrs. Dix, Mr. H. Derham, Mrs. Derham, Mr. C. H. Dancey 
(Gloucester), Mr. W. Crooke, Mr. J. Baker, Mr. W. S. Moxley, Mrs. 
Marshall (Newent), Mr. A. Cockshott (Cheltenham), Mrs. Thompson, 
Miss Baker, Mrs. H. L. Ormerod, Miss Cooper, the Rev. A. C. Jennings, 
Miss Jennings (King's Stanley), Mr. J. B. C Burroughs, Mr. Claude B. 
Fry, Miss Whiiwill, Miss Roper, Mrs. Child (Cheltenham), Mrs. 
Golding, Miss Welch, Mr. T. S. Smith, Mrs. Smith, Mr. C. Scears, 
Mrs. Scears, Mrs. Jebb (Brockworth), Mr. J. Bush, Mrs. Bush, Mr. J. H. 
Collett (Gloucester), and Mr. Kennedy Skipton (Cheltenham). 

Apologies for absence were received from the President of the year 
(the Earl of Gainsborough), the Bishop of Bristol (who was preaching 
at Penarth), Mr. Henry Prothero (Cheltenham), Surgeon-General Ringer, 
Dr. Fryer, and others who rarely miss this meeting. 

The road from Bristol station passed through Bedminster, and soon 
after leaving the city Ashton Court was seen on the right ; the front was 
built by Inigo Jones in 1634. Opposite to the " Angel Inn " there was till 
recently the Calvary of a wayside Cross ; it is now in the churchyard. 
About one-third of a mile beyond the church Yanley Lane comes in from 
the south ; Collinson was able to trace the course of the Wansdike by its 
side. The long line of Dundry Hill lay to the south, with Maes Knoll at 



Annual Spring Meeting. 



7 



the eastern extremity and the noble tower of Dundry Church towards the 
west. After crossing the railway Flax Bourton Church was passed by the 
roadside ; the doorway and chancel arch are Norman. The effective tower 
of Backwell Church was seen under the hill to the south, and Wraxall 
Church among woods to the north of the vale. About two miles beyond 
Backwell the opening of Brockley Coombe, a picturesque ravine, was 
passed, and about a mile further on Cleeve Coombe and Cleeve Toot, a 
striking mass of limestone, were seen. The road then turned to the right, 
and passing through Claverham, near the ruins of Court de Wyck, reached 
Yatton Church, twelve miles from Bristol. Yatton appears in Domesday as 
an estate of twenty hides belonging to the Bishop of Wells. In the time 
of the Confessor it had belonged to John the Dane, and there is nothing to 
show in what way the Bishop had obtained it. It remained among the 
estates of the See till the reign of Queen Mary, when Bishop Gilbert 
Bourne was compelled to surrender it to the Crown as part of the price of 
a number of estates which had been alienated by Bishop Barlow. In 1536 
the Bishop's estate at Yatton was worth £62 2s. yd. There was also a 
manor of Cliveham, now Claverham, rated at two hides, belonging to the 
Bishop of Coutances, which also lay in the parish. The Court House of 
this manor was known as Court de Wyck, after the name of a family who 
held it from the reign of Henry II. to that of Edward III. ; it afterwards 




W. Moline, Photo. 

YATTON CHURCH FROM SOUTH EAST. 



8 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



belonged to the families of Chedder and Newton, who have left their mark 
on the church. The Church of Yatton, with one hide worth twenty 
shillings, was held of the Bishop in 1086 by Benthelm, and it was given in 
1 136 by Bishop Robert as the endowment of a Prebend in the Church of 
Wells. It was rented from the Abbot and Convent of St. Augustine's, 
Bristol, the lessees in 1236, for 45 marks, and it was in 1536 the most 
valuable of all the Wells Prebends, being worth no less than ^42. A 
Vicarage was appointed by Bishop Drokensford in 1327. 

The Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Yatton, is an excellent 
example of a Somerset Cross Church, having both the strength and weak- 
ness of the type — its weakness in the lowness of the tower arches and the 
relative insignificance of the chancel, its strength in the dignity and beauty 
of the nave. Though there was a church in Yatton before the Norman 
Conquest, nothing can now be seen that is earlier than the Decorated 




W. Moline, Photo. 

TURRET AND WINDOWS OF NEWTON CHAPEL. 



Yatton. 



9 



period. It will be seen at once from the exterior that the work is of two 
different dates : the earlier portion, including the chancel, transepts, and 
central tower, being built of rough stone ; the later work, consisting of the 
nave, with its south porch, the Newton Chapel to the east of the north 
transept, and the spire, being executed in fine ashlar. In i860 Mr. Freeman 
" pointed out the gradual way in which the church had been rebuilt. 
A Decorated window in the south transept shows that a Cross Church of 
the earlier Somersetshire type preceded the present one. The chancel, 
which is Early Perpendicular, was first rebuilt, then the central tower, 
— — - — - ■ ■ . . — , — „ _ — » 




W. Moline, Photo. 



CHANCEL ARCH AND FOOT OF OLD BUTTRESS. 

and the transepts remodelled, probably without departing from the scale 
of the older church. But on reaching the nave the ideas of the builders 
enlarged, and the present magnificent nave was added on a scale quite 
disproportioned to the eastern part." 1 And if Mr. Freeman had added: 
1 Somersetshire Society's Proceedings, Vol. x., p. 31. 



IO 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



"Then, finding how much the nave had dwarfed the central tower, they 
set the spire on the summit in order to give additional height," he would 
probably have told the whole story. There is no evidence to show whether 
the spire was ever completed. On entering the churchyard the beautiful 
turret at the angle of the Newton Chapel should be noticed. The dignified 
simplicity of the west front, usually the weak part of a Cross Church with 
no western towers, is worthy of careful study. The nave is flanked by 
hexagonal turrets with small spires, while at the angles of the aisles are 
also small turrets with pinnacles. There is, of course, a large west 
window with a fine doorway below it ; and above it, in the gable, a Figure, 
crowned and seated, holding between His knees a crucifix. A similar 
subject may be seen in the ancient glass in the east window of Compton 
Bishop Church ; it is intended, no doubt, to represent the Holy Trinity. 
Mr. Freeman ranks the west fronts at Crewkerne and Yatton as the finest 
in Somerset. Opposite the south porch is a noble six-stepped Calvary of 
a Churchyard Cross. It is octagonal, each face of the lowest steps 
measuring 8 ft. 7 in., the height of the top step above the ground being 
7 ft. 1 in. (Aylburton Cross is set on a square Calvary, with sides of 
14ft. 2 in., and is 6ft. 10 in. above the ground.) This cross was set up in 
1499, and cost £iE. 




W. Moline, Photo. 



NEWTON TOMB IN NORTH TRANSEPT. 



Yatton. 



1 1 



Careful attention was paid to the delicate carving on the face of the 
south porch. On the parapet is a shield bearing "three lozenges in fess, 
impaling a chevron between three escallops," which in this neighbourhood 
would generally mean a Montague and Chedder or Farway marriage, but 
no such alliance can be traced. The nave is a grand example of a Somerset 
Perpendicular nave, with five arches on each side and a string course 
above them, tall clerestory windows, and a high coved roof above all. The 
pillars are of the common local type, a hollowed lozenge with attached 
shafts. As at Wnngton, though not at Banwell, the innermost shaft is 
carried right up between the windows to form a support for the roof. At 
the west end of the south aisle is seen a door opening into a stairway, by 
which access is obtained through staircases in the western turrets to the 
lead roof. There is a passage along the window-sill, as at Bristol Cathedral. 
The wall-panelling in the aisles should be noted ; it is found also in the 
naves of Wrington and Banwell. Looking eastward, it was seen that the 
former church possessed a nave and a south aisle ; there was clearly no 
north aisle, for the buttress can be seen at the north-west corner of the 
tower, while the arch from the south aisle to the transept remains. 
Though the tower arches are low, they are very beautiful, with the 
mouldings running continuously from the pavement to the crown. The 
window above the arch stood outside the roof of the old nave. The 
mouldings on the face of the tower below the spring of the present arches 
mark the height of the rood-loft, access to which was obtained from the 
north transept. Passing into the north transept, we found the very 
beautiful marble altar-tomb of Sir Richard Newton, serjeant and judge, 
represented in his red gown, with the Serjeant's coif on his head and a 
wallet by his side; his head rests on a garb or wheatsheaf — the Newton 
crest. His lady has the horned head-dress of this time before it became 
enlarged. In two recesses under the north window are two figures, male 
and female, dating from the first quarter of the thirteenth century, possibly 
representing members of the De Wyck family. To the east of the north 
transept is the very beautiful Newton Chapel, probably built during the 
lifetime of Sir John Newton, who died in 1487. A canopied tomb in 
memory of him and his wife, Isabel de Cheddre, stands against the north 
wall, with a representation of the Annunciation above the figures. The 
windows resemble those in the chain-gate at Wells, built shortly after 
1465. There is an elaborate piscina on the south of the site of the altar. 
There is little to attract attention in the Early Perpendicular chancel and 
the Decorated south transept, though they are both good of their kind. 
The tower, with its chancel and transepts, gives the impression that there 
must have been an Early Cruciform church, which impressed its shape on 
the buildings which followed upon it. 

Yatton was reached about half-past eleven, and on arrival the members 



12 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



proceeded to the fine old Parish Church, where they were received by the 
Vicar, the Rev. F. A. Mather, formerly Vicar of Minchinhampton. After 
prayer, the visitors were welcomed by the Vicar, who said it gave him 
great pleasure to welcome the members of the Society. He was only a 
recent comer, having been there but a few weeks, and he was therefore in 
the position rather of a learner. He understood that Colonel Bramble 
would explain to them the chief features in the church. There was a 
beautiful old cope on view, and also the churchwardens' accounts, which 
might prove interesting to some of them. 

Colonel Bramble said the church that they were in was an exceedingly 
good characteristic Somersetshire church of a comparatively early date. 
The original church was 14th century, and it was probable that there was 
a still earlier building. The Somersetshire churches were of two types 
usually. One of them, the older, consisted of the cross church, of a 
chancel, nave, transepts, and a tower rising in the centre. That was the 
old English type, such as they had there. They could see traces of the 
original roof, and there was then apparently no north aisle, because they 
noticed that the buttress of the tower was hacked back, that being no 
doubt done when the aisle was added. He was of opinion that the aisle 
was added before the nave was rebuilt. The church then would have been 
very small, so that in the 15th century they pulled down the nave and 
aisles — if there were any standing — and they constructed that fine nave,, 
with its aisles, and it was two bays longer than the original church. He 
drew attention to the beautiful panel roof, and said one of the great 
peculiarities in the roof, which they only found in a very few churches 
round there, was that the trefoil panel had been carried down over the 
windows. One could hardly suppose that it was really meant for that 
church, and it might have been bought second-hand, as the centre of the 
panel rarely corresponded with the arch of the windows. When they 
looked at that church it reminded them of the boy who had the three 
blades to his knife replaced one after another, and finally had a new 
handle made, the church having been so restored and altered that they 
had great difficulty in telling what was new and what was old. The west 
window had been rebuilt. He recollected when it had a double mullion 
at the centre, but that was gone. He also recollected when the chancel 
was level with the ground, though he believed it had been rebuilt entirely 
with the same stone, and the same tracery used. Though rebuilt, so much 
of the spire as they had, that spire, he believed, was never higher than it 
was now. Structurally it was an impossibility that such a structure would 
take a spire, but probably it was an afterthought when they rebuilt the 
nave and found the tower was considerably dwarfed. In the 15th or 16th 
century a pretty chantry chapel was built in the angle between the north 
transept and the chancel, and it contained some interesting monuments. 



Yatton. 



13 



There was one crux for antiquaries, and that was to decide to whom the 
■chapel was dedicated. In all the parish books it was constantly spoken 
of as the Chapel of St. James, yet in the wills of the Newton family, who 
were buried there, it was alluded to as " the new chapel of St. John the 
Evangelist, within the parish church of Yatton." It must have been this 
chapel which was alluded to, though it was true there was another chapel 
built outside in the churchyard ; but that was pulled down with the 
suppression of chantries. He had formed a theory, which was, of course, 
wrong, that there was a dispute between the Newton family and the 




W. Moline, Photo. 



NEWTON CANOPIED TOMB. 



parishioners, the former wishing to call it after the patron saint of the 
family, while the latter preferred it to be known as the Chapel of St. 
James. There were several altars in the church, in addition to the St. 
James or St. John. Little traces of these remained, for many of the 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



alterations were carried out at a time when the architect sacrificed every- 
thing for architectural beauty, often taking all historical interest out of 
the building. 

Mr. T. G. Simmonds supplemented Colonel Bramble's remarks by 
drawing attention to the collar of SSS on Judge Newton's effigy, and to 
the founder's tombs m the De Wyke Chapel ; also to the crowned figure 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Annunciation at the back of the Newton 
tomb in the Newton Chapel. Mr. Simmonds also offered to the company 
copies of a list of vicars of Yatton from the earliest times, compiled by the 
former vicar, the Rev. John Harrison. 

Leaving the church, the party repaired for lunch to the Railway Hotel, 




F. J. Hirst, Photo. 

WRINGTON CHURCH FROM SOUTH EAST. 



W'RINGTON. 



and then returning through the village of Yatton they passed to the south 
of Cadbury Hill, where there is a small camp (there are three Cadbury 
camps in Somerset), and continued under the high ground to Wrington,. 
obtaining on the way a really fine view of the western extremity of Mendip. 
It extended over about fourteen miles, from Black Down, the highest point 
of Mendip on the east, by Wavering Down and Crook's Peak to the clump 
of firs on Bleadon Hill, and then to Brean Down, south of Weston. The 
spire seen to the south soon after leaving Yatton, is that of Congresbury 
Church, one of the best of the Somerset spires. 

Wrington first appeared in a charter purporting to be granted in 904, 
which is, however, identical down to the name of the estate granted with a 
Mercian Charter of 903, by which King Edward, Ealdorman JEthelred,. 
and iEthelflaed, Lady of the Mercians, granted land at Prince's Risborough, 





16 Transactions for the Year 1902. 

in Buckinghamshire. Wrington is described as an estate of twenty 
cassates, and this new charter is said to have been given to Ethelfrith 
" dux " in place of one which had been burned. A confirmation is added 
by King Edred ; and there is a further statement that "dux" Athelstan, 
son of Ethelred, became a monk, and gave the estate to Glastonbury 
Abbey, and that the grant was confirmed by King Athelstan. Wrington 
appears in Domesday as a possession of the Abbey, rated at 20 hides, and 
worth £33. It remained with the Church till the Dissolution, when 
it was valued at /138 14s. n^d. It was granted to Sir William Capel, 
by whose descendant, the Earl of Essex, it was sold in 1726 to William 
Pulteney, Esq., afterwards Earl of Bath ; and on the death of the Countess 
•of Bath, in 1808, it passed by will to the Earl of Darlington, afterwards 
Marquis of Cleveland ; finally, on the death of the last Duke of 
Cleveland, this noble estate was dismembered and sold in fragments. 
John Locke was born ir a cottage close to the north gate, leading into 
the churchyard, and Mrs. Hannah More lived at Barley Wood, about 
a mile east from the church. 

But the glory of Wrington lies in the stately tower of All Saints' 
Church. Mr. Freeman thus describes towers of the Wrington type : — ■ 
"The staircase-turret, as any important sesthetical feature, is entirely 
dispensed with, being only carried up a little way above the roof of the 
church, and then finished off under the belfry stage. The whole portion 
of the tower above the church is thrown into one vast stage, panelled 
with two enormously lofty windows transomed at proper distances, and 
-with such portions as are necessary pierced for light and sound. This 
stage is recessed between two flat square turrets or large pilasters, against 
which the buttresses are finished with their pilasters just below the 
parapet. The pilasters are carried up and crowned with spires, forming 
four magnificent pinnacles to the whole tower, and rising as the natural 
finish of the pinnacles below. This glorious idea, which I have no 
hesitation in ranking among the very highest achievements of architectural 
genius, I have as yet seen completely realised in two cases only, Wrington 
and St. Cuthbert's at Wells. Of these two I think Wrington may fairly 
claim the first place, and is therefore probably entitled to the designation 
of the finest square western tower, not designed for a spire or lantern, 
in all England, and therefore possibly in the whole world." 1 It is said 
that the proportions of the Victoria Tower at Westminster were taken 
from those of Wrington. 

Structurally, the church pertains to the tower rather than the tower to 
the church, and so regarded the church is not so inadequate as it is often 
represented to be. Still, even externally, the expedient of extending the 
aisles along the sides of the chancel in order to gain apparent length 

1 I. 54- 



Wrington. 



17 




F. J. Hirst, Photo. 

WEST WINDOW, SHEWING LINE OF THE OLD ROOF ON 
THE TOWER. 



for the nave is not successful, and the blank walls facing the roof of 
the chancel are ugly. The view from the south-east, however, gives a 
very beautiful grouping of the church and tower. With regard to details, 
the niches in the angle-buttresses of the chancel should be noticed ; 
there seems also to have been another under the east window. The 
buttress which flanks the rood-stairway on the north side of the church 
divides above into a triple buttress, surmounted by miniature crockets. 
On the gable of the nave is a curiously wrought bell-cote. Internally 
the history of the church is easily read. The oldest part is the Decorated 
chancel ; next in date came the tower, and then — as at Banwell — the nave 
was built up between the two. The line of the old roof can be seen on 
the east face of the tower wall ; the panelling of the tower arch should be 
noticed, and also the fan-tracery of the vault. The shortness of the nave 

3 

Vol. XXV. 



18 Transactions for the Year 1902. 

is very apparent, but its height, with its clustered pillars and foliated 
capitals, the shafts rising, as at Yatton, only across a more elaborate 
string course to bear between the clerestory windows, the angels which 
carry the supports of the fine tie-beam roof, give it a dignity and beauty 
which are very striking. Trefoil mouldings are traced between the 
windows of the clerestory ; they occur also at Banwell, where the spaces 
are panelled. The screen, which runs across nave and aisles, is plain, 
and has been much repaired ; angels by the chancel arch mark the position 
of the rood-loft, as at Yatton. 

The Rev. G. M. Ashdown (rector) welcomed the party, and gave 
some particulars respecting the edifice. He said the reredos was modern, 
and local tradition had it that it was designed by Barry, who came down 
to Wrington in order to take the measurements of the tower, in order 
to use them for the Victoria tower when he was building the Houses of 
Parliament. The work was carried out by a local tradesman named 
White, the design being taken from a screen in Lichfield Cathedral. The 
reredos gave him (the rector) the idea of something brought from a stately 
place, and put into a parish church. The chancel screen, which was very 
beautiful, had nearly been swept away in the restoration of 1858, but it 
was rescued by the then rector, the Rev. John Vane, Chaplain to the 
Queen, who came in haste from Burrington and stopped its removal after 
the committee had decided it should be done away with. 

At the conclusion of the rector's remarks, the party proceeded to 
inspect the interior. A folio black letter Bible, formerly used at the 
services, had the title page and last leaves missing, it being supposed 
that they were abstracted long ago by a collector. The date of the 
volume is 1617. A breeches Bible of 1633 appeared to be perfect. The 
earliest church register dates from 1538. Several of the old books are 
fastened with chains. There is a monument to Hannah More, and in 
the south porch are arranged mural tablets, which were taken down from 
different parts of the church at the time it was restored. Among these 
is the memorial to the Rev. William Leeves, a rector, who composed 
the setting to " Auld Robin Gray." 

Wandering about the churchyard, the party found the chief object 
of interest to be the large flat stone inside an iron railing, which records 
the names of Hannah More and her four sisters, the grave being near that 
of Mr. William Henry Harford, of Barley Wood, grandfather of the 
Duchess of Beaufort. Some curiosity was expressed respecting the 
cottage in which John Locke, the philosopher, was born. It stood close to 
the north gate leading into the churchyard, but was allowed to fall into 
decay, and at length disappeared, a stone marking where it stood, though 
we are informed the date of Locke's birth as stated there is incorrect. 

On resuming the journey, Dolebury Camp, with its great rampart of 



Banwell. 



19 



loose limestone blocks in some places 30 feet high, was seen in front ; 
and two miles east of it was Beacon Batch on Black Down, the highest 
point of Mendip, 1,068 feet above the sea. From this point more than 
140 fires were seen on the Jubilee night of 1S97. Dolebury is a British 
camp, about 540 yards long by 220 yards wide, enclosing about 20 acres ; 
a square camp, probably Roman, lies within the enclosure. After passing 
it, Churchill Church was seen on the right ; this was formerly a chapel of 
Banwell, and resembles its mother church. Soon after passing under 




ALTAR PIECE, WRINGTON CHURCH. 



the Cheddar Valley railway, Towerhead Farm was seen on the left. 
In an orchard just before reaching it is the site of a house built by 
Bishop Godwyn, about 1594, i n place of the Manor House at Banwell, 
which had been dismantled at the Reformation. The Bishop's arms, 
with the canting motto, " Godwyn, wyn God, wyn all," are built into the 
modern house. Banwell is about half-a-mile further on. 

The first certain mention made of Banwell appears in Asser's account 
of King Alfred. He relates that on a Christmas morning about 885 the 
King gave to him two monasteries — one at Banwell, the other at Amesbury 
or Congresbury, — and also a- very precious silk " pallium " and as much 
incense as a strong man could carry, no doubt for use in the service of the 



2o Transactions for the Year 1902. 



Church. It is likely, however, that the estate given by Cuthred, King 
of the West Saxons, to Winchester Cathedral about 750, which now 
appears as Banewada, was really Banwell. Probably King Alfred only 
had a life interest in Banwell, for in 904 the Bishop and Monks of 
Winchester gave it to King Edward as part of the price of the freedom 
of their estate at Taunton from Royal rights, and he exchanged it with the 
brethren and sisters of Cheddar Minster for land at Carhampton. Cheddar 
Minster was secularised before 941, and nothing more is heard of Banwell 
till Cnut gave it to Duduc before his consecration to the See of Wells 
in 1033. Duduc died in 1060, before formally giving the estate to the See, 
and Harold, Earl of the West Saxons, took possession of it. At last, at 




W. Moline, Photo. 

BANWELL TOWER. 



Pentecost, 1068, on the occasion of the Coronation of Queen Matilda, 
William the Conqueror gave Banwell to St. Andrew the Apostle and the 



Banwell. 



21 



Bishopric of Wells, and it has belonged to the See ever since, except 
for the interval between the date of the surrender of the estate in 1547 
by Bishop Barlow to the Duke of Somerset, and its restoration by 
Queen Mary to Bishop Gilbert Bourne on April 23rd, 1556. The Bishops 
had a manor-house just to the east of the church for at least 250 years, 
it was disused after the surrender of the estate by Bishop Barlow, and 
the house at Towerhead took its place. 

The Church of St. Andrew is so closely shut in that it is difficult to 
obtain a good distant view : it can be best seen from the Vicarage lawn on 
the south of the churchyard. Externally it will be seen that the walls of 
the chancel have been raised from the height of the top of the windows, 
and the east window has been shortened at the foot, no doubt when the 
altar-piece was inserted. The tower is a good example of Mr. Freeman's 
second group of towers ; it is 100 feet in height ; the large size of the 
stones should be noticed. On the western face is a representation of the 
Annunciation ; the northern lily pot was inserted between 1805 and 1825. 
It will be seen that the south wall of the clerestory is built against the 
side of one of the tower buttresses ; the meaning of this arrangement is 
seen within the church. The floor and window in the south porch were 
inserted between 1805 and 1825 ; a picture of the church in the vestry, 
dated 1805, shews the porch without the window, and the tower without 
the northern lily pot. Above the church door is a niche for a figure, and 
no doubt the staircase led to a gallery in front of the figure. On the right 
of the doorway is the arch of the Holy Water Stoup. 

Within it is not difficult to trace the growth of the church. The oldest 
portions are the font and the north wall of the nave. The height of the 
old north wall can be seen on a level with the sill of the clerestory window 
where the wall joins the tower, and the line of the old roof can be traced 
on the face of the tower ; the presence of the buttress on the south side 
shows that the former nave possessed only a north aisle. The figure of 
St Andrew above the tower arch holding his characteristic cross in his 
right hand, and his net in the left, stood outside the old roof. The font is 
of late Norman date, or early in the succeeding period ; the bowl was 
originally smooth, the lily leaves are taken from those in the Virgin's lily 
pot on the tower, and the quatrefoils resemble those on the pulpit. The 
bases of the old pillars on the north side of the nave can still be seen, and 
the foot of the pillar to which the pulpit is attached was certainly carved 
out of the old pillar. The stone stair of the pulpit is modern. The pulpit 
resembles those at Compton Bishop, Hutton, Worle, and Kew Stoke in 
this neighbourhood ; the foliage is like that on Bishop Bubwith's chantry 
in Wells Cathedral, he died in 1424. It was probably about that time 
that the south wall of the nave was built, the clerestory was added on 
the north side, and the beautiful cradle roof was set over all. At a 



22 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



somewhat later date perhaps the walls of the chancel were raised, and the 
height of the chancel arch was increased ; it will be seen that the capitals 
are set on the curve of the arch. 

The'Jscreen 1 is historically very valuable because its date can be 




W. Moline, Photo. 



DETAILS OF SCREEN, BANWELL. 



exactly fixed; the following payments occurred in a book of wardens' 
accounts which has been unhappily lost in quite recent times:— 



£ 



1 521. 



1522, 



For a paper to draw a draft of the Rode-loft 

For. the making of the Endentur and the Oblygacyon 

for the Kervar 

To John Sheppard of Walfarshill 18 

To the Kervar at Willya Jervys house ... 23 

For Brede and Ale for men to take down the rodelofte 
For making of the scaffet (scaffold) to the Kerver's 

men, for to peynte the Hy Cross 14 

To Robt. Hoptyn for gylting in the Rode lofte, and 

for steyning of the clothe afore the Rode lofte ... 5 0 0 
The holes for the insertion of the rood beam were to be seen in the 
sides of the arch till the beginning of the last century. The angel above 
1 Fijzured in the Transactions, Vol. xxiii., 89. 



JBanwell. 



23 



the chancel arch probably held a chain to support the " Hy Cross " or 
Crucifix which stood on the rood beam. Robert Hoptyn's colouring 
probably remained till 1805, when the screen was again decorated in 
accordance with the original colouring ; it was repaired and decorated 
as we now see it about 1865. The entrance to the rood-loft is in the north 




W. Moline, Photo. 



SCREEN FROM THE CHANCEL, BANWELL. 

aisle, and staircases in the turrets give access to the lead roofs. A hagio- 
scope from the south aisle was blocked up about 1865. The altar-piece 
was erected in 1828, and the altar (not a table) dates from the same period. 
Passing to the vestry, the ancient door with its clenched nails, and the 
panelled ceiling should be noticed ; the old Flemish glass was inserted 
about half a century ago. The east window represents the marriage of 
Tobias and Sara, and their return to Tobit. In the north window the 
subjects are : Tobit's almsgiving and blindness ; the conversion of St. 
Paul, and the woman taken in adultery ; Manoah's sacrifice, and a figure, 
possibly Moses. 

Of the vicars whose portraits are in the vestry, Dr. Samuel Lee began 
life as a carpenter near Shrewsbury, and became Professor of Hebrew at 
Cambridge. The Rev. W. H. Turner was a son of the Rev. Joseph Turner 
to whose care William Pitt was committed by the Earl of Chatham when 
he went to Cambridge in 1773. He died in 1896. There is a very fine 



24 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



brass in memory of John Martock. He is vested in cassock, alb, cope and 
almuce, and at his feet is the following inscription : " Here lyeth buryed the 
body of Master John Martok, physician, which decessyed the xxxi day of 
August, mdiii, on whose soul Almighty Jesu have mercy. Amen." He was 
prebendary and succentor of Wells Cathedral, and he gave the great brass 
lectern in Merton College Chapel at Oxford. He was no doubt physician 
to Bishop Oliver King, who built the west front of Bath Abbey, and who 
died at the Manor House at Ban well on August 29, 1503. 

The only ancient glass in the church is a series of figures in the east 
window of the aisles. The pre-Reformation benches in the nave are still 
in sound condition ; the ledges are kneelers, not book-boards ; the western 
bench on the south side has not been covered. The front of the west 
gallery was originally part of a pew set up by Bishop Godwyn about 1590 ; 
the vaulting of the tower should be noticed. The font cover dates from 
162 1 ; a holy table, lectern, and credence of the same date are in the room 
over the porch, and the sounding board is still in the village. 

Banwell Camp stands on the hill above Towerhead, and is well worth 
a visit, if only for the sake of the beautiful view which may be obtained 
from thence. It is about 500 yards long, by 280 wide, and contains about 
twenty acres. The entrenchment follows the form of the hill ; it is now 
about three feet above the surface within, and from seven to ten feet above 
the ditch. At the highest point are remains of a building ; a summer- 
house was erected here about a century ago, but it is possible that it 
occupied the site of an ancient watch-tower. The soil of the camp is full 




1 • 1 1 

2 3 4 



W. Molinc, Photo. 

ARROW HEADS FROM BANWELL CAMP. 
(In Mr. Pritchard's Collection.) 



Banwell. 



25 



of flint-flakes, and some really good weapons have been found here by Mr. 
Pritchard. Their abundance shows that the camp must have been the 
abode of a large population for a considerable period ; and as they are of 
the usual Neolithic type, the settlement must date from the very early 
times. The nearest points at which flints are found in situ is near Maiden 
Bradley, and as the ancient trackway which ran along the top of Mendip 
from Uphill to Old Sarum passes about 300 yards south of the camp and 
through Maiden Bradley, it is probable that this ancient way was in use 
even in Neolithic times. 

About one-third of a mile west of the camp is a curious earthwork, 
consisting of a mound in the form of a cross; "the northern, eastern, and 
southern arms being about 60 feet long, the western arm having a length 
of 72 feet, each arm being about 12 feet wide and 2 feet high. It is sur- 
rounded by a mound, which seems to have been thrown up to protect the 
cross. The purpose of this structure is uncertain ; it is supposed by some 
writers to be a Roman boundary mark. 

From Wrington to Banwell the journey was only some half-dozen 
miles, and a score or so of the party elected to make an early start, so 
as to make a detour to view Banwell Camp, Mr. Pritchard acting as guide. 
At Banwell all the visitors were entertained by the Rev. C. S. Tayloi at 
afternoon tea, which, by permission of Mr. E. R. Bevan and the Hon. 
Mrs. Bevan, was laid in the Abbey grounds. Then came the visit to the 
stately Church of St. Andrew, of which the Rev. C. S. Taylor is Vicar, 
and he gave an account of its history and chief features. 

On the proposition of Mr. F. F. Fox, a hearty vote of thanks was 
passed to the Rev. C. S. Taylor for his address. 

The archaeologists had now inspected all the places in their day's 
scheme, and were enabled to appreciate the return journey, which, as it 
was a glorious evening, provided an agreeable finish to what had proved a 
most successful excursion. 

The party made the return journey vid Sandford, Congresbury, and 
Rhodyate Hill, arriving in Bristol about half-past seven. As the weather 
was perfect, the arrangements admirable, and time was kept to a minute 
throughout the day, the excursion was a most enjoyable one ; and the 
members who took part in it were deeply indebted to Mr. J. E. Pritchard, 
the Hon. Secretary for Bristol, for the care and pains which he had 
bestowed on their behalf. 

The thanks of the members are also due to Mr. W. Moline for his 
kindness in taking the views of Yatton and Banwell Churches, and to 
Mr. F. J. Hirst for the views of Wrington; and grateful acknowledgment 
must likewise be given of the free use which has been made of the notices 
of the three churches which are contained in the Proceedings of the 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. 



PROCEEDINGS 
At the Annual Summer Meeting at Tewkesbury, 
July 8th, 9th, and 10th, 1902. 

The Summer Meeting proved to be one of the most pleasant and 
instructive gatherings ever held under the auspices of the Society. 
Practically a new generation of archaeologists has taken the place of that 
which composed the Society when it last visited Tewkesbury, in 1885, 
which fact rendered a visit to the neighbourhood of even greater interest 
than might otherwise have been the case. The members testified to the 
fact that much of the pleasure and success of their visit was due to the 
excellent arrangements made by the local committee and the hospitality so 
kindly extended them. Mr. Cecil C. Moore has been an untiring local 
secretary, and he has been supported by a strong committee, with Rev. 
O. P. Wardell-Yerburgh (Vicar of Tewkesbury Abbey) as its chairman, 
composed as follows : — Revs. Canon Bazeley, Canon Coventry, W. Davies, 
E. R. Dowdeswell, R. Duke, Canon Gell (Ripple), W. W. Hoyland 
(Twyning), D. G. Lysons (Deerhurst), W. Townson, C. Walters 
(Forthampton), Col. Selwyn-Payne, Col. Drysdale, Mrs. Malleson, Miss 
Malleson, Mrs. Mercier, Messrs. A. Baker, W. G. Bannister, G. C. 
Bayliss, A. W. Boyce, F. J. Brown, C. R. Covey, W. Darbyshire, W. J. 
Gardner, F. W. Godfrey, F. W. Godfrey, jun., H. Godfrey, W. H. 
Hayward, H. King, F. W. Moore, N. G. Moore, T. W. Moore, W. North, 
j. E. Priestlay, G. S. Railton, G. Rice, W. Ridler, G. Watson, and 
W. H. Watts. 

Amongst the work suggested for and undertaken by the local committee 
was the collection of a museum of local antiquities, this department being 
placed in the capable and energetic hands of Mr. F. W. Godfrey, jun., 
Mr. B. C. Gray, and Mr. W. Ridler, whilst Mr. G. H. Yarnall ably 
assisted. It has long been the dream of more than one gentleman 
interested in the antiquities of Tewkesbury that a town's museum should 
be organised, as such an institution would not only be a source of 
interesting instruction to the inhabitants of the town, but a great attraction 
to visitors. That there is abundant room for such an institution was 



Annual Summer Meeting. 



27 



shown by the great interest manifested in the small collection of antiquities 
displayed during the visit of the Society. 

The following is a list of the objects included in the collection : — 

Lent by Rev. E. R. Dowdeswell : Illuminated MS. ; XV. Century Latin 
Bible (1511); XIV. Century bronze crucifix; Tewkesbury T wattle (a collec- 
tion of ballads printed and published at Tewkesbury). 

Lent by Rev. O. P. Wardell-Yerburgh : Fragment of wood from coffin 
of J. Coats, Abbot of Tewkesbury ; hair from head of Lady Warwick (died 
1439), whose coffin was opened in 1875 ; churchwardens' books and feofee 
book, dating from first year of Elizabeth. 

Lent by Mr. A. Baker : Collection of loo^e prints of Tewkesbury 
Abbey ; old deeds relating to the Borough of Tewkesbury ; reprint of 
Domesday Book for Worcestershire ; copy of the Weekly Worcester Journal, 
August, 1737 ; print of north-west view of Abbey, 1837 > King James 
Bible, 161 1. 

Lent by Mr. E. Moore: Sermon by J. Geree, Vicar of Tewkesbury, 
1641 ; books, containing manuscripts relating to Tewkesbury ; plates, etc. ; 
"Indictment against W. Barnard for having sworn one profane curse"; 
receipts ; ringers' fees for victories obtained in the Peninsular and 
Waterloo Campaigns. 

Lent by Mr. F. W. Godfrey : Plaster casts of 11 great central bosses 
from the nave, 18 side bosses from nave, angels playing upon various 
instruments, and one foliated boss of St. Edmund the Martyr being shot by 
Danes, taken from Tewkesbury Abbey ; cannon balls found in vicinity of 
Tewkesbury ; Countess of Warwick's hair ; copy of rubbing from Countess 
Warwick's gravestone; fragment of winding-sheet from tomb of Abbot 
Cheltenham (died 1509) ; Parker's engraving of Kneeling Knight in Trinity 
Chapel (1798) ; books of plates, etc. ; copy of Jordon's Intelligencer, 1643. 

Lent by Mr. W. G. Bannister : Photos, from Isham's Register. 

Lent by Mr. W. H. Watts: Mould for plaster ceiling, "Mermaid," 
early 18th century; old locks, keys, and hinges from Tewkesbury houses; 
king and queen gingerbread moulds. 

Lent by Mr. H. W. Brown : A fine urn of very early date, dug up at 
Abbey Lawn, 1873; deed giving Freedom of the City of Gloucester to 
Viscount Nelson of the Nile (July 30th, 1802), 

Lent by Mr. W. Ridler : Horseshoe from battlefield. 

Lent by Mr. W. J. Gardner: Early copies of Gloucester Journal, pub- 
lished by Raikes, father of Robert Raikes, the founder of Sunday Schools, 
and his illustrious son. 

Lent by Mr. G. C. Gardner: Shackles and gyves used in Old Bell 
Tower, then a prison ; also ancient constable's baton. 

Lent by Mr. Moody : Pestle and mortar, inscribed 1606, with inscrip- 
tion : " Beat th good spices wel." 



28 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



Lent by Mr. C. Boroughs : Double Prayer Book (1620). 

Lent by Mr. Coates : Some excellent models of Tewkesbury Abbey, 
Despenser Tomb, and Bell Hotel. 

Lent by Mr. B. C. Gray : Coins, Roman and of later date, found in 
local excavations ; vase, dug up in Trinity Walk ; remains of Roman glass 
vessel, found 4 ft. under surface of Gloucester Road ; keys and seal, found 
in Mill Pit, &c. 

Lent by Mr. C. Hayward : Roman vase, found in Tolzey Lane, 
Tewkesbury. 

The members of the Society, upon arriving in the town, were officially 
received in the Assembly Rooms by the Mayor and Corporation, the Mayor 
(Mr. T. W. Moore), attired in his chain and scarlet robe of office, being 
attended by the mace-bearers and the members and officials of the 
Corporation, robed. There were present : Aldermen A. Baker, J. G. 
Coleman, Councillors L. Jones, W. Jackson, W. T. Boughton, W. J. Gardner, 
G. P. Howell, G. M. Rice, H. Godfrey, H. King, and C. C. Moore, with 
the Town Clerk (Mr. H. A. Badham), Borough Surveyor (Mr. W. Ridler), 
Borough Treasurer (Mr. G. Watson), Rate Collector (Mr. A. Roberts). 

The Mayor said it was his pleasure on behalf of the Corporation, 
and inhabitants to cordially welcome the members of the Bristol and 
Gloucestershire Archaeological Society to the royal and ancient borough 
of Tewkesbury. They were very much pleased that the Society should 
have selected Tewkesbury for their annual summer meeting, and felt sure 
they would not regret their choice, as the ancient borough and its 
neighbourhood was so full of historic associations and antiquarian interest 
that it should be a very pleasant object of study to the members of the 
Society — a Society which had performed, and is still performing, a duty 
so interesting and so important to the students of archaeology in the 
county. As they were all aware there was an ancient Abbey, the beauty 
and stateliness of which, with its massive grandeur of Norman work, he 
ventured to say could not be surpassed in any part of his Majesty's 
dominions. They were, all of them, justly proud of their old Abbey, 
which was purchased by the Corporation of the borough from King Henry 
VIII. about the year 1540, thereby preserving one of the most magnificent 
buildings and historic monuments in the kingdom. The town also 
possessed several very quaint old timber houses, the result of ancient 
building enterprise, preserved in their ancient loveliness and unspoiled by 
modern vandalism, including many interesting examples of English 
domestic architecture of the time of Queen Elizabeth, and others of 
earlier date — notably the two 13th century houses near the Cross, with 
fine old traceried windows, and the adjoining house known now as the 
Berkeley Arms Inn. They had an old stone bridge over the river Avon, 
with one central and two side arches, known as King John's Bridge. The 



Annual Summer Meeting. 



29 



■original structure, supposed to have been built by King John, and known 
by his name, was gone, but the present structure is of great antiquity. 
Just outside the town, and within the borough boundary is Queen 
Margaret's Camp, and the memorable meadow where the decisive battle of 
Tewkesbury was fought on May 4th, 1471, which terminated the sanguinary 
War of the White and Red Roses, and in which fell the flower of the 
Lancastrian party. At the corner of St. Mary's Lane, in Church Street, 
stands a small house, in the basement of which is to be seen to the present 
day what they believed to be a relic of Saxon architecture. It had been 
thought that this was the only relic extant of what was probably the Crypt 
of St. Mary's Church, which would have been af least 200 years older than 
the Abbey, and it would be most interesting to them to know the opinion 
of some of the eminent archaeologists present on the subject. The old 
Baptist Meeting House, also in Church Street, was built about 1650, and 
he understood that some of the Cromwellian chairs and stools are still 
existing there. The old Tewkesbury Academy, in High Street, was 
probably built about the time of Queen Elizabeth. Archbishop Seeker, 
Bishop Butler, the famous author of the Analogy of Religion, and other 
eminent divines, were educated there. This house contains a very finely- 
carved old mantelpiece, with the Royal Arms of the Jacobean period, and 
figures on either side. Adjoining the Victoria Pleasure Grounds is an old 
wall with six heavy buttresses, which it was believed formed a portion of 
the monastic buildings. It might also have been the boundary to the 
town, as alongside it, he believed, ran the old Roman Road. There were 
other parts of the ancient borough wall, composed of red sandstone, in 
the lane towards the top of High Street. The members would also, during 
the visit, have the opportunity of seeing the interesting old Saxon Priory 
Church in the village of Deerhurst, which had a great history, and also 
many other places of historical and antiquarian interest in this neighbour- 
hood. In fact, he would venture to say that the old borough of Tewkesbury 
and its neighbourhood afforded to the antiquary and historian more 
abundant material for illustration and disquisition than almost any other 
place in the kingdom. He trusted that in years to come they would be 
able to look back with much interest and pleasure to their visit there. He 
should also, in the name of the borough, like to congratulate the President- 
elect (the Rev. E. R. Dowdeswell) on the honour conferred upon him. 
They felt that he was a worthy representative of one of the oldest and 
best known families in the neighbourhood, which had been closely con- 
nected with the borough for centuries past, and he should like to assure 
him that the people of Tewkesbury were very proud to have been associated 
with the old family of Dowdeswell. The Mayor then vacated the chair, 
which was taken until the arrival of the Earl of Gainsborough (the retiring 
president) by Sir Brook Kay (President of the Council). 



30 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



Sir Brook Kay thanked the Mayor and Corporation most heartily for 
the very kind reception they had given to the Society. He felt sure the 
members of the Society would all feel great pleasure in meeting in their 
ancient borough, which afforded so many objects of interest. He believed 
there were very few among them who remembered the last meeting of the 
Society in the borough many years ago, and he was afraid there were not 
many left who remembered the great pleasure they had in assembling there 
on that occasion. He again thanked the Mayor for the kind reception he 
had given the Society. 

The Mayor said he was very much obliged to Sir Brook Kay for the 
kind words he had uttered. It had been a great pleasure to them to 
welcome the Society to their ancient borough, and they sincerely hoped 
that the visit would prove in every way a success. 

A meeting of the Society followed, when 

The Rev. Canon Bazeley read the report of the Council : 

Report of the Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Archaeological Society for 1901-2. 

The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society 
present the following Report for the year ending July 8th, 1902. 

There are at present 412 annual members, 86 life members and 3 
honorary members on the Society's list, giving a total strength of 501 
members, as against 470 in 1901 and 409 in 1900. 

It has been suggested that the number of members should be limited 
to 500. The Council would be glad to know the opinion of the Society 
before taking the proposal into their consideration. 

The income of the Society for the year ending December 31st, 1901, 
including a balance of ^426 9s. gd. on January 1st, 1901, was £751 8s. 5d., 
and the expenditure for the same period was ^497 2s. 7d , leaving a 
balance on December 31st, 1901, of £254 53. iod. From this balance 
must be deducted the cost of volume xxiv. of the Society's Transactions, 
the first part of which is in the members' hands and the second part is in 
print and well nigh ready for issue. Besides the balance of £254 5s. iod., 
there is also a deposit of £221 14s. 4d. at the Society's Bankers, and the 
capital sum of ^632. 3s. 8d. invested in Consols. 

The Society held its Annual Summer Meeting last year at Chipping 
Campden, under the presidency of Earl Gainsborough, on Tuesday, 
August 20th. The members assembled at Evesham, and examined the 
two parish churches of St. Leonard and All Saints', the bell-tower, and 
the scanty remains of the once great Benedictine Abbey of Evesham, 
under the guidance of Mr. H. A. Prothero, of Cheltenham. From 
Evesham the members drove to the church of Wickhamford, which 
contains a fine series of effigies in memory of the Sandys family, and |a 



Report of the Council. 



3i 



gravestone which is especially interesting to Americans as bearing the 
surname and arms of Washington. These arms are supposed to be the 
origin of the stars and stripes on the flag of the United States. In the 
afternoon the business meeting of the Society was held at Campden, under 
the presidency of Mr. F. F. Fox, who introduced the new President, the 
Earl of Gainsborough, and he gave an interesting address on the history 
of Campden and its connection with the clothing trade. After the meeting 
the members were received at the parish church by the Vicar, the Rev. T. 
Carrington, and subsequently at Old Campden House by Lord and Lady 
Gainsborough. In the evening a conversazione was held in the Town Hall, 
and the Society had the pleasure of receiving many of the inhabitants of 
Campden who had shown special interest in the work of the Society. 
Papers by Mr. Guy Dawber, Mr. F. B. Osborne, and Mr. Kennedy Skipton 
were listened to with much pleasure. 

On Wednesday, August 21st, the members visited Ebrington, Hidcote 
House, Quinton, Long Marston, and Mickleton, and were hospitably 
entertained by Commander and Mrs. Carrow in the house where 
Charles II. took refuge in his journey from Boscobel to Abbot's Leigh. 

On Thursday, August 22nd, after a short meeting, at which votes of 
thanks were given to the Local Secretary, Mr. Dease, and to all who had 
aided him in arranging so successfully the visit of the Society to Campden 
and its neighbourhood. The party then drove to Broadway and Buckland, 
and were courteously entertained at Middle Hill by Mr. and Mrs. Flower. 

The early Summer Meeting was held on May 26th of this year at 
Yatton, Wrington, and Banwell, and the members were hospitably received 
by the Rev. C. S. Taylor at Banwell. The arrangements for the meeting 
were excellent, and the Society is greatly indebted to the Rev. C. S. Taylor 
and Mr. John E. Pritchard, who made and carried them out. 

A full account of the Campden Meeting will be found in volume xxiv. 
of the Society's Transactions, and the Somerset Excursion will be described 
in volume xxv. 

The Library has been opened for the use of members on Tuesday 
afternoons during the past year, and the Society is indebted to the 
Honorary Librarians, Canon Bazeley and Mr. F. J. Cullis, for their 
attendance. The Society has acquired a few valuable books and MSS. by 
donation and purchase, and the Council would express its gratitude to 
Sir Brook Kay, the Executors of the late Mr. A. H. Paull, and other 
kind donors. 

A suggestion has been made by the Gloucester Local Committee that 
the Library of the Society shall contain a loan collection of lantern slides 
to illustrate lectures on objects of archaeological interest in Bristol and 
Gloucestershire. This suggestion meets with the warm approval of the 
Council, and a preliminary grant has been voted for the purchase of slides 



32 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



and of boxes and a cabinet to hold them. A large number of valuable 
negatives from which lantern slides might be made are in the hands of 
members and their friends, and it is hoped that offers of slides or the loan 
of such negatives will be made through the Librarians. It is proposed 
that Committees shall be formed in various centres, and that evening 
meetings shall be held at which the slides shall be exhibited and described. 
Committees have been formed at Gloucester and Tewkesbury. Lists of 
slides, given or bought, will appear from time to time in the Society's 
Transactions, and a catalogue arranged under places and subjects will be 
kept in the Society's Library. 

Members wishing to borrow a box of slides will be asked to pay the 
carriage and a small additional fee to meet expenses. 

Some excellent slides of Gloucester, Tewkesbury, Hayles, &c, have 
been presented by Mr. R. Dugdale, Mr. H. Medland, the General Secre- 
tary, and others have been promised by Mr. Embrey, Mr, Ormerod, Mr. 
F. W. Godfrey, jun., Mr. Bannister, Mr. Gardner, and others. 

The illustrated list of effigies has made fair progress during the past 
year, and the reports from several Rural Deaneries are being prepared for 
issue in the Society's Transactions by Mrs. Bagnall Oakeley. It is pro- 
posed later on to issue the complete list as a substantive work, and Mrs. 
Oakeley is very anxious that any necessary corrections or additions may 
be suggested to her by members and others interested in the work. 

The Council deplores the death of one of its members, Mr. H. G. 
Madan, who acted as Honorary Joint Librarian with the General 
Secretary. A memoir of Mr. Madan appears in the 24th volume of the 
Society's Transactions. Sir G. W. Edwards, Mr. H. D. Skrine, Mr. E. R. 
Salwey, and others have also been taken from us by death. The late Mr. 
John Bellows was not a member of this Society in his later years ; but he 
was always ready to render any service, and the Council would take this 
opportunity of expressing their sense of his loss as a distinguished anti- 
quary and their appreciation of his philanthropy. 

The Council wishes to acknowledge the courtesy of the Archaeological 
Institute, Mr. North, the Executors of Mr. Nott and Mr. W. J. Crawford for 
the loan of blocks for the Tewkesbury programme, and the kindness of Mr. 
W. Moline and Mr. F. J. Hirst in taking some excellent photographs of 
Yatton, Wrington, and Ban well for reproduction in the programme of that 
Meeting. 

The Council has held five Meetings during the past year, and desires to 
acknowledge the kindness of the Lord Mayor and Corporation of Bristol 
for the use of the old Council Chamber, and to the Mayor and Corporation 
of Tewkesbury for the use of the Town Hall 

The Council desire to nominate the President of Council, the Vice- 
presidents of the Society, the General Treasurer, the General Secretary, 



Report of the Council. 



33 



and the Local Secretaries for re-election. They also nominate for election 
as Vice-president Mr. F. F. Tuckett, and as Local Secretary for Campden 
the Rev. C. O. Bartlett. 

The following members of Council retire by rotation, but are eligible 
for re-election: — Messieurs St. Clair Baddeley, A. E. Hudd, A. T. Martin, 
Christopher Bowly, H. W. Bruton, E. S. Hartland, Rev. W. Symonds, 
and Dr. Oscar Clark. 

On the proposition of Sir Brook Kay, seconded by Mr. Prothero, 
the report was adopted. 

Canon Bazeley also introduced the question of the limitation of the 
membership to 500, and after some discussiorf'it was decided to make no 
limitation. 

Canon Bazeley expressed high appreciation of the labours of Mr. 
J. E. Pritchard, of Bristol, who had increased the membership of the 
Society considerably during the last two years. The Society was now in 
a better position than it had been for twenty years, and better than nine- 
tenths of the county societies, and very much better than the national 
societies. 

The Earl of Gainsborough (the retiring President) now arriving, took 
the chair, and referred to. the great pleasure it had been to him to be 
associated with the Society, as he had been for a year as their President. 

Mr. G. B. Witts proposed that the thanks of the Society be given to the 
Earl of Gainsborough for his able leadership during the past year. They 
were very grateful to him for the interest he had taken in the Society 
and they would also long remember his hospitality, and that of Lady 
Gainsborough, upon their visit to Campden last year. 

Mr. Leigh seconded, and the resolution was heartily agreed to. 

The Earl of Gainsborough, in returning thanks, paid a high tribute to 
the interest and beauty of the Cots wold district, and again expressed the 
great pleasure his connection with the Society had given him. 

Colonel Noel proposed the re-election of the Councillors mentioned in 
the Report as retiring by rotation. 

Mr. Dancey seconded, and it was agreed to. 

The retiring President then vacated the chair and introduced the 
President-elect, the Rev. E. R. Dowdeswell, remarking that he had known 
many of his family for a good many years. It therefore afforded him 
great pleasure to introduce him as President of the Society for the forth- 
coming year ; for he knew that in his hands the Presidentship of the 
Society was very safely and securely placed, and that his knowledge of 
the local history would be of great interest and value to them. 

The President-Elect, who was warmly received, said he must offer 
them his heartfelt thanks for the great honour which he felt they had done 
him in placing him at the head of their Society. He accepted the offer of 

4 

Vol. XXV. 



34 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



the Society with the very greatest diffidence, for he felt he was unworthy 
to preside over a Society which contained some of the foremost archaeo- 
logists in England, whilst he was only an amateur. At first he absolutely 
refused, but the Secretary so kindly and persistently insisted upon it that 
at last he yielded. He presumed that probably the real reason which 
influenced the Council in suggesting his name and electing him, was what 
the Mayor had so kindly alluded to, that he was the sole remaining repre- 
sentative of a family which had lived close to Tewkesbury for nearly 350 
years, and not only had they lived there, but they had felt a delight in 
being closely and intimately connected, socially and politically, with the 
ancient borough. His forefathers for all these generations had been members 
of the Corporation and M.P.'s for the borough, and the family of Dowdes- 
well and the borough of Tewkesbury had always maintained the closest 
and most intimate connections, and had always been interested in each 
other's welfare. He felt himself an unworthy representative of the family, 
but as he was they had placed him in that honourable post, and he could 
only assure them he would do his best. 

The members then adjourned for lunch to the Swan Hotel. 

After lunch the members immediately proceeded to the Abbey as being 
the object of chief archaeological interest in the town. 

There are traces of Roman occupation at Tewkesbury, but we have no 
proof that a Roman town existed on its site. 

The Chronicle of Tewkesbury Abbey tells us that the town received its 
name from Theoc, one of the early Northumbrian missionaries, who built 
an anchorite's cell near the confluence of the Avon and the Severn, and 
strove to win the souls of the heathen Hwiccas for his Master, Christ. 

In the days of the Mercian king, Ethelbald, a monastery is said to 
have been founded here after the pattern of St. Hilda's at Whitby, and 
Osric's at Gloucester ; but of its history for the next three hundred years 
we know nothing. At the beginning of the nth century it was subject to 
the Benedictine Monastery of Cranbourn, in Dorset. We should probably 
be quite safe in regarding Theoc and Oddo and Doddo as mythical person- 
ages, at least so far as their connection with Tewkesbury is concerned. 
But a myth has commonly a very distinct element of truth, and one cannot 
look at the Tewkesbury entry in Domesday without being struck by its 
resemblance to a partly secularised ecclesiastical estate. In the first place 
there is the church itself, still holding twenty-four and a half hides of land, 
but privileged to pay for only twenty ; an estate including nearly six 
thousand acres of land, and worth in King Edward's time £24. 10s. This 
is clearly something very much more than a mere manorial church. Then 
there is a great compact estate, valued at 161 hides; forming a Hundred 
by itself, though it had not been an estate of Royal demesne ; very highly 
privileged with regard to payment of gheld ; with its Radchenists, free men 



Tewkesbury. 1396886 35 



who ploughed and harrowed at the Lord's court, just as their fellow 
Radchenists in the Ecclesiastical Hundred of Deerhurst ploughed and 
harrowed, mowed and reaped at the Lord's need. The estate which most 
resembles Tewkesbury is that of Berkeley ; and Berkeley Minster we 
know was not secularised till the time of Earl Godwin. Then it was 
secularised completely. Tewkesbury seems to have fared rather as 
Pershore and Deerhurst fared ; a portion was left to the Church, and a 
portion, in this case a much larger portion, was secularised. When this 
happened we cannot exactly tell. Tewkesbury, so far as we know, did not 
become Benedictine under St. Oswald ; most likely it remained like 
Berkeley a house of secular canons, and probably like Berkeley it paid the 
penalty for its aloofness by partial suppression. If it be said that there is 
no direct evidence for the existence of a great minster at Tewkesbury, the 
answer is that if two ancient Charters had perished, and two remarks had 
been omitted from the ancient Register of Bishops of Worcester, and one 
entry had not been made in Domesday, there would be no direct docu- 
mentary evidence for the existence of Berkeley Minster. It is by no. means 
beyond the range of possibility that such ancient evidence may yet be 
found for the existence of a great Old English Minster at Tewkesbury. On 
the death of Queen Matilda, in 1083, the Manor of Tewkesbury, which 
William I. had taken from Britric and granted to his Queen, reverted to 
the Crown, and on the accession of William Rufus, that sovereign granted 
it to Robert Fitz-Hamon. A few years later, on the suggestion of Gerald, 
Abbot of Cranbourn, Fitz-Hamon began to build a new church similar in 
style to that which was rising at Gloucester under the direction of Abbot 
Serlo. Fitz-Hamon died in 1107, and Gerald in n 10, whilst the church was 
still unfinished. It was not until 1123 that its consecration took place. 

A chronological list of the abbots and patrons of the Abbey will be 
found useful in examining the sacred building and its contents. 



ABSOTS OF. TEWKESBURY. 

From Blunt' s History. 



LORDS OF THE MANOR OF TEWKESBURY. 



APPROXIMATE DATE OF 
BUILDINGS. 



Giraldus, 1102-1109. 



Rob. Fitzhamon, 1087-1107. 



Norman Church begun, 

1090. 



Robert I., 1109-1124. 
Benedict, 1124-1137. 



Robert, Earl of Glou., 1107-1147. 



Choir consecrated, 1123. 
Tower and Nave built, 



1123-1150. 



Roger, 1137-1161. 
Fromundus, 1162-1178. 
Robert II., 1182-1186. 



Will., 2nd Earl, 1147-1183. 



Important rebuilding after 
Great Fire of 11 78. 



Alan, 1 187-1202. 



John, aft. King, 3rd Earl, 

1189-1209. 

Geoffrey Mandeville, 4th E,, 

1209-1216. 



Walter, 1202-1213. 



Hugh, 1214-1215. 



36 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



ABBOTS OF TEWKESBURY. 

From Blunt' s History. 



Peter, 1216-1231. 



Rob. Forthington, 

1232-1253. 

Thos. de Stokes, 

1254-1275. 

Rich, de Norton, 

1279-1282. 

Thos. Kempsey, 

1282-1328. 



John Cotes, 



1347- 



Thos. de Legh, 

1347-136!. 

Thos. Chesterton, 

1361-1389. 

Thos. Parker, 1 389-1 421. 



Wil. Bristow, died 1442. 

Joh. Abington, [1443]. 
Joh. de Salis, [1468]. 



Joh. Strensham, died 

I .. v . . ; : ; 1481.. 

Rich. Cheltenham, 

1481-1509. 

Hen. Beoly, 1509- 
Joh. Walker, -1531. 
John Wakeman, 

I53I-I539- 



LORDS OF THE MANOR OF TEWKESBURY. 

Almeric Devereux, 5th E., 

1216-1221. 

Gilbert deClare, 6th E. ,1221-1240. 
Isabel de Clare, Countess, 

1221-1240. 

Richard de Clare, 8th E., 

1240-1262. 

Gilbert de Clare, 9th E., 

1262-1295. 

Gilbert de Clare, 10th E., 

1295-1314. 

Maud de Burg, Countess, 

1314- 1315. 

Hugh Despencer, 12th E , 

1315- 1326. 

Hugh Despencer, 1326-1349. 

Guy deBrian.married to Elizabeth, 
Lady Despencer, 1349-1359. 

Edward, 6th Baron Despencer, 
I359-I375- 

Thomas, 7th Lord Despencer, 

1375-1400. 

Richard, 8th Lord Despencer, 

1400-1414. 

Isabel Despencer, married (1) 
Rich. Beauchamp, E. of Aber- 
gavenny, and (2) Rich., 5th E. 
of Warwick, 1415-1440. 

Henry, Duke of Warwick, 

1440-1446. 

Anne Beauchamp, married Rich. 
Neville, 6th E. of Warwick, 
1 446-1471. 

George, Duke of Clarence, , 

1471-1477. 

Edward, E. of Warwick, 

1477-1488. 

Henry VII. 



APPROXIMATE DATE OF 
BUILDINGS. 



Chapel of St. Nicholas, 
1230-40, built by Prior 
Sipton, 

Chapel of Eustatius, 1246, 
built by Prior H. de 
Banbury, destroyed. 



Chapel of St. James, 

1300-1310. 

Choirs, Aisles, & Transepts 
transformed, 1321-1335. 

Windows of Choir, 1335. 
Effigy of W. de la Zouch, 
1335 (now at Forthampton). 

Tower and Nave vaulted, 
I349-I359- 
Tomb of Hugh and Eliza- 
beth Despencer, 1360. 

Tomb of Ed. Despencer, 

1375- 

Tomb of Guy de Brain, 1 390. 
Tomb of Fitz Hamon, 1397. 
Cloisters rebuilt, 1400-1410. 



Chapel of Isabel, C. of 
Warwick, 1438. 



Guesten House, 1520. 



Henry VIII. 



Tewkesbury. 



37 




Ground Plan of Tewkesbury abbey. 



38 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



Of the great Abbey of Tewkesbury there remain the Abbey Church, 
nearly intact, and the Gate House.* The cloisters themselves have been 
ruthlessly swept away, but the N. side and a part of the E. side having 
been built into the church the design is happily spared. All else is gone, 
and that the church itself is not a torso — a choirless nave like Malmesbury, 
or a naveless choir like Abbey Dore — is due to the generous public spirit 
•of the townsmen, who in the day of its downfall bought those parts of it 
which were not already theirs by right. 

The church comes down to us far less changed in form and features than 
is usual with our great churches. In plan it is essentially what it was when 
it was consecrated in 1123, having taken, as it would seem, nearly forty years 

to build. The long nave, short 
apsidal choir, transepts, and 
central tower remain substan- 
tially as at first. One of the 
original chapels is gone, later 
ones have been built, and two of 
them again have disappeared ; 
but in the main the church is 
the church of Fitz - Hamon's 
foundation, whereof a monk 
named Alfred was master of 
works. The plan is curiously 
like that of Westminster Abbey 
— both belonging to that type 
of Romanesque church which, 
starting from the Roman bas- 
ilica, came to us from the great 
builders in Normandy of the 
10th and nth centuries. In 
one respect it has a purely local 
character. Nowhere else do 
we find such a range of simple 
cylindrical pillars in the nave, 
except at Gloucester. 

The dimensions are these : — 

Extreme length, 300 feet (as the church now stands devoid of any lady 
chapel at all). 

Width of nave and aisles outside, 80 feet. 
Length of transepts outside, 135 feet. 

* The present residence of the Vicar, which was probably the Guesten House, seems 
to be described in the report of the Commissioners of Henry VIII. as "the lodging, 
•called the New Warke, leading from the Gate to the late Abbot's Lodging." 




Kell & Son, Holborn, E.C. 



TEWKESBURY. 

Beauchamp Chantry. 



Tewkesbury. 



39 



Tower, 132 feet high and 46 feet square. 

To get an idea of the church as it was when it was first finished, one 
must reduce it to great simplicity. Outside, it must have been more stately 
than it is now, with a high-pitched roof, plain round-headed windows 
throughout, a much plainer apse, and within the great arch at the W. end 
we may suppose a double tier of simple windows over a round-headed 
door. On the tower was a wooden spire, which fell down on Easter Day, 
March 26th, 1559 Lastly, there was a bell tower to the N.E., built before 
1224 and destroyed in 181 7. Inside, the whole effect must have been very 
different. There were no rich groining and traceried windows ; but the 
nave was loftier, with an open-timbered roof (or, perhaps flat ceiling), and 
the tower open to form a lantern ; chancel very severe, with fittings of the 
simplest character. 




The changes by which it became what we see it took place gradually in 
the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries. (In the 12th the monastery buildings 
had to be remodelled after the Great Fire of 1178, from which the church 
escaped with some scorching, but needed no important rebuilding.) In 
1237 the Chapel of St. Nicholas was built by Abbot Sipton ; perhaps 
consecrated two years later (1239). In 1246 the Chapel of S. Eustatius 
was built by Prior Henry de Banbury ; possibly as the nave of a parochial 
lady chapel. It seems soon to have become dilapidated, and was removed 
in the following century. 



4 o 



Transactions for the Year '1902. 




The greatest changes were in the 14th 
century. The church was groined with the 
magnificent vault which now covers it ; the 
choir was practically rebuilt on the original 
pillars, with its polygonal apse and pierced 
parapet, and the crown of chapels round it 
was completed. The Decorated windows were 
filled somewhat later with their present glass. 

That there was a lady chapel at the E. 
end is certain : at first probably a pentagonal 
13th century chapel like the others. This was 
removed to make way for a greater building, 
said to have been 100 feet long, as to which 
very little can at present be ascertained. 

The only later additions were some of the 
gorgeous tombs and chantry chapels ; the great 
rood-loft, all trace of which has disappeared; 
the sedilia, and no doubt altars with their 
fittings; also the stalls, which still remain. 

A longer description would be out of place 
here, but it may be worth while to summarize 



in the fewest words the points of the building 



Outside. 
West Front. — Very noble 
arch, 65 feet high by 34 feet 
wide, in seven orders ; pin- 
nacles original, with modern 
spirelets ; gable gone ; Norman 
work within arch gone, and 
replaced by Perpendicular 
work ; west window, 1686, 
replacing one blown in in 
1 661. 

North Side. — Almost entirely 
as originally built, except that 
the Norman windows have 
given place to larger 14 th 
century ones in aisle and 
clerestory. The present low- 
pitched roof replaces the 
high-pitched one unhappily 
removed in 1720. 




Tewkesbury. 



4i 



North Transept.— The 13th century fragment attached to it is the remains, 
of Prior Henry de Banbury's Chapel (1246), and beyond it the 13th 
century Chapel of S. Nicholas, and the 14th century Chapel of S. James. 

The Tower — perhaps the noblest 
Norman tower remaining in England 
— stands just as originally built 
(1140?), except that it has lost its 
wooden spire, and the pinnacles are 
of the 17th century. The tower 
suffers much from the disappearance 
of the four high roofs which once 
abutted on it. 

The Choir — a most splendid ex- 
ample of the " chevet " form — is as 
the 14th century builders left it after 
their adaptation of the simpler Nor- 
man apse. 

South Side. — Of the magnificent 
Perpendicular cloister, once about 80 
feet square, there remain only the 
fragments of tracery attached — *jmm 
to the south - wall of the .1 1 
church: the - rest seems not -..jHllllft 

only to have been destroyed, -U .>f ^ t>.m» £ 

but dug up. 

Inside. 

The most important features are : — 

(1) The immense, simple, cylindrical pillars, 30 ft. high and 6 ft. 3 in. 
in diameter. (1084-1123.) 

(2) The very elaborate groined roof, each bay being divided into no less 
than 36 panels by moulded ribs. The bosses illustrate the Bible, the Life 
of our Lord occupying the central ones, executed in strong and simple 
carving, intended for colour. 

(3) The choir, with its very beautiful apse (a comparatively uncommon 
shape in England) and rich ancient glass. 

(4) The ring of chapels which surround the choir aisle, with their fine 
vaulting and remains of carving and painted decoration. 

• (5) The tombs on either side of the ambulatory, and the three chantry 
chapels described elsewhere. 

(6) The apsidal chapel to the north transept : the only chapel left as it 
was in the original building ; the corresponding one in the north transept 
having been removed to make way for the Chapel of S. James. 




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Transactions for the Year 1902. 



(7) Some remains of ancient fittings : for example, the long high altar 
(rescued from the porch), a wooden turret on the north side of the choir 
for the sanctus bell, and the stalls. 




TEWKESBURY IN 1732. 



The effigies in Tewkesbury Abbey have been well described by Mr. 
Albert Hartshorne in the 4th volume of our Transactions, and in the 47th 
volume of the Archaological Journal. A very brief notice of them must 
therefore suffice. The effigy at the east end of the north aisle of the nave 
deserves special study. It was for a long time attributed to Lord Wenlock, 
who was slain in the Battle of Tewkesbury, a.d. 1471. But the Wenlocks 
bore a chevron between three moors' heads, and this knight bears on his 
surcote and shield a chevron between three leopards' heads langued, and 
his armour is more than a hundred years earlier than 1471, so it cannot be 
he. The head of the knight rests on a tilting helm crested with a lion. 
He wears a pointed bascinet with a narrow jewelled band, and a camail of 
banded mail is attached to it by cords which pass through staples and end 
in knots on either side. The quilted and studded cuisses covering the 
thighs should be noticed, and also the socks which show the form of the 
toes. The tinctures of the chevron and the leopards' heads are gone, and 
it is difficult among so many competitors for this heraldic bearing to say 
who the knight was. Mr. Hartshorne fixes the date of the effigy as 
between 1345 and 1350, although the canopy of the tomb, from which the 
popular supposition referred to has arisen, is of later date. He fixes his 
date 1345-50 on account of the linen material displayed outside the 
armour on the shield arm, which he says is unique, and also the banded 
cuisses of chasment (the reverse of brigandine). The figure is also repre- 
sented with a jupon bearing his coat of arms— a chevron between three 
-leopards' heads langued. Mr. Baddeley's researches have also thrown 
further light upon this interesting feature of the church, which fully 




TEWKESBURY. 
Cenotaph attributed to Abbot Wakeman. 



Tewkesbury. 



43 



substantiates Mr. Hartshorne's contention. The arms referred to above 
are, he says, presumably those of Sir John de Burley, of Burley, Hereford- 
shire, a partisan of the Despencers against Queen Isabella, who died 1346, 
and brother of Walter de Burley, a celebrated theologian of his time, and 
a commentator on Aristotle, who became tutor to the Black Prince. Sir 
John de Burley, K.G., was grandfather to Sir Richard Burley, K.G., who 
married a granddaughter to Hugh de Audley, Earl of Gloucester ; he was 
also grandfather to the Sir John Burley who was the diplomatic colleague 
with Chaucer the poet in 1376 on a mission to the Court of France pro 
secretis negotiis domini regis. 

In the north ambulatory of the choir are the effigies of Hugh Despencer 
and his wife, Elizabeth Montacute. This was not the younger Hugh 
Despencer who was so cruelly murdered at Hereford in 1326 ; he was 
buried in the tomb behind the sedilia. It is his son, who was a boy of 
thirteen when his father died. He died in 1340, and his widow, who 
became the wife of Guy de Brian, died in 1359. The effigy of Guy lies 
opposite, between the ambulatory and St. Margaret's Chapel. He bore 
the King's standard at Cressy and was Admiral of Edward's fleet. He 
lived to the age of 90, and died in 1390. 

The figure kneeling on the top of the Trinity Chapel, looking towards 
the high altar, represents Edward Despencer, nephew of Hugh and 
Elizabeth. He died in 1375. His effigy is exceedingly valuable for study, 
for it is carefully painted to represent every detail of front and back 
armour. In the chapel below are the portraits of Edward and his wife, 
Elizabeth de Burghersh, in fresco. 

The cadaver, or corpse, at the N.E. corner of the ambulatory has been 
attributed to John Wakeman, the last Abbot of Tewkesbury and the first 
Bishop of Gloucester ; but it would seem that it is a hundred years older. 
We saw a similar figure at Westbury-on-Trym last year. 

The ground plan of the Abbey, kindly lent by Mr. North, from Blunt's 
History of Tewkesbury, gives the position of many of the other tombs, and of 
the De Clare, Despencer, and Warwick graves. The inscriptions given in 
a short paper by Archdeacon Robeson and published by Mr. North, were, 
designed by the eminent local antiquary, the late Mr. Niblett. 

The bosses forming the keystones of the stone vaulting ribs are of great 
interest. A list is given in Mr. North's Notes on Old Tewkesbury. 

Commencing from the west end, the bosses on the central rib of the 
nave represent : (1) The Nativity, (2) Adoration of the Shepherds, (3) 
Journey of the Wise Men, (4) Adoration of the Wise Men, (5) Christ 
found in the Temple, (6) Entry into Jerusalem, (7) Last Supper, (8) 
Betrayal, (9) Scourging, (10) Crucifixion, (11) Resurrection, (12) Ascen- 
sion, (13) Pentecost, (14) Coronation of the Virgin, (15) Our Lord in 
Majesty. 



44 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



On the north and south sides are angels with musical instruments, 
emblems of the Passion, &c. On the tower vaulting are the arms of 
Despencer and Brian impaling Montacute, giving us the date of about 
1355. In the choir are two bosses representing the temptation and expul- 
sion of Adam and Eve, and in St. Edmund's Chapel (see ground plan) 
passages from the history of St. Edmund, king and martyr. 

Many of the encaustic tiles are of great interest, but there are not 
many in situ. 

A short paper on the subject by the Rev. A. S. Porter will be found in 
the 48th volume of the Archaeological Journal, at page 83. He had the 
advantage of examining the fine collection of tracings of tiles, made by 
order of the late Mr. T. Collins and now in the possession of his nephew, 
Mr. F. W. Godfrey, junr. It was owing to Mr. Collins' care that many 
tiles were preserved at the time of the restoration, which would otherwise 
have been lost. 

In the Founder's Chapel is the lion rampant of Robert Fitz-Hamon 
impaling the cross ragule of Tewkesbury Abbey. The date is 1397. In 
the chapel erected by Isabella, Countess of Warwick, for the repose of the 
soul of her first husband, Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Abergavenny 
and Worcester, there is a design of 16 tiles bearing his arms, a fess between 
four crosses crosslet with a crescent for difference. The date is 1438. Many 
tiles were found in the vault of the unfortunate George, Duke of Clarence, 
and his wife, Isabel Neville. She died in 1476, and he was murdered in 
1477. Their date would be about 1485, as one bears R. crowned for 
Richard III. with the rose en soleil, the badge of the House of York. We 
also find the arms of De Clare, Despencer, De Warrenne, De Bohun, 
Corbet, Someville, Beauchamp of Powick, Beauchamp of Holt, Crofts, 
Burghersh, Cobham, &c. 

These and many others will be pointed out at the Meeting. 

Some of the tiles are identically the same with tiles found at Hayles 
Abbey. 

The style of the windows, both in leading and painting, their excessive 
canopy work, and the chain and plate armour on the military figures 
represented, clearly point the date of their insertion ; but the figure of 
Lord de la Zouche — died 1335 — married to Eleanor (de Clare), widow of 
Hugh le Despencer the younger (who was hanged in 1326), and that of 
Hugh le Despencer, her son (who died 1349), and the presence of 
"ailettes," or leathern winglets, in the armour, combine to narrow down 
the limits of date, and determine it at latest to the fifth decade of the 14th 
Century. It is probable they were the pious gift of Eleanor, Lady de la 
Zouche (d. 1337), and Hugh le Despencer, her son. It is, however, 
possible that portions of the great east window are of earlier date. The 
De Monchensi, Lords of Painswick (and of other manors in this and half- 



Tewkesbury. 



45 



a-dozen counties beside), are represented by a shield bearing Barry of 12. 
Arg. andaz; although their heiress, Dionisia (m. Hugh de Vere), died in 
1313. But the same argument, if pushed from the heraldic side only, 
would make us attribute the. glass containing the arms of Gilbert De Clare 
(1) in the clerestory to the 13th century, although it is certain they should 
be dated 1335-50. 

The east window consists of five lights, which divide into four hori- 
zontal sections, the uppermost of which displays the design of a central 
wheel having twelve (emblematic) spokes, the subsidiary traceries of which 
exhibit cruciform quatrefoils, recalling the cross or in the Abbey Arms. 

The leading motive of the window is, appropriately, the Adoration of 
the Virgin, as patroness of the monastery. She is represented as enthroned 
in the centre of the wheel, and having the infant Saviour on her knee. 
Above, is seen Christ enthroned ; while in the segments of the wheel around 
are represented angels playing various instruments of music. 

The second section of this window has suffered considerably by break- 
age and re-arrangement, as well as by restoration (1829). Its five lights 
exhibited : Christ enthroned (with stigmata showing) in the act of bene- 
diction; St. John the Evangelist ; the Virgin; and perhaps St. John the 
Baptist ; and another. 

The third section has been utilised for illustrating the "Last Judgment" ; 
while the lowest displays: (1) the arms of the Abbey Gu. a cross engr. or, 
within a bordure arg. without the bordure ; (2 and 3) are wild patchwork ; 
.<4) Barry of 12. Arg. and az: for De Monchensi; (5) Nebuly, arg. and Gules-, 
over all a bend az: for Hugh le Despencer. 

The succeeding 5-light and 4-light clerestory windows, N. and S., 
betoken different degrees of preservation. Upon them have been depicted 
"kings and prophets of the Old Testament standing in glowing ruby or 
emerald niches, with elaborate Decorated canopies above them. Perspective 
has now begun in glass by the medium of architectural drawing. No. 2, 
south side, has been disfigured (1829), with the arms of Rochester, St. 
David's, Bangor, Carlisle, and Bath and Wells; while No. 3 may be held 
up as a negative lesson in Restoration. 

The military figures, which correspond to those on the north side, are— 

1. Gilbert (II.) de Clare (1295). 

2. William, Lord de la Zouche (1335). 

3. Gilbert (III.) de Clare. Killed at Bannockburn. 

4. Hugh le Despencer, the younger (1326). 

. The figures opposite, likewise standing in diapered niches, and habited 
in chain and plate armour, carry a spear in left hand, and grasp their 
sword-hilts with the right. All wear " ailettes." They represent, as their 
arms show — 

1. Robert Fitz-Roy, Earl of Glo'ster (n. son of Henry I.). 



4 6 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



2. Gilbert (I), de Clare, Earl of Glo'ster (1230). 

3. Hugh le Despencer, III. (?) (1349). 

4. Robert Fitz-Hamon, the founder (1107). 

Tewkesbury is very rich in old timbered houses, which in some cases 
have fine Georgian plaster ceilings. 

Their restoration is entirely due to the taste and influence of the late 
Mr. T. Collins. 

Holme Castle, the stately residence of the early lords of Tewkesbury, 
has disappeared so thoroughly that no one can be sure where it stood. 
Leland, in his description of Tewkesbury, says "The other arme (of the 
Avon) cummeth downe by the Side of the Towne and the Abbay, leving it 
on the Este, and so passing harde ther by Holme Castelle goith into 
Severne. Ther is a little Broke caullid Suliet (Swilgate) cumming downe 
from Clive, and enterith into Avon at Holme Castelle by the lifte Ripe of 
it. Ther was at the South West Ende of the Abbay a Castel caullid 
Holme. The Tyme of the Building of it is oncerteyne. It is certeyne 
that the Clares Erles of Glocester, and especially the Redde Erie, lay 
much at Holme. There hath beene yn tyme of mynd sum Partes of the 
Castel stonding. Now sum Ruines of the Botoms of Waulles appere. 
Now it is caullid Holme Hylle." 

The Castle seems to have been destroyed by the enemies of Hugh 
Despencer, in the time of Edward II., and the materials used later on for 
the "fair Maner Place" of which Leland speaks as the residence of 
"Lord Edward Spensar," in Tewkesbury Park. On the site of this 
" Maner Place " now stands South wick Park, the present home of Bishop 
Perowne. No mention is made of Holme Castle in the accounts of the 
Battle of Tewkesbury. It is however mentioned in Shakespeare's Henry 
VI., 3rd Part, Act 5, Scene 6. The late Mr. Spurrier, who read a paper 
at the Meeting of our Society at Tewkesbury in 1885, believed the castle 
to have stood in a low meadow between "Perry Hill" and "The Vine- 
yards." Certainly there is a piece of ground there 150 yards square, 
surrounded on all sides by a moat which was filled by the Swilgate. The 
late Mr. Moore, on the other hand, following the opinion of Bennett, 
believed the castle to have stood on the high ground facing the South side 
of the Abbey, called the Vineyards. 

The Abbey was examined under the guidance of Mr. H. A. Prothero, 
to whom we are indebted for much of the foregoing description, while 
Mr. St. Clair Baddeley described the coloured glass, and Mr. Albert 
Hartshorne gave an admirable description of the monuments and effigies. 

Mr. St. Clair Baddeley pointed out that one of the great advantages 
in the display of glass in the choir was characteristic of the time in which 
it was put in: viz., that the artist who made it was enabled to have one 
single scheme in his mind. That scheme, to fill the whole of seven 



Tewkesbury. 



47 



windows, started with the central spiritual idea of the choir of an abbey 
church dedicated to the Virgin Mary. That was the central idea of the 
whole. It began with an east window of five lights, with a rich wheel of 
tracery above it. In the centre of the wheel was represented the Virgin 
enthroned with the Infant Christ. Above it was Christ Himself. In the 
twelve segments made by the symbolical twelve spokes of the wheel, the 
Twelve Apostles are angels playing on musical instruments, therefore 
constituting a miniature choir to the Virgin Mary, to whom the church is. 
dedicated. In the sections below are five figures in niches, with richly 
decorated canopies in grisaille, the central figure being Christ enthroned, 
aureoled with a cruciform nimbus with a pearl 'border— a very beautiful 
specimen of its kind. He raises His hand in the act of benediction, and in 
His hands and feet are the stigmata — the wounds of the Crucifixion. On 
either side of Him are figures, being very much patched and restored, of 
St. John the Evangelist and St. John the Divine. On the extreme left is a 
figure of the Virgin with a head of 1129, put in by Mr. Collins, of London,, 
and on the extreme right is a group of worshippers, including St. Peter, 
whose sword is represented drawn. At the right side, in the section below 
this, has been represented the Last Judgment, in five panels, abbots and 
kings rising from their graves t and St. Michael, with golden wings, calling 
them up. In the lowest section are the arms of Tewkesbury. The next 
two shields are patchwork, made to look like real coats of arms, which are- 
gone. Then comes argent and azure harry for William de Monchensi, Lord 
of Painswick. The last coat is harry, wavy, argent, and gules, and over all a 
bend azure for Sir Richard Damory, killed at Tutbury, 1328, who married 
Elizabeth de Clare. The next two windows on each side, each of five 
lights, have been filled with prophets and kings of the Old Testament, in 
richly decorated niches, with diaper backgrounds alternately blue and 
ruby. Above them crocketted canopies in golden stain, and enriched with 
tabernacle work with flowered borders. The secular part of the choir had 
on the north side a window of four lights filled with four military figures in 
chain and mail armour, having at their shoulders oeillets which went out 
in 1340, giving the date to the window. Each has his left hand on the hilt 
of his sword, and supports a spear in his right. In their present order 
comes first Robert Fitzroy (son of Henry I.), Gilbert de Clare the first, 
Hugh Despencer the third, and Robert Fitz-Hamon, the founder of the 
Abbey. The last man was the father-in-law of the first. The windows 
had all been taken down for repair, and had been put up haphazard, 
and should have begun with Fitz-Hamon. On the other side they had 
Gilbert de Clare the second, who died at Monmouth in 1290; William 
Lord Zouch of Mortimer came in the next light, then the other two Gilbert 
de Clares, the last of whom was killed at Bannockburn. Mr. Baddeley 
then proceeded to narrate an exceedingly interesting and most romantic. 



48 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



episode bearing upon the history of this window, which hitherto has 
escaped the whole of the multitude of writers upon the Abbey and the 
notable people with whom it has been connected. Eleanor, eldest of the 
co-heiresses, sister to the last Gilbert de Clare, married Hugh le Despencer 
the second, hanged at Bristol, 1376. She then became engaged or was 
actually being married to Sir John Gray, Knight, when Lord Zouch 
attacked them and carried her off with violence. Sir John Gray appealed 
to the Bishop of Coventry, and claimed his wife, but was unable to obtain 
any redress. Other appeals likewise failed, and at last he turned to the 
Pope, Clement VI., at Avignon, who wrote to the Archbishop that justice 
should be done, and if Eleanor le Despencer were married to Sir John 
Gray she must be restored to him. Within a few months, in a Parliament 
assembled in 1333, in the presence of the King, Lord Zouch and Sir John 
Gray violently attacked each other, and were hurled to the ground, where- 
upon the King's great officers of state, by Edward's orders, conveyed both 
of them to the Tower of London. Lord Zouch, however, continued to 
retain the lady, who declared that she was his wife. He died the following 
year (1335), whether from wounds or not does not transpire, and Eleanor 
survived him many years. These facts have recently been unearthed 
from the Papal Registers of Clement VI., and printed by Mr. Bliss, of the 
Public Record Office, Mr. Baddeley being the first to appreciate their 
interest in connection with the windows in Tewkesbury Abbey. In a line 
with the two windows, all the de Clares referred to lie under the pavement, 
and the Despencers a little further to the left. Isabel Marshal, who 
married the first Gilbert de Clare, left her heart to be buried in front of the 
high altar, and a great many rich relics to the Abbey. Five months after- 
wards she was persuaded to marry Richard, Earl of Cornwall, brother of 
Henry III., and founder of Hailes Abbey. The window is very charac- 
teristic of 14th century work, Mr. Baddeley remarked, there being little in 
the drawing ; still it was a great advance on 50 years before, and the 
colouring is magnificent, glowing with the depth of potmetal colours, and 
enriched with gold stain and grisaille in the canopy work above. 

Mr. Albert Hartshorne, F.S.A., described the effigies and monu- 
ments of the Abbey. He said : By the kind wish of the Committee I 
have undertaken to describe the tombs and effigies at Tewkesbury. But 
the exigencies of circumstances, the limitations of time, require that the 
description can only be very general. With such a copious stony text it is 
not quite easy to decide which points to emphasise and what to disregard. 
We might, for instance, deal with armour only, and take the details 
item by item. In speaking of mail, such as is shown by the military 
figures here, attention might be called to mail manufacture. It could be 
shown in the presence of the so-called Wenlock effigy how each guaged 
length of wire had its ends flattened, pierced, ri vetted, and finished en haute 



Tewkesbury. 



49 



or en basse, or in double clouee, passing on to the mystery of banded mail 
such as is exhibited on the same figure, and see the immemorial defence 
vanish on the death of Henry IV. as a visible protection of armed men. 
Or we might treat of the headpiece and track it down through mediaeval 
times from the plain cylindrical helmet of the. early Crusades, such as the 
men whose effigies are in the Temple Church wore, and show how the 
round bascinet which Hugh Despencer exhibits gradually grew from the 
" chapelles " under the mail hoods, and passed into the Assyrian-like 
helmet of the warlike panoply of De Brien, and of the knight in the north 
aisle. Later we should notice the sudden change into the close helmet of 
the time of Henry V. ; the open salads and burgonets of more advanced 
times, and the beauteous fluted headpieces of the end of the 15th and the 
early part of the 16th centuries, and track them in their turn, through 
morions and cabassets, down to the pikemen's helmets and the harque- 
busiers' pots of the Civil Wars. Or, again, we could take the defence for 
the hand, as shown in effigies, and follow its various forms through the 
ages from the mail muffler with the empty palm of inveterate Oriental 
origin, passing in review the gloves of leather, reinforced with articulated 
plates such as we have shown on the effigies here, and again descend to 
Civil War times with the rattling gauntlet of the doomed White King and 
the thin helmets of countless heraldic " atchievements." These are some 
of the interests which are excited and illustrated by the monumental 
effigies which many modern church restorers find "so much in the way," 
and are usually dismissed by casual visitors with the remark that "it is a 
pity their noses are broken." To touch, however, now, only generally 
upon the Tewkesbury monuments. We have first in order of time, under 
a canopy of later date, in the north aisle of the nave, an effigy of a man in 
armour exactly of the middle of the 14th century. He wears the high- 
pointed bascinet, which had been lately evolved from the round head- 
pieces of that type. The camail of mail is fastened by a lace in the usual 
way, passing through small staples, as we have it in the accounts ot 
Etienne de la Fontaine of 1352, " pour six onces de soie de diverses couleurs 
pour mettve les camaux aux dips bascinets. ,> The whole figure has suffered 
much from decay, whitewash, neglect, and cleansing, so that some of the 
delicate details are not easy to decipher. But when Charles Stothard 
drew the figure for his great work in 18 13, he first spent a whole day in 
clearing away a thick coat of whitewash. He then discovered that the 
mail forming the camail was of that kind so frequently shown in MSS., 
brasses, seals, and glass ; that is to say, that each alternate row is formed 
by a plain band. Only four other sculptured examples of banded mail on 
effigies are known in England. In this case the edge row is mail, and is 
pro tanto a step to solution. The arms of the figure are shown by Stothard 
to have had extra and very thin sleeves laid over them, fastened here and 

5 

Vol. XXV. 



5° TRANSACTIONS FOR THE YEAR ig02. 

there by studs. Thanks to a relentless cleansing process, these items are 
now barely apparent. In the popular imagination the feet are naked, but 
this condition is based upon the embellishments of an idler on one foot 
only. Of course, the feet below the instep plates were mail-clad. The 
thighs are covered with jazerant, which was the precursor and the reverse 
of brigandine. It is often seen in brasses of this and rather later time. 
The identity of the man has been much prejudiced by a statement made 
long ago that a Lord Wenlock, slain at the Battle of Tewkesbury in 147 1, 
is here commemorated. This fiction having become deeply rooted in 
print, is very difficult to eradicate. The arms on the j upon— which is a 
good example of the transition from the skirted jupon (itself the direct 
successor of the cyclas) to the jupon proper, — a chevron between three 
leopards' faces langued, were borne by several families. It was guessed 
some years ago that Monsire de Lugthburgh, whose arms appear, as here, 
in a Roll of Arms of the time of Edward III., it being supposed that the 
effigy had been moved from elsewhere, was here commemorated. Now 
within the last few days the ready acumen of Mr. St. Clair Baddeley leads 
to the conclusion that a member of the Burley family, Lords of Burley 
and Pembridge Castle, Hereford, who bore these arms, is here represented. 
Proceeding almost chronolgically, we come to Hugh Despencer, died 1349, 
son of Hugh Despencer the younger, who was slaughtered with more than 
the usual and shocking barbarity associated with the ferocious punishment 
for high treason, at Hereford, in 1326, a deed fittingly reprobated in the 
Register. This is one of the finest monuments of its kind in England, and 
has been sheltered in the most solemn of interiors under the stateliest of 
vaults. The finger is tenderly sculptured in white alabaster, and shows 
the man in an old-fashioned round bascinet, with its camail fastened in the 
common manner. There is no departure from the usual style of repre- 
senting both Despencer and his wife, Elizabeth Montacute, but they have 
a simplicity and a dignity not common. Nor is there anything remarkable 
about the armour or in the habits of the lady. The multiplicity of buttons 
on her sleeve imply quite Oriental profusion, and must have been a sad, 
exasperating matter to do up. The contemplation of these figures brings 
about the question of portraiture in monumental effigies. This is a very 
considerable and intricate subject which has only lately occupied attention. 
To put a large matter in a few words, it should be stated first that the 
minute information necessary for appreciation of the matter can only be 
obtained by painfully measuring, drawing to scale, and comparing a large 
number of effigies throughout the country, and the known circumstances 
of their production must copiously aid in arriving at a just conclusion. 
Thus, during the 13th century, a great number of military effigies were 
executed in Purbeck or in Sussex marble. These must have been largely 
made and kept in stock, and supplied as they were called for, being repre- 



Tewkesbury. 



sentations of knights, quelconques, conventional or routine figures. For 
instance, an effigy in the Temple Church, and another at Stowe Nine 
Churches, Northamptonshire, are almost replicas. Again, the figures 
of William Longespee the younger at Salisbury, and one at Castle 
Ashby, are so much alike that the one might be mistaken for the 
other. Both cannot be portraits. On the other hand, the statues of 
Henry II. and Richard I., at Fontevrand, resemble each other 
to the extent that might be expected between father and son, 
while those of Eleanor of Guienne, Berengeria of Navarre, and Isabel 
of Angouleme are so unlike each other that, arguing from the kings to the 
queens, they may also be sufficiently faithful Mkenesses. Torel's bronze 
effigy of Henry III., in the Abbey, is evidently a true likeness. This is 
supported by the countenance of the king at different periods, from youth 
to age, on his great seals. The furrowed forehead, and the upright triple 
creases at the junction of the eyebrows, indicative of the feverish and 
anxious life that was led, can hardly be taken as imaginary creations of the 
sculptor. On the other hand, again, the effigy of Queen Eleanor, also by 
Torel, is a purely conventional figure, of singular and dignified beauty, 
with the characteristic straight under eyelids of the late 13th and the 14th- 
century. In short, portraiture was attempted only when circumstances and 
conditions were specially favourable; and, as to high ecclesiastics, doubtless- 
careful personal directions were often supplied by cultivated members of 
conventual bodies. As the use of Purbeck and such like hard stones died 
out, and freestone and wooden effigies became more numerous, the treat- 
ment of such figures with "gesso" for impressing, painting, and gilding, 
set accurate portraiture more forward ; the works now executed had high 
artistic nature, yet faithful portraiture was rare. Such things as the 
gessoed church effigy of Guy de Brien must have come from good artistic 
workshops. There is reason for thinking that Gloucester, London, Norwich, 
and York were some of these centres. De Brien's effigy is interesting as 
a late example of the use of gesso, and is, of course, merely conventional. 
Notable productions from London studios are the effigies of Edmund 
Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, and his wife Aveline, the great Fortibus 
beauty and heiress, in the Abbey. These are portraits, as nearly as the 
methods employed could make them, but the lady has the narrow slit-eyes 
not generally looked upon as attractive, but it was the conventionality of 
the time. Throughout the country, and specially in Gloucestershire, are 
numberless bare freestone figures marked by no attempt at either art or 
portraiture. These are the works of the local cementarii. They have value 
as authentic historical documents, for general armour and costume, to the 
extent that the intractable or irresponsive material would permit. At the 
end of the first quarter of the 14th century came the great change, and 
the uses and value of Derbyshire alabaster, which surrendered so readily 



52 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



to the chisel, were then recognised. The beautiful portrait-effigy of John 
of Eltham (died 1334)— formerly sheltered by a canopy as fine as that of 
Despencer, and perhaps by the same sculptor — appears to be the earliest 
example of alabaster, though that of Edward II. must have been made 
about the same time. The figure of William of Hatfield, at York, born 
1335, and lived but a few weeks, represents a youth of about twelve years 
old, and can be no portrait. Then comes Despencer and his wife. There 
is reason for thinking that we have here fairly authentic portraits, and 
specially in the case of the lady, who doubtless superintended the erection 
of the monument to her first husband, her own coffin, when the time came, 
being introduced next to the body of her husband, "lapped in lead." 
From this time forward --save in a few royal instances, such as Queen 
Phillipa and Henry IV., and Joan of Navarre—portraiture in alabaster 
effigies vanished, and the country became filled with purely routine figures 
of the " camail " and " bascinet " model. There was, indeed, a short 
intermission when brasses took for a time the place of effigies in the early 
part of the 15th century, but the artistic gessoed figures came to an end, 
and alabaster brought about retrogression in monumental art. Here and 
there we find a belated gessoed and painted figure of the olden type, as to 
its decorations. Such is the remarkable kneeling effigy of Edward 
Despencer (died 1375). It is too high up for proper study, but a drawing 
to scale reveals its delicate and careful details. No doubt a portrait is 
intended. It should be noticed that in the very few cases where contracts 
for monuments exist we are not specifically informed that portraits were to 
be produced. We find the expression " deux images d'alabastre I'un contrefait 
a un esquier en armes en tout point V autre contrefait a une dame gisant en sa surcote 
overte" — just as Elizabeth Montacute does— not a word to the effect that 
personages should be presented "come Us etaient en lour vivant." Even in 
the case of the Black Prince his will only speaks of "an image in memory 
of us all armed in steel for battle." Here it may be recalled that Isabella, 
Countess of Warwick, who sleeps within the beautiful chapel of her erecting 
in 1439, left the remarkable instructions in her will that a statue of herself 
should be made all naked, with the hair cast backward, according to the 
design and model which Thomas Porchalion had for that purpose. In the 
covenant for the regal monument of her first husband, at Warwick, the 
figure of "Brass Beauchamp " — though an accurate portrait — is only 
spoken of as "an image of a man armed." It is possible that the sub- 
canopy of Isabel's chapel sustained a kneeling figure of wood of Richard 
Beauchamp, after the manner of Edward Despencer. That the 15th 
century sculptors in England studied the nude is exemplified by many 
" livejy pictures of death " always placed below the paramount and living 
representation. The monument attributed to Abbot Wakeman is made 
up. The canopy must be earlier than his time, 1531 — 1539, and the 



Tewkesbury. 



53 



"cadaver" brought from elsewhere. Returning for a moment to the tomb 
of De Brien, as the latest military figure, here it should be observed that 
he died at the age of 90, and that a man of middle age is conventionally 
shown. In its mutilated state there is not much now to be made out from 
the details of the church effigy. But Stothard has carefully depicted and 
recorded what could be perceived in 1813. He speaks of the armour and 
mail as being gilded and silvered on gesso ; some fragments remain. The 
splint armour on the legs is rather German than English. The trefoil 
arching of the cells of the canopy is unusual, and gives great richness, but 
the three disjointed stalks ot nnials running up*in the upper stages have no 
merit whatever. 

The Rev. Canon Bazeley conducted parties round the site of the 
conventual buildings, most of these exceedingly extensive portions of the 
monastic establishment having disappeared before the ravages of time and 
iconoclasts. Canon Bazeley was very positive on the fact that the portion 
of the Vicar's house known as the " misericord," and believed to have been 
the infirmary of the monastery, was nothing of the kind. The Latin words, 
part of which remain, and which have given rise to this notion, he later, at 
one of the meetings of the Society, expressed the belief were a part of a 
motto of the Benedictines — Latabor in misericordia. At Malvern Priory 
they got the motto many times over. He believed this was part of the 
newark — new-work, not new-ark as it had been interpreted elsewhere — 
which Abbot Beoley built, and which was the guest chamber. He led the 
company to the south-east of the Abbey to the Vicar's orchard, and 
indicated where the infirmary probably existed, mentioning that although 
a great deal of its foundation was dug up 60 or 70 years ago, he had no 
doubt there was a great deal left. Perhaps Mr. Yerburgh would excavate 
the spot some day, and the speaker knew that Mrs. Yerburgh was very 
keen on it ; but Mr. Yerburgh said he must have his hay first. The 
remains of the cloisters were also inspected. 

The visitors were afterwards received in the charming grounds of the 
Abbey House by Rev. and Mrs. O. P. Wardell- Yerburgh, and partook of 
afternoon tea, the kindly welcome extended being highly appreciated. 

During the early part of the evening the members divided into small 
parties and visited some of the interesting old houses of the town, the 
supposed site of Holme Castle, &c, under the guidance of Mr. A. Baker, 
Mr. F. W. Godfrey, jun., and Mr. F. W. Moore. 

Later in the evening a conversazione was held at the Assembly Room, 
when a number of the gentlemen and ladies who have taken part in the 
local arrangements joined the members in what proved an exceedingly 
pleasant evening's proceedings. 

The President (Rev. E. R. Dowdeswell), who was in the chair, gave a 
sketch of the rise of the Abbey of Tewkesbury, and of conventual 



.54 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



life and work, which, by his kind permission, is published in this 
volume. 

Colonel Noel proposed a hearty vote of thanks to the President for his 
paper, which was carried with acclamation. 

Light refreshments, which had been thoughtfully provided by the 
Mayor and Mayoress, was then served, after which a series of lantern 
slides were displayed from a lantern kindly manipulated by Mr. G. S. 
Railton. These, most of which have been obtained by Mr. F. W. Godfrey, 
jun., and Mr. W. G. Bannister, chiefly dealt with the bosses, groining, 
windows, misereres, &c, of the Abbey, the misereres at Ripple Church, &c. 

Canon Bazeley, on behalf of the Society, warmly thanked Mr. Godfrey 
and Mr. Bannister for having so enthusiastically carried out a suggestion 
he made a few weeks ago, and remarked that if this were done in every 
centre the Society would get a very valuable collection of slides. 

Mr. H. A. Prothero next gave an interesting paper, also beautifully 
illustrated by the lantern, with slides, including many from his own draw- 
ing, dealing chiefly with his ideas, based on records of the past, and his 
own architectural knowledge, of the appearance of the Abbey before, its 
Norman work had been mixed with that of later periods, its roofs lowered, 
spire blown down, and west window put in. He was most cordially 
thanked for his kind services, and the pleasant gathering shortly afterwards 
dispersed. 

The proceedings of Wednesday began with a break trip to Great 
Malvern and Little Malvern, which was joined by practically the whole of 
the members taking part in the meetings. A pleasant drive through the 
picturesque Twyning Common, where is situate a giant oak, connected in 
local legends with the name of the redoubtable Dick Turpin, was followed 
by a short halt at Upton-on-Severn, where the members received an object 
lesson on the trials of market gardeners, and their readiness to call modern 
science to aid them in their difficulties, a motor-car with a ton of fresh- 
picked strawberries from the Evesham district pulling up alongside the 
breaks, and supplying their luscious wares at 3d. a pound, in lots to suit 
all customers. 

Malvern Chase, the still richly-wooded district which lies between the 
Severn and the Malvern Hills, was bestowed by Edward I. on his daughter 
Joan in dowry, on her marriage with Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester. 

Here in earlier times in the fastnesses of the ancient forest, which 
extended for many miles on either side of the Malvern range, the Briton 
struggled vainly against Roman and Saxon invader, ere he withdrew across 
the Wye to make his final stand in the mountains of Wales. 

Here, if we may accept the tradition handed down by the antiquary, 
Leland, and pictured for us by the monks of Malvern in the clerestory 
windows of their choir, St. Werstan, flying from Deerhurst to escape the 



Malvern. 



55 



ruthless Dane, built a hermitage, and died a martyr's death. And here, 
later on, the persecuted followers of Wicliffe found temporary shelter from 
their persecutors, and won many a convert in manor house and peasant's 
cot. 




On the western slopes of Malvern, bishops of Hereford, from their 
hunting seat at Colwall, rode forth with huntsman and hounds to kill 
venison for their hospitable board. 



56 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



On the east lay Hanley Castle, the favourite abode of the great Earls 
of Hereford and Gloucester, who delighted in the chase and jealously 
preserved their forest rights. 

The dike which runs from end to end of the Malvern range, from the 
Worcestershire Beacon to the Ragged Stone, was the outcome of a 
quarrel, six hundred years ago, between Gilbert de Clare and the saintly 
Cantelupe, because the Red Earl's men dared to follow their prey across, 
the summit of the hills into the heart of the Bishop's covers. 

It was on "a May morwenynge on Malverne hilles, ' c. 1350, that 
Robert Langland, or, as Stow and Anthony Wood have called him, John 
of Malverne, a monk if not a prior of the monastery, had his vision of " All 
manner of men," and, inspired by the scenes around him, wrote as Piers 
Ploughman of the sorrows of the lowly and the selfish lives of those that 
oppressed them, and paved the way for another work so soon to follow — 
Wicliffe's Last Age of the Church. 

The Church of St. Mary and St. Michael the Archangel, Great 
Malvern, was, for some four hundred and fifty years previous to the 
Dissolution, the conventual Church of a Benedictine Priory. The old 
Parish Church, which stood at the north-west corner of the churchyard, 
has long since disappeared. 

The accounts which we read of the founding of the Priory are some- 
what conflicting. On the one hand we are told that some monks of 
Worcester, seeking for a more secluded life of prayer and better discipline 
than they found at Worcester, made Aldwin their leader, and with their 
Bishop, St. Wulstan's approval, began to build a new home on the slopes 
of the Worcestershire Beacon. But Dugdale, in his Monasticon, would 
have us believe that Malvern was an off-shoot from Westminster, and that 
grants were made by that Abbey, with the consent of Urso d'Abitot, the 
Sheriff of Worcestershire, of Powick, Newland and Wortesfield, for its 
endowment. These, and subsequent donations, were confirmed to the 
monks by Henry I., who gave them in addition Cjuat and Fuleford in 
Staffordshire and Hathfield in Herefordshire. The Abbey had a cell at 
Colwall in Herefordshire, and one at Avicot in Warwickshire. 

Aldwin, the first prior, died about 1130, and was succeeded by Walcher, 
of Lorraine, a celebrated philosopher, who died in 1135, and was buried in 
the south ambulatory of the choir. His tomb, with a Latin inscription, 
was discovered in 171 1, and has been carefully preserved. 

We can gather little of the history of the Monastery from the 
Chronicles and Diocesan Registers. Perhaps, until the end came at 
the Dissolution, there was little to record. In 1239 Walter de Cantelupe, 
Bishop of Worcester, newly consecrated the conventual church — why, we 
know not ; but in the same year he also re-consecrated or re-dedicated 
Gloucester, Pershore, Tewkesbury, and Winchcombe. In 1460 the church 



Malvern. 



57 



was again consecrated ; for, like Gloucester in the previous century, it had 
been transformed from Norman into Perpendicular. 

The Priory was dissolved in 1539, notwithstanding the entreaty of 
Latimer, Bishop of Worcester, that it might be spared- The buildings 
passed into the hands of Mr. John Knotsforde, "Servant to King Henry 
VII.," and he began to pull them down for the sake of the materials. 

The south transept, the lady chapel, the chapter house, the 
refectory, and other parts had already perished, when the inhabitants 
of the Chase, like the men of Tewkesbury, nobly came to the rescue and 
bought what remained of the conventual part of the church for the sum 
of ^200. 

Knotsforde fitted up the prior's house as his own residence, and, dying 
there in the 23rd year of Queen Elizabeth's reign, was buried with his wife 
on the south side of the Presbytery. Their effigies and that of their 
daughter, Mrs. Anne Savage, in alabaster, are in excellent preservation 
and beautifully carved. 

During the last three and a-half centuries the church has passed 
through many vicissitudes — of neglect on the one hand, and restoration 
on the other — but much remains of unusual interest, and the sacred 
building is exceptionally rich in stained glass and decorative wall and 
floor tiles. 

The church consists of a Norman nave, with aisles of unequal width ; 
a central tower, not unlike ours at Gloucester; a north transept and a 
presbytery, with ambulatory or surrounding aisle. 

The arch which led into the eastern Lady chapel remains, and there 
are traces of the amputated southern limb. 

Externally there are no signs of any work earlier than the latter half of 
the 15th century ; but within we have the nave arches and the south wall 
of a Norman Minster. As far as we can judge from the massive semi- 
circular arches of the nave, devoid as they are of moulding, the original 
church would seem to have been erected soon after Gloucester and 
Tewkesbury, early in the 12th century. The monks appear to have 
commenced their church, as was usually the case, at the east end, and to 
have built westwards. When it was complete it had a nave with narrow 
aisles, a central tower, north and south transepts, and a presbytery, with 
semi-circular apse, ambulatory and chapels, like Westminster. 

Early in the 13th century an eastern Lady chapel was added, and the 
earlier Norman central chapel was destroyed ; but the transformation of 
the eastern limb took place in the middle of the 16th century. As in many 
other cases, the Norman tower fell down, and falling, destroyed the 
adjoining parts of the church. A reconstruction of the nave, presbytery,, 
and transepts was found to be necessary. 

The arcades of the nave were taken down as far as the apex of the 




58 Transactions for the Year 1902. 

semi-circular arches, and the triforium was destroyed. The blank between 
the arches and the lofty perpendicular windows of the clerestory is the 
only disappointing feature of the church. The south aisle of the nave 
could not be widened, for the cloisters abutted on the south wall ; but on 
the north, where there was no such obstacle, the aisle was doubled in 
width, and a new porch with a parvise was added. The north transept 
was remodelled, and so also, no doubt, that on the south. As at Gloucester, 
the architect sought to construct a great east window and a spacious new 
Lady chapel beyond, with an intervening space for the sake of light. 
The rebuilding, encouraged and aided by Bishop John Carpenter, went on 
for many years, and in 1460 the church was ready for consecration. 

The story of these eventful days may be read in the architecture, 
glass, tiles, and carving. When complete, the stained windows must have 
vied with Fairford in beauty ; some of them are of the same date. There 
is no glass earlier than the reign of Henry VI., and some is as late as the 
commencement of the 16th century. 

An account of the glass, as it appeared in 1600 — 1640, has been handed 
down to us from the pen of Dr. Thomas Habyngton, and on comparing it 
with what remains it is evident that much has perished, and not a little 
has been removed from its original position. 

The late Mr. James Nott, of Malvern, devoted many years to the study 
of the Priory Church and its contents, and we are indebted to his executors 
and to his coadjutor, Mr. T. Stevens, for their kind permission to reproduce 
some of the illustrations of his works. 1 

Mr. St. Clair Baddeley has kindly promised to describe the glass, and 
therefore only a short list of subjects is given here. 

West window, thought to have been given by Richard III., because 
it contained his arms ; originally contained a representation of the Last 
Judgment, as at Fairford. Upper tiers: St. Christopher, St. Mary and 
Child, St. Lawrence. Below these : An Angel, a Bishop, St. Mary. Lowest 
tier : An Abbot, St. Augustine, St. Leger, Angel, St. Katharine, St. Nicholas, 
St. Edmund, Bethesda, Healing the Blind. 

Great east window : Scenes from the Last Week of Our Lord's 
Passion, Groups of Donors and Benefactors. 

Clerestory windows, south side, beginning from the east : (1) Angels, 
St. Jerome, St. Gregory, and various scenes from the lives of Abraham, 
Isaac, Joseph, and Moses. (2) St. James the Great, St. Thomas, St. 
James, Head of St. Mary, Centurion, Crucifixion. (3) Arms : France 
quartering Barry of 6 or and gu. Supporters : Two Boars, Female Head, 
Four Angels. 

1 History of the Church and Monastery of Moche Malverne; and the Descriptive 
Account oi the Glass, Tombs, and Pavement. Malvern: M. T. Stevens, Printer, Church 
Street. 



Malvern. 




MARTYRDOM OF ST. WERSTAN. 



60 Transactions for the Year 1902. 

Clerestory, north side, beginning from the west : (1) History of St. 
Werstan ; Donations of William, Earl of Gloucester, Bernard, Earl of 
Hereford, and Osberh Fitz-Ponz ; Grants by William I. and St. Wulstan 
to Aldwin. (2) Two Sainted Archbishops, Four Sainted Bishops, including 
SS. Oswald and Wulstan, and two female Saints. (3) Legend of Joachim 
and St. Anne. From one of the many inscriptions : Orate pro anima 
Johannis Malverne qui fenestram fieri fecit, we gather that the rebuilding of 
the Presbytery was completed before the prior's death, about 1449. 

St. Anne's Chapel, south ambulatory: (1) The Creation. (2) Scenes 
from the lives of Abraham and Noah. (3) Scenes from our Lord's Passion. 

The windows of the north aisle of the Presbytery are too fragmentary 
to describe in these brief notes. There are apparently the Annunciation, 
Nativity, Ascension, and Celebration of the Holy Communion. 

The north transept, called the Jesus Chapel, contains two excellent 
windows. That on the north side contained a bidding prayer for Henry 
VII., Queen Elizabeth, Prince Arthur, the Princess Katharine, and their 
three knights. As the married life of Prince Arthur lasted only from 
November, 1501, to April, 1502, this window must be exactly four hundred 
years old. It was blown out in the 18th century, badly damaged, and 
disgracefully replaced. The likenesses of Prince Arthur and Sir Reginald 
Bray alone remain. Above them are the Nativity and Salutation. In the 
third tier from the bottom are the head of Henry VII., Christ and the 
Doctors, the Miracle at Cana, and the Presentation in the Temple. 

In the fifth tier are Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and David, the 
Adoration of the Magi, the Ascension, part of the legend of St. Anne and 
Joachim, and Angels. 

The west window contains in the lower half scenes from our Lord's 
Life and Ministry , including the Last Supper ; the marriage of St. Mary, 
and portraits of donors. In the upper lights are St. John, St. Paul, St. 
John Baptist, the Annunciation, Nativity, and Presentation. 

These beautiful examples of 15th and very early 16th century stained 
glass need most careful re-arrangement, and we are glad that the matter is 
being considered. 

Great Malvern is especially rich in encaustic tiles, which have been 
proved to be of home manufacture by the discovery, in 1833, about 200 
yards east of the Presbytery, of the Priory kiln and fragments of tiles 
similar to those in the church. Many tiles remaining in Worcestershire 
and the neighbouring counties appear to be of Malvern manufacture. 

Here we have tiles bearing : — The sacred fish ; the arms of the Passion ; 
M. (St. Mary) crowned ; the pelican in her piety; the swan ducally gorged 
and chained ; the fiery wheel ; many inscribed titles with Job xix. 21, &c. ; 
many heraldic tiles of the De Clares, Newburghs, Despencers, Beauchamps, 
Braceys, &c. Two interesting series of wall tiles bear the dates respec- 



Malvern. 



61 



tively of 1453 and 36 Henry VI. (1457-8). One tile is lettered WHIL 
LAR, — perhaps the maker's name. Most of the tiles are now imbedded 
in the semi-circular wall at the back of the high altar. 

An excellent account, of the Malvern tiles, by the Rev. Arthur S. 
Porter, will be found in the 20th volume of the Antiquary, 1889, and there 
are illustrations of them in John Gough Nicholl's Examples of Decorative 
Tiles, London, 1845, 4to. See Archaeological Journal, v. 232. 




MISERERE, GREAT MALVERN. 

The misereres of the choir stalls are carved with the figures of agri- 
cultural labourers, domestic and fabulous beasts, a bootmaker, angels, 
devils, &c. We give one from Mr. Nott's Descriptive Account. 

On the north side of the sanctuary lies the effigy of a warrior in chain 
mail with small circular shield and a long-handled hammer. 

On the south side of the church stood, until 1841, a timber building 
described as a hall. It appears in the plate of Malvern Priory, in Nash's 
History of Worcestershire. The south side of the church, where the con- 
ventual buildings were situated, is in private hands. 

The Priory Gateway, built in the 15th century, with a porter's room, 
will be found on the south-west of the church. 

Great Malvern was reached shortly after mid-day, and the members at 
once proceeded to the Priory, where Canon Pelley read prayers, and 
afterwards kindly gave some particulars of the church, of which he 
remarked that various books had been written upon it, but the best book 
■of all was the church itself, as it seemed to speak its own history, its 
stained-glass windows taking them back to the story of the foundation of 
the Priory of St. Werstan of Deerhurst, who, driven thence by the Danes, 



62 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 




GUESTEN HALL, 1850. 



sought a more peaceful abode under the shelter of the lovely Malverns. 
The windows also told of the martyrdom of the prior and the persecution 
of the monks by the Danes. The rector also gave some interesting par- 
ticulars relating to the architectural features of the church, which is 
notable for a grand nave of Norman style, which alone remains to 
represent the original structure, the year 1501 seeing a rebuilding, 
which gave the church an exceedingly fine choir in the Perpendicular 
style, and lofty clerestory and other works in the same style — all excellent 
specimens. 

The President warmly thanked Canon Pelley for his excellent epitome 
of the history of the church, after which 

Mr. St. Clair Baddeley gave a truly charming description of the 
stained glass, as he had done the previous day at Tewkesbury Abbey. He 
said that there could be no more lovely contrast in the matter of its 



Malvern. 



windows than the Abbey they had visited the day before and the Priory — 
the Abbey, with its solemnly-lovely 14th century work, glorious in its 
colouring, and the Priory, later by a hundred years, which had seen a 
marvellous growth of the appreciation of light and a desire to realise the 
beautiful. In all directions, except in colour, there was advance. 

After luncheon the drive was continued to Little Malvern. By this 
time the pleasant morning had given place to a leaden sky, and rain fell 
heavily throughout the remainder of the day in a manner to greatly 
interfere with the pleasure of the proceedings. 

The Priory of Little Malvern, like its more important neighbour, was 
founded by some monks from Worcester, about the year 1,171. 

The principal benefactors were William de B*iois, Bishop of Worcester, 
1218 — 1236, Henry II., Gilbert de Clare, and John Alcock, Bishop of 
Worcester, 1476 — 1486, which last rebuilt the church, and dedicated it to 
St. Mary, St. Giles, and St. John the Evangelist. 

The Priory held lands in Naunton, in this county, and Horewell, in 
Worcestershire. They were patrons of Cubberley, near Cheltenham, and 
Nash tells us that Gilbert de Berkeley (it should be Giles de Berkeley) left 
his body to be buried at Little Malvern and his heart in the chancel of his 
own church of Cubberley. 3 

Soon after the Dissolution the Priory was granted to John Russell, one 
of the Russells of Strensham. 

"The Priory Church of Little Malvern was originally cruciform, with 
a tower at the crossing and a sacristy behind the altar ; but now only the 
chancel is used for Divine Service, what remains there are of the rest of 
the church being only ivy-covered ruins. The tower is beautifully panelled, 
and within there is much of interest in the woodwork of the roodloft, 
screen, and choir seats ; there are also some tiles similar to those in the 
church at Great Malvern, and others apparently of an earlier date. The 
church was rebuilt by John Alcock, Bishop of Worcester, 1476 — 1486 ; and 
to this period, and more precisely perhaps to the years 1480 — 1482, may be 
assigned what is now, as it must always have been, the glory of the 
church — the beautiful glass in the east window. 

This window consists of six lights, with four smaller lights of quatre- 
foil form in the tracery above ; but with the exception of a few fragments, 
the two central and the two side panels of the window have perished. 
It is known, however, that the two central panels represented King Edward 
IV. and his queen, Elizabeth ; in the panel behind the king was the Prince 
of Wales, afterwards Edward V., and behind him again Richard Duke of 
York. In the panel behind the queen are four princesses, her daughters ; 
and behind them again was John Alcock, Bishop of Worcester and their 
preceptor. Of the figures of the king and of the Duke of York there are : 
1 See Transactions, xvii., p. 109. 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 




Malvern. 



65 



now no remains ; of the queen's figure there are but a few doubtful 
fragments ; of the representation of the bishop there remain fragments of 
an alb, a violet chasuble, and a crozier — in the right hand is a book, and a 
chain to which is appended a padlock. 

The figures of the Prince of Wales and of his four sisters are perfect, 
and form most beautiful and interesting examples of the costume of the 




^Vol. XXV. 



66 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



period. The prince was in 1482 about twelve years of age ; his sisters, 
were — Elizabeth, afterwards queen of Henry VII., who was then about 
sixteen or seventeen years old ; Cicely, in her thirteenth year : Anne, in 
her seventh year ; and Katherine, who was at least three years old." 1 

The two illustrations of the Little Malvern windows are reproduced 
from the Archceological Journal, vol. xxii., by the courteous permission of 
the Archaeological Institute. 

Arrived at the Little Malvern Priory, the interesting choir, which, with 
the tower, alone remains, and is used as the parish church, was inspected 
under the guidance of Canon Bazeley, Mr. St. Clair Baddeley giving a 
delightful account of the quaint stained glass. 

A cross-country drive of about seven miles in the rain brought the 
party to Pull Court, the fine old ancestral mansion of the Dowdeswell 
family, the head of which, the Rev. E. R. Dowdeswell, is this year's 
president of the Society. The mansion is beautifully situated amongst 
some of the loveliest undulating scenery in Worcestershire, its well- 
timbered park extending to the banks of the Severn, and commanding 
an exquisite view. Here the members were heartily welcomed by the 
president and entertained at afternoon tea, returning to Tewkesbury in 
the evening under much better atmospheric conditions than prevailed 
during the afternoon. 

After returning from the Malvern excursion, the members reassembled 
at the Town Hall, where they had a great treat in Mr. St. Clair Bad- 
deley 's disquisition on "Mediaeval Art in Stained Glass." With the 
experience and knowledge of one of the greatest living authorities on 
the matter, he dealt with his subject in a fascinating lecture. After 
Mr. Baddeley's address, a large number of beautiful slides illustrating the 
stained glass of the choir of Tewkesbury Abbey and Deerhurst Priory 
Church were displayed. The series of slides shown also included several 
illustrative of the use of the "Lord's Table" not at the East end or as 
an altar, but in the centre of the chancel, and with seats all round, 
these including Deerhurst, Winchcomb, Hailes, &c. B Canon Bazeley 
remarking that it seemed a pity that in places where such an historical 
arrangement existed it should be interfered with. This enjoyable gathering 
concluded with a learned paper by Mr. F. F. Tuckett, of Frenchay, on 
" Roods and Rood Lofts." 

On Thursday morning a meeting of the Council was held, Mr. F. F. 
Tuckett being in the Chair, when the following votes were passed : — 

That the hearty thanks of this Society be given — 

(1) To the Mayor and Corporation of Tewkesbury for their courteous 
reception of the Society and for their generous loan of the Town Hall, 
for the Museum, Conversazione, and other meetings 
l Transactions, vol. xix., pp. 14, 15. 



Malvern. 



67 



(2) To the Chairman of the Local Committee, the Rev. O. P. Wardell- 
Yerburgh ; to the able and energetic Secretary, Mr. Cecil C. Moore; to 
the Treasurer, Mr. A. Baker ; and to the other members for the excellent 
manner in which they have made and carried out the arrangements for 
the meeting. 

(3) To the Mayor and Mayoress of Tewkesbury, to the Rev. and Mrs. 
O. P. Wardell-Yerburgh, to the President and Mrs. W. Dowdeswell, and 
to Mr. and Miss Strickland for their kind hospitality offered to the 
members and others at the Town Hall, the Abbey House, Pull Court, 
and Apperley Court respectively ; and to all the residents in Tewkesbury 
and the neighbourhood who have so kindfy received the members as 
guests. 

(4) To the Incumbents of Tewkesbury, Great and Little Malvern, and 
Deerhurst for the facilities given by them of examining their interesting 
and beautiful churches, and for the information afforded by them. 

(5) To the Rev. D. G. Lysons for the use of the Deerhurst Schoolroom 
for lunch. 

(6) To Mr. W. Phillips and Mr. Harris for their kind permission to the 
members to visit Deerhurst Priory and Whitefield Court. 

(7) To Messrs. St. Clair Baddeley, H. A. Prothero, Albert Hartshorne, 
E. S. Hartland, A. Baker, W. G. Bannister, F. W. Godfrey, jun., and 
Mr. F. W. Moore for their valuable services as guides. 

(8) To Messrs. A. Baker, F. W. Godfrey, jun., and W. Ridler for 
arranging the excellent Loan Collection in the Town Hall. 

(9) To the President, to the Rev. C. S. Taylor, and to Messrs. Prothero, 
St. Clair Baddeley, F. F. Tuckett, W. G. Bannister, R. H. Murray, and 
Albert Hartshorne for the papers prepared and read by them at Tewkesbury. 

(10) To Mr. G. S. Railton for his clever manipulation of the Limelight 
Lantern at the two evening meetings, and to Messrs. Prothero, Dugdale, 
Bannister, F. G. Godfrey, jun., R. H. Murray, and to Dr. Oscar Clark for 
the beautiful Magic Lantern slides exhibited or provided by them. 

(11) Mr. F. F. Tuckett proposed and Mr. H. W. Bruton seconded a 
vote of thanks to the President, the Rev. E. R. Dowdeswell, for his genial 
and able leadership, and it was carried unanimously with acclamation. 

(12) Proposed by the General Secretary and seconded by the Editor, 
and carried unanimously, a vote of thanks to the Press [the name of 
Mr. Perry, of the Western Daily Press, was 3pecially referred to]. 

(13) It was proposed by Mr. H. W. Bruton that Gloucester be the 
place of the Annual Meeting in 1903. This was duly seconded and 
agreed to. It was suggested that there should be a popular meeting for 
working men, and a visit to Hereford in connection with the Summer 
Meeting. 

The choice of President was left to the Council. . . 



68 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



(14) A vote of thanks was given to Mr. F. F Tuckett for presiding. 

It was thought that Sherston might make a suitable centre for the next 
Spring Meeting ; and a suggestion that the next Annual Meeting might be 
held at Gloucester, with perhaps one day spent at Hereford, met with 
much favour. 

Later in the day the Society visited the battlefield of Tewkesbury, 
where the fortunes of the House of Lancaster were dashed in a great and 
final overthrow. The chief events connected with the battlefield were 
graphically described by Canon Bazeley. The battle fought on May 
4th, 1 47 1, although reversed by Bosworth Field in 1485, was for the 
time decisive, in giving Edward IV. undisputed possession of the Crown 
and destroying the hopes of the Lancastrian party. 

Soon after Queen Margaret landed at Weymouth, on April 13th, she 
learned that Warwick, the King-maker, had been defeated and slain at 
Barnet ; and she hastened with her untrained levies of west country men 
towards Gloucester, hoping to cross the Severn by the Westgate Bridge 
and join her ally, Jasper Tudor. But the Gloucester men were adherents 
•of her foe, and they barred their gates against her, as 172 years later they 
barred them against Charles I. From Gloucester she marched to Tewkes- 
bury, hoping perhaps to be able to cross there. But Edward, who had lost 
no time in pursuing her, was close upon her rear, and the two armies took 
up their positions near the town the same night, the Lancastrians at 
Gupshill with the Swilgate on their left, another little brook on their right, 
and the Abbey in their rear. The Duke of Somerset and his brother, 
Lord John Beaufort, commanded the first line, Prince Edward, the Prior 
■of St. John, and Lord Wenlock the second, and the Earl of Devonshire 
the third. Edward IV. took up his position on a little common called 
" The Red Piece," now enclosed, half a mile to the south-west, whence the 
ground sloped down and formed a hollow between the two forces. 
Richard, Duke of Gloucester, commanded the van, Edward himself and 
•the Duke of Clarence the centre, and the Marquis of Dorset and Lord 
Hastings the rear. Gloucester attacked the Lancastrians, and, making a 
feigned retreat, was pursued by Somerset. Gloucester thereupon turned 
on his opponents, whilst 200 spearmen lying in ambush in the Park attacked 
their rear. Somerset fled, and threw the rest of the Lancastrians into 
•confusion. Then the rout became general, and few of the leaders or their 
men escaped. There seems to have been no quarter given or expected. 
Some who took refuge in the Abbey were brought out a few days later and 
executed. 

From the battlefield the party drove on to Deerhurst, which bears its 
antiquity in its name (Deor a wild beast, and Hurst a wood), carrying us 
■back to the far distant ages of the past when a vast forest extended from 
Worcester to the gates of Gloucester, and when the wolf, the stag, the 



Deerhurst. 



69 



badger, and it may be also the bear were the principal inhabitants of the 
Severn Vale. Leland, the well-known antiquary, of the reign of Henry 
VIII., tells us that Bede, who died in 735, " makith mention that yn his 
tyme there was a notable Abbay at Derehurste ,,:L Leland was, however, 
probably referring to the passage in H. E. v. 1., " Monasterium quod 
vocatur Inderauuda, id est silva Derorum," but this Monastery was 
Beverley Minster. 

About the year 679 a Bishopric was founded at Worcester, but we hear 
nothing of any Monastery at Deerhurst until 804, when Ethelric in dis- 
posing of his property gave land at Todenham and Preston-on-Stour, and 
also at Scraefleh and Cohhanleh, which cannot certainly be identified, to 
Deerhurst, for himself and his father Ethelmund, who had been slain at 
Kempsford in 800, on condition that he was buried at the Minster. St. 
Alphege, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1005-1012, was Abbot of Deerhurst 
from 970 to 978, when he became Abbot of Bath. The Worcester 
Chronicle tells us that Cnut and Edmund Ironsides met at Olney, near 
Deerhurst, and divided the kingdom. Gloucester men like to believe that 
the meeting took place near their city. In the time of the Confessor 
Deerhurst lost its independence, for the king gave it to Baldwin, a monk 




POINTED D- 
I 3 B -° POINTED D° 

GROUND PLAN OF DEERHURST CHURCH. 
1 Leland's Itinerary, vol. vi. 79. 



Transactions for- the Year 1902. 



of St. Denis, who became Abbot of Bury St. Edmund's about 1065. He 
seems to have kept the Deerhurst property, for William the Conqueror 
confirmed it to him when he obtained the kingdom. Afterwards, on 
April 13th, 1069, the king gave Deerhurst Minster to the Abbey of St. 
Denys ; 1 it had, however, been previously plundered for the benefit of 
Odda, Elfric, and Westminster Abbey. 

In 1250 the Priory was sold by the Abbey of St. Denys to Richard, 
Earl of Cornwall ; but it appears to have reverted to St. Denys, for in 1442 
it was confiscated as the property of an alien monastery and given in 
unequal shares to Tewkesbury and Eton. By some arrangement it came 
wholly to Tewkesbury in the reign of Henry VII. , and was dissolved as a 
cell of that monastery in 1539. 

' The church as it exists at present forms a parallelogram, but it appears 
to have been at one time cruciform. The eastern apse which formed the 
sanctuary of the original church has been for the most part destroyed. 
The tower is probably earlier than the Norman Conquest, for about half 
its height. The upper part was built in the 14th or 15th century. 

The lower and earlier part is built principally of lias with bands or 
patches of herring-bone work, but with no long or short quoins in its 
angles, or any panelling as at Earl's Barton, Barnack, and other Saxon 
churches. The arch of the pointed doorway was inserted beneath the 
earlier one, in the 14th century. Above it is the head of a monster, called 
by some the "Deerhurst Dragon." Within the tower is a second arch, 
plain and round-headed like the one beyond it. Over this second doorway 
is the mutilated figure of a saint, — it may be St. Dionysius or Denys, who 
is said to have been beheaded at Paris. We find him in French glass and 
sculpture carrying his head in his hands, and he would appear to do so 
here. The N. and S. arches of the tower have been pierced with lofty 
Transitional Norman arches to give access to the lengthened aisles. The 
original ceiling of the porch has been removed, and there are no traces of 
stairs. The second storey contains two rooms, the one on the west having 
a western window, and that on the east a round-headed doorway which 
once led into a western gallery. The corbels supporting the gallery are 
visible. Near this doorway is a small triangular aperture giving an 
imperfect view of the church. Two similar apertures are seen in the side 
walls of the nave. The third storey is divided into two chambers. In the 
east wall is the interesting two-light window, figured in so many architec- 
tural works, having triangular heads, tile-like imposts, fluted jambs and 
curved plinths. Just above the window is seen a block of stone, which 
may have been intended to bear an inscription. In the fourth storey there 
is a blocked-up doorway in the east wall, not visible from the church, which 
must have led to a chamber between the ceiling and earlier high-pitched 
l Monasticon, iv. G65. 



Deerhurst. 




roof of the nave. In the single chamber above, the fifth storey, 
the bells are hung. The tower had a spire, which was blown down 
in 1666. 

The nave has north and south arcades of three early pointed arches. 
The Transitional Norman pilasters in the south aisle attached to two of 
the piers look as if they had been left unfinished, and remained so. The 
clerestory windows and the roof seem to be of 15th century date. The 
nave was separated from the choir by a wall, pierced with a lofty arch; 



7 2 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



this has been removed. The nave belonged to the parishioners ; and the 
monks, who had their own entrance from their cloisters, worshipped in the 
choir and sanctuary. The dividing wall seems to have been superseded 
by a rood screen, the doorway to which remains. The original choir rose 
to the height of 40 feet, with side walls unbroken by any window or even 
any ornament. The east wall contains a lofty arch with square-edged 
label terminating in the heads of wolves. Above the arch is a 15th century 
window, which was probably inserted after the destruction of the apse. 

There are signs of small narrow lights as well. High up the wall are 
two corbels similar to those at the west end. 

The sanctuary, of which only a short piece of walling remains, was 
semi-circular, and was not so high as the choir. 

The choir aisles or transepts appear to be coeval with the choir itself, 
though the rude doorways connecting them with the choir look like after- 
thoughts. Each transept had a square eastern apse, but both of these 
have been destroyed. Fifty years ago, when the site of the apse on the 
north side was disturbed, many human bones were found ; it was, therefore, 
used for burial It is a question whether the archways in the north and 
south walls of the choir opened into the upper storeys of these transepts 
or were constructed for the purpose of light. The western walls of both 
transepts have been removed. 

The transepts were connected with the choir by rude doorways. The 
north transept has a fiat-headed doorway in its east wall, and the south- 
eastern transept a massive archway. A doorway also led into the south 
transept from the cloisters. 

In 1675 Judge Powell, whose effigy we have in the Lady chapel of 
Gloucester Cathedral, found in the orchard of Abbot's Court an inscribed 
stone which reads as follows : — 

"ODDA DVX JVSSIT HANC REGIAM AVLAM CONSTRUI 
ATQUE DEDICARI IN HONOREM S. TRINITATIS PRO ANIMA 
GERMANI SUI ELFRICI QUE DE HOC LOCO ASSVMPTA. 
EALDREDVS VERO EPISCOPUS QUI EANDEM DEDICAVIT 
II IDIBUS APRILIS XIIII AUTEM ANNOS* REGNI EADWARDI 
REGIS ANGLORUM." 

Everyone believed this to refer to Deerhurst Church, and it was 
accepted as proof that it was built in 1056. But since the discovery, in 
1885, of the Saxon Chapel, and a second inscription, we have felt sure that 
this refers to that building, and not to the church. We are no longer 
bound by any historical limits. The church may be of any date its walls 
seem to show. 

Small Saxon churches of the Celtic type, like Bradford-on-Avon, 
consisted of a nave and small sanctuary connected by a low, narrow door- 
* Should be "ANNO." 



Deerhurst. 



73 



way ; but churches of the Basilican type, erected under the influence of 
Roman builders or missionaries, had a large chancel arch, with apses, 
transepts, western porches, and sometimes nave aisles. 

It seems probable that Deerhurst, like Monkswearmouth, Brixworth, 
and Barton-on-Humber, had in Saxon times a porch or narthex, and not a 
tower at the west end ; though here, as in those churches, a tower was 
constructed over the*porch in later times. There is evidence in the stone- 
work that the western portion of Deerhurst tower is later than the eastern 
part, though all of it appears to be pre-Norman. 

The first change after the Conquest was th,e construction, about 1160, 
of a south aisle. An arch was formed in the west wall of the south tran- 
sept, and its south wall was produced westward. A great part of the south 
wall of the nave was removed, and three transitional Norman-pointed 
arches were inserted. At the back of two of the piers pilasters were 
constructed, from which pointed arches or vaulting ribs were to spring. 
The north and south walls of the old western porch were pierced with 
pointed arches, the dividing wall under the tower was carried southward 
till it reached the line of the arcade, and the interval was bridged over 
with an arch in line with the other two, thus forming a western aisle. In 
the angle of the tower thus formed a staircase was built leading up to the 
third storey, and the aisle was extended westward as far as the western 
extremity of the tower. Then, for some reason unknown, the work 
ceased. 

In the 13th century the north aisle, planned sixty years previously, was 
constructed, with an arcade of three arches similar to those on the south 
side, but in a later style, made out of the solid wall. At this time, it is 
thought, the piers and capitals of the south arcade were altered. The 
alternate use of the white freestone and the green sandstone is very 
pleasing. We do not find it on the north side. 

In the 14th century, fine Decorated windows were inserted in the north 
and west walls of the north aisle, and in the west wall of the south aisle. 
Such windows were impossible on the south side because of the cloisters. 
In the 15th century, clerestory windows were inserted, the tower was 
raised, and a spire added. The chancel arch was removed, and a rood 
screen superseded it. In the 16th century, the square-headed windows 
were inserted in the south wall of the south aisle. 

Late in the 14th or early in the 15th century, a reconstruction took 
place of the conventual buildings. A hall with kitchen and buttery at the 
south end, and an upper parlour or state bedroom with a panelled ceiling, 
superseded the slype, chapter house, and dormitory, which, according to 
the Benedictine plan, should occupy the east side of the east cloister alley. 
Bigland says that at the end of the 17th century a large hall was standing 
on the south side of the cloisters. This was, no doubt, the refectory or 



74 



Transactions for the Year igo2. 



frater. We are told that foundations of buildings — probably the guest 
house, &c. — were found on the west side. 

Reference should be made to the papers in the nth volume of our 
Transactions : by Mr. Hudd, on the Font ; by Mr. Buckler, on the Priory ; 
by Mr. Pope, on the Conventual Buildings ; and by Mr. Butterworth on 




-the Saxon Chapel. These papers have been used by Mr. Butterworth, 
and^the illustrations which appear in volume xi. have been reproduced 
an his History of Deerhunt, published by Mr. North, who has kindly lent 
the plan and the view of the west wall of the church. 

In the north transept are four brasses representing Sir John Cassey, 
•Chief Baron of the Exchequer, who died in 1400, his wife Alice and two' 



DeERHURST.; 



75 



other ladies, one of whom Bigland says is Elizabeth Bruges, married first 
to William Cassey and secondly to Walter Rowdon. One of the illustra : 
tions, kindly lent by Mr. Phillimore, from Mr. Cecil Tudor Davis' Brasses 
of Gloucestershire, shows the- judge in a coif, tippet and mantel, lined with 
minever. The lady has a pet dog at her feet called " Tirri." The figures 
are under a double canopy, between the gables and central pinnacles of 
which were the figures of St. John the Baptist and St. Anne instructing 
St. Mary. The former is lost. The Cassey arms : arg. a chevron between 
three griffins' heads gu. are on a shield above Sir John. The two other ladies 
wear pomanders, i.e. round boxes containing perfumed powder. 

The following notes on the stained glass in'the west window of the 
south aisle have been kindly communicated by Mr. Baddeley : — 

A west window of four lights with traceries, the two central ones only 
being fitted with stained glass, which, however, are not likely long to 
survive (owing to local catapulting), as may be observed in two places. 
Probably the four lights once displayed four figures, one of which was St. 
Apollonia, now vanished. In the left light has been inserted an early 14th 
century panel of glowing tints, representing St. Katharine of Alexandria, 
on a ruby ground, within a niche, surmounted by a richly-crocketted 
canopy. She wears an orange mantle over a rich green tunic. Her crown 
and wheel are of gold ; while the canopy-work is chiefly silvery, relieved 
upon a green ground. This valuable and uncommonly beautiful panel 
was removed from the chapel at the east end of the north aisle, where the 
Cassey tombs lie, and inserted here on a ground of later grisaille quarries 
with golden flowers. A bullet has passed through it lately. The 15th 
century remaining light displays a full-length bearded figure of a beatified 
prior, or non-mitred abbot, all in grisaille and yellow stain, except the 
violent mauve foot, which is, of course, modern. He is represented in the 
act of benediction. In his left hand he holds a crosier, with orarium ; and 
wears a chasuble. The whole is set within a rich border of bright crowns, 
alternately with ruby quarries. 

Each of these lights contains also two separate groups of donors (male 
and female), kneeling, alternately in blue and purple. The head-dresses of 
some of the ladies are in Tudor style, and their hair is shown beneath, in 
cross-hatching. 

In the head-light are the arms of De Clare, and the heads of two saints. 
That on the right has been nearly destroyed by a stone. There are also 
two rayed suns. 

Fragments of scrip contain the following : — XlCW\{ I for Tewkesbury ; 

Bpolloma ; 2>ne Salvs et protectio ; Be Ibautt . . c. Wyiie. 

The arrangement of the seats on three sides of the Holy Table is well 
nigh unique, though within the memory of many living the same arrange- 
ment existed at Winchcombe, Toddington, Hayles, Leonard Stanley, and 



76 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



other local churches. The date found on one of the panels — 1604 — really 
belonged to a pulpit which was formerly in the church, and gives no direct 
evidence with regard to the age of the chancel woodwork. There does not 
seem to be any sufficient reason for calling this arrangement a Puritan 
one. At Deerhurst it would represent the old place of the altar on the 
chord of the apse. There are some 15th century bench ends in the south 
aisle. 

The Saxon Chapel had no connection with the priory or its church. It 
was built, as the inscription tells, in 1056 by Odda, lord of the manor, as a 
chantry chapel where prayers might be sung for the repose of the soul of 
his brother Elfric. 

A nave, 18 feet wide inside, is connected with a narrow chancel by a 
Saxon arch, 10 feet high and 6\ feet wide, which has jambs of long and 
short ashlar work, fiat moulded imposts, and an arch of single square 
stones, with a plain square-edged label. The nave had two entrances, 
north and south, opposite one another, and two windows similarly placed. 
The chancel does not seem to have had any window. The north wall is a 
restoration. A square stone, part of which had been cut away to form a 
lancet window, was found in an old chimney stack, and has been inserted 
in the east wall for preservation. The inscription, when complete, was, 
probably IN HONOREM SANCTE TRINITATIS HOC ALTARE 
DEDICATUM EST. 

A copy of the inscribed stone previously referred to is also to be seen. 

On leaving Deerhurst the members drove to Whitefield or Wightfield 
Court, which is a fine 18th century mansion, standing on the site of an 
earlier house in which dwelt Sir John Cassey, whose brass effigy is in 
Deerhurst Church. The house has stepped gables such as we see at 
Nuremburg and in Belgium. Two square towers containing newel 
staircases are perhaps relics of the earlier house. There is some stained 
glass commemorating the marriage of Henry Cassey to Dorothy Fettiplace. 
The Casseys gave their name to Compton Cassey and Kilcot Cassey. 
Some notes on the Cassey family and on the devolution of Whitefield 
Manor will be found in our Transactions, vol. xi., pp. 2-5. 

From Whitefield the party proceeded to Apperley Court, where they 
were most kindly received by Mr. and Miss Strickland, and after viewing 
the interesting museum, were entertained at afternoon tea. A pleasant 
drive back to Tewkesbury ended a meeting which, in spite of uncertain 
weather, proved to be a most interesting and enjoyable one. 



THE MONKS OF THE MONASTERY OF ST. MARY, 
AT TEWKESBURY. . 



By the Rev. E. R. DOWDESWELL, 

President of the Society. 

I have been warned by the Secretary that I must be brief, 
and I find myself obliged to condense some 800 years of the 
history of the monks of Tewkesbury into half-an-hour's 
lecture. I must therefore plunge in medias res. We learn 
from the " Tewkesbury Chronicle," which is a mediaeval 
MS. (1252-62) in the British Museum, that the first nucleus 
of a monastery here grew up round the cell and chapel of a 
hermit named Theoc in the latter part of the 7th century. 
It must be remembered that S. Augustine only landed in 
England in 596, and found the country a heathen land — the 
ancient British Church having been driven into the moun- 
tains of Wales and the west. He lived only to see the 
conversion of Kent, the foundation of the See of Rochester, 
and a flourishing mission in London. But the Irish monks 
had begun the work of evangelization from the north, and 
Mercia is said to have been converted in 655, and S. Chad 
established himself at Lichfield in 666. The method of the 
work was naturally to send out individual missionaries, of 
whom Theoc was one. His name, like Guthlac and Caradoc, 
is clearly British. It is therefore probable that he came from 
the British Church, just over the Severn in Wales, rather 
than from the north. The next step was naturally that the 
lone missionary should be joined by other clergy, and by the 
most promising of his converts. They would build a chapel 
of wood, and live in mud or wooden huts round the chapel, 
surrounded by a stockade. The director of the mission 
would be the spiritual father of the little community, and 



78 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



they would live under a rule. They would till the land and 
earn their own living by manual labour, until by the conver- 
sion of some chieftain they had secured a patron who could 
endow them with lands for their maintenance. 

The first mention of a monastery at Tewkesbury is 715, 
and this is probably the actual date of its foundation, as the 
neighbouring monasteries of Gloucester, Pershore, Evesham, 
Malmesbury, and Bath were all founded about the same time, 
the earliest being Malmesbury in 675, the latest Evesham in 
706. The Monkish Chronicle has preserved for us what I 
must call the Legend of the Earliest Founders of Tewkes- 
bury Monastery. The Chronicle relates that in the time of 
the Mercian Princes Ethelred and Ethelbald (a.d. 675-755) 
there were two noble dukes, named Oddo and Dodo, mem- 
bers of an illustrious family, and eminent in themselves for 
their great virtues. They are made to appear as brothers; 
and Leland. the antiquary of the 16th century, makes them 
both die in the same year. The chronicler honestly owns 
that he may be mistaken, and hopes that if some future 
historian has better information, he will correct his mistakes. 
The scientific researches of the present day have enabled the 
late Rev. J. H. Blunt and Mr. J. Round to prove that these 
two benefactors lived at least 300 years apart. It is true 
that Duke Dodo has not been absolutely identified with any 
known personage ; but there was a Duke Dodo in the 9th 
century, and it is conjectured that the hundred in which 
Gloucester is situated (Dudeston) derives its name from him ; 
and I personally like to think that the parish of Dowdeswell, 
near Cheltenham, from which my family takes its name, was 
originally Dodo's Wold, situated as it is on the Cotteswold 
Hills. Duke Oddo has been identified beyond doubt with 
that Oddo who built the chapel at Deerhurst, which we 
shall see to-morrow, of whom I will speak presently ; the 
date of the chapel is 1054-6. 

Let us take it then, that a Saxon noble named Dodo was 
the first to endow the monks here with lands. The first lands 
giveu to them were Stanway, Toddington, Prescote and 



The Monks of St. Mary, Tewkesbury. 79 



Didcote. We may imagine that this access of riches enabled 
the monks to greatly improve their buildings. We know 
that S. Wilfred of York, and his friend Benedict Biscop at 
Wearmouth and Jarrow, had imported the art of building 
in stone in the 7th century, and it is not unreasonable to 
suppose that Tewkesbury followed their example in the 8th. 
At least we know that the church was of sufficient import- 
ance in the year 800 to be made the burial place of a king ; 
for Berthric, King of the West Saxons, was buried in the 
chapel of S. Faith, in the Church of Tewkesbury, in that 
year, by Hugo, a Mercian earl, who afterwards chose the 
same church for his own burial. The 7th and 8th centuries 
were the golden age of the Anglo-Saxon Church. Then 
England acquired the title of the Island of Saints. Then she 
bred S. Wilfred of York ; Benedict Biscop, the founder of 
monasteries ; the Venerable Bede, the father of English 
prose ; and Coedmon, the poet. 

But while the English system encouraged the growth of 
great independent characters, it lacked cohesion and central 
authority. What it wanted above all things was consoli- 
dation and co-ordination. This was to be supplied in the 
Church at large by the formation of dioceses and parishes by 
the great Archbishop Theodore (a.d. 668-690), and among 
the monks by the rule of S. Benedict. Scholars are not 
agreed as to the actual date of the introduction of the Bene- 
dictine rule into England. S. Wilfred claims the honour in 
the 7th century, and S. Dunstan, of Glastonbury, in the 10th 
(a.d. 940-988). It seems to me that both claims may in a 
sense be true; but whatever S. Wilfrid and Benedict Biscop 
accomplished in the north was absolutely wiped out and 
destroyed by the terrible devastation caused by the incursion 
of the Danes in the 9th century (a.d. 836-878). It is stated 
by most historians that the Danes did not leave a single 
monastery standing in the whole of England — and scarcely a 
monk alive. 

I see that this is thought to be an exaggeration by the 
latest historian of the Black Monks in England, Father 



8o Transactions for the Year 1902. 



Taunton, who believes that it was only absolutely true of the 
north. But we know that the country between Gloucester 
and Bath was the great battle ground between Alfred and 
the Danes. His last victory over them was gained at 
Bodington. We know that the Danes wintered at Glou- 
cester in 878. We, therefore, are not surprised to hear that 
Tewkesbury was often pillaged, and twice burnt down in the 
200 years between 800 and 1000. And, moreover, we know 
that when Alfred founded his monastery at Athelney in 
a.d. 880, he was obliged to import monks from abroad, as 
there were none in England fit for his purpose. It is clear, 
therefore, that S. Dunstan (who, with the co-operation of his 
disciples, S. Oswald, our great Bishop of Worcester (a.d. 962), 
and Ethelward, Bishop of Winchester, 963, founded at least 
forty monasteries, all under the strict Benedictine rule) was 
the second, if not the first, founder of that rule in England, 
and thus we get to the period when our historical records 
become more clear and definite. After the devastation 
caused by the Danes, those monasteries which survived or 
were restored were probably tenanted by only a few monks. 
There were only four or five at Tewkesbury at the end of the 
10th century. A Duke of Mercia, named Haylward Snow, 
was patron of the Abbey of Cranbourn in the 10th century. 
They had adopted the Benedictine rule, probably under the 
auspices of Bishop Ethelwold, and were greatly enriched by 
their patron Haylward, or Ethelward. He was also the 
patron of Tewkesbury, and subjected Tewkesbury with its 
few monks, as a priory, or cell, attached to the more flourish- 
ing Abbey of Cranbourn. He was killed at the battle of 
Assendune in 1016. He was succeeded by his son Algar, 
and in due course his grandson, Brictric Fitz Algar, whose 
romantic story is so well known to my hearers. 

But we must go back now to Duke Odda, who was 
associated by the monkish chronicler with Dodda of 300 
years before. The Chronicle relates that these noblemen 
were buried at Pershore, which they had enriched with many 
possessions, and where Odda had put on the monastic habit 



The Monks of St. Mary, Tewkesbury. 8i 



before he died. It says they had a certain brother named 
Almeric, whose body was buried at Deerhurst, in a little 
chapel over against the gate of the Priory, which had an 
inscription over the gate (in situ in his day), "that Duke Dodo 
caused this Royal Hall to be consecrated as a church to the 
honour of the Virgin Mary, on account of the love he bore to 
his brother Almeric." Now it so happens that this stone 
was dug up by Judge Powell, in his garden at Deerhurst, in 
1675, and was deposited by him at the Bodleian Library in 
Oxford, a copy of which you will see on Thursday. But we 
find that it was not Duke Dodda, but Dux Odda, who built 
that chapel, and most important of all the chronicler omitted 
the date, which is clearly given on the stone, namely, the 
14th year of King Edward, i.e. 1056. His brother Alfric 
died (according to the Saxon Chronicle) in 1053, an< ^ ne 
himself in 1056, a few months after his chapel was dedicated 
by Ealdred, Bishop of "Worcester. His baptismal name was 
Ethelwin, or Agelwin, and he probably took the name of Odo 
on joining the Norman party at the Court of S. Edward. He 
was the successor of Earl Delfer (described by the monks as 
"that wicked Earl"), who had despoiled the church of vast 
tracts of land, which Odda to a great extent restored during 
his life. It is said that he lived unmarried in order that 
he might have no heirs to claim succession to the church 
property. It was from these estates, when they came to 
the crown on Duke Odda's death, that Edward the Confessor 
endowed his great Monastery of Westminster. Duke Odda 
is described as the " Cherisher of Churches, the Entertainer 
of the Poor, the Defender of Widows and Orphans, the Over- 
thrower of Tyrants, and the Guardian of Virginity," and Mr. 
Round adds, "We may well be proud to enroll his name 
among our Worcestershire worthies,." If Stanway, Todding- 
ton, Prescote, and Didcote were given by Duke Dodo, the 
other estates mentioned in Domesday (1087) as belonging to 
the Church of S. Mary at Tewkesbury may well have been 
given by Duke Oddo. 

Brictric Fitz Algar having died miserably in prison at the 

7 

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82 



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instigation of Matilda, the Queen of William the Conqueror, 
all his vast estates were granted to her for her life. On the 
death of the Queen in 1083 they were vested in the crown, 
and after William's death in 1087 his son, William Rufus, 
conferred them, together with the patronage of Cranbourn 
and Tewkesbury, on the great Norman nobleman Robert 
Fitz Hamon. 

At this period Cranbourn was a flourishing Abbey, Tew- 
kesbury a small Priory ; but for various reasons Fitz Hamon 
and Gerald, the Abbot of Cranbourn, decided to make 
Tewkesbury the Mother House, and bring the monks there. 
The site on two rivers was certainly more convenient ; it was 
also a residence of the Noble Patron. Mr. Willis Bund 
believes that it was part of the Norman scheme for subju- 
gating the country, to have a line of Norman Monasteries 
along the Welsh border. In any case, the Abbot took up the 
plan warmly, and went with some of his monks to reside at 
Tewkesbury about 1099. Fitz Hamon had already begun to 
build the magnificent church, which to this day strikes all 
beholders with reverence and awe. These old builders built 
for the glory of God. Neither time nor money were con- 
sidered. The church rose slowly from its foundations, and 
the monastic buildings became habitable in 1102, when Abbot 
Gerald and fifty-seven monks took possession of them. And 
still the church grew as the Earl and the Abbot watched it. 
It is difficult to estimate the cost of such a building ; but an 
anecdote told by the historian, Matthew Paris, may give us 
some idea. He says that Richard, Duke of Cornwall, the 
founder of Hayles Abbey (not far distant), told him that the 
church alone of Hayles had cost him 30,000 marks, which 
Mr. Blunt estimates to be equal to ^"100,000 of our money. 
We know that the stones for the tower were imported from 
Caen, in Normandy. Neither Fitz Hamon nor the Abbot 
lived to see the church consecrated. Fitz Hamon was 
wounded at the siege of Falaise in 1107, and died there. He 
was brought home to be buried in the Chapter House at 
Tewkesbury, the church not yet being ready to receive his 



The Monks of St. Mary, Tewkesbury. 



83 



honoured body. And after his patron's death, the Abbot (as 
we are told in the Chronicle) resigned his Abbey and fled to 
Winchester, where he had been brought up, because he was 
neither able nor willing to satisfy the King's avarice with 
gifts. And there he died a simple monk in 11 10. 

It is commonly thought that these great founders were 
actuated by unworthy and superstitious motives, hoping to 
buy the mercy of God for their many crimes by munificent 
gifts to the church. No doubt there were some such men in 
those days, as in these ; but it is comforting to know that it 
was not so with the founders of Tewkesbury. We have 
already heard of the genuine piety of the Dukes Dodda and 
Odda ; and it is recorded of Fitz Hamon, that after he 
had begun to build he decided to make the work an act of 
reparation, not for any sin of his own, but for the ruthless 
destruction of the church and city of Bayeaux by King 
Henry I. in 1105. Besides building the church and (we may 
suppose) the conventual buildings, Fitz Hamon enriched his 
monastery with magnificent endowments in land. He had in 
1091 subjugated Glamorganshire and other parts of Wales, 
and after having rewarded his knights, he gave many 
churches and large estates to Tewkesbury from his Welsh 
conquests. The church was not finished and consecrated 
till November 20th, 1123. William of Malmesbury, a con- 
temporary chronicler, says : " It is not easy to relate how 
much Robert enriched by his favour the Monastery of 
Tewkesbury, where the splendour of the edifice, and the 
hospitality of the monks, attract the eyes and captivate the 
minds of the visitors." 

Now that we have got the monks into their monastery, it 
will be well to consider their mode of life. The life of a 
monk in the middle ages was not an easy one. They rose at 
midnight for the service called nocturns, which lasted for two 
hours. They then went back to bed till 6 a.m., when they 
went again to the church for Prime. After Terce, at about 
9 a.m., the principal mass of the day was sung ; after which 
they spent the morning in the cloisters at various kinds of 



§4 



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work. The officers of the house had to attend to their 
departments, the rest were either reading or writing, copying 
MSS., or teaching the young. No one was allowed to be 
idle. At about 11 they dined, but on a fast day not till after 
Nones, about 2 p.m. It was then that they first broke their 
fast. They ate in silence while one read. After dinner work 
began again till Vespers at 6, after which they had a spare 
meal called a collation — a piece of bread and a drink of small 
beer — and so after compline at 8 to bed. They slept in their 
clothes, a second set being allowed to each for night-wear. 
There was no going out without leave. There was a garden 
for exercise, and generally a bowling green. There was a 
common room called the Frayter, with a fire, where brethren 
might meet to converse; and every day, after the High Mass, 
the whole Convent met in the Chapter House, were faults 
against the rule were confessed publicly, and penance 
enjoined. There are black sheep, of course, in every flock; 
but it is surprising how very little there was to find fault 
with in the greater monasteries. Discipline was carefully 
maintained by Visitors appointed at a general meeting of the 
Abbots of the Order every three years, consisting of three 
neighbouring Abbots, whose duty it was to enquire strictly 
into the way in which the rule was observed in every house. 
But besides that the Bishop of the Diocese was the recog- 
nised Visitor of each Benedictine House, with the exception 
of five that were specially exempted by the Pope. It is true 
that in the earlier times the Bishop's claim to visit was often 
disputed, as it was at Tewkesbury. But the question was 
settled once for all in the 13th century, on appeal to Rome, 
in the case of Archbishop Edmund Rich, of Canterbury, 
against his own monks of S. Augustine's. In 1252 Bishop 
Walter de Canteloup visited Tewkesbury officially. It is 
recorded that his scrutiny was extreme, each monk being 
examined separately. As a result we read that the Bishop 
compelled the monks to keep their rule strictly. The chief 
officers of the house, after the Abbot, were the Prior and his 
Sub-Priors, who were responsible for the discipline of the 



The Monks of St. Mary, Tewkesbury. 



85 



house ; the Cellerer, who provided the food for all ; the 
Sacrist, who had charge of the church ; the Cantor of the 
services ; the Guest-Master ; and the Almoner. The monks 
were great landowners and farmers. At Tewkesbury they 
had an important tannery. This and other business must 
have taken their ablest men often from the cloisters into the 
world to see to the interests of the community. But the 
great body of monks lived simple, , quiet lives, divided 
between prayer and praise, and study and rest. 

The importance as well as the wealth of a great monastery 
was enhanced by the Priories or smaller houses that were 
subject to it. Of these, the first in order of time and endow- 
ments was Cranbourn, to which Tewkesbury had, as we 
know, been originally affiliated. Cranbourn remained as a 
Priory attached to Tewkesbury till the dissolution, a Prior 
and a few monks residing there. The next was the Priory of 
S. James, Bristol, which was founded by Robert, the Count 
who married Fitz Hamon's heiress. This also remained 
attached to Tewkesbury till the end. The Earl gave every 
tenth stone of the castle he built at Bristol towards the 
building of St. James' Church. His successor, William Fitz 
Count, founded the Abbey of Keynsham, but I do not know 
that it was affiliated to Tewkesbury. Robert de Chandos 
founded the Church of Goldcliff for secular canons. He gave 
the patronage to the King. It remained in the King's hand 
for 318 years, when Henry VI. gave it to Tewkesbury with 
all its endowments. About the same time Deerhurst was 
disendowed, and her lands divided between Tewkesbury and 
Eton College. Much litigation arising about this division, a 
compromise was effected, Tewkesbury giving Goldcliff to 
Eton in exchange for the other half of Deerhurst. Hence- 
forth till the dissolution, Deerhurst became a Priory of 
Tewkesbury, and the Prior of Deerhurst is one of the 
pensioners provided for then. 

It may well be asked, what use had these poor monks 
for the enormous revenues with which they were endowed ? 
First, to estimate the revenue. I have neither the time nor 



86 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



the scholarship, even if the means are available, for estimating 
the value of the possessions of Tewkesbury in the middle 
ages. The land and churches granted to the monks by their 
successive patrons and benefactors are set forth in the won- 
derful array of charters still extant in the British Museum, 
but in very many cases the places cannot now be identified, 
and in any case their annual value is not given. But we 
have the account rendered by Henry VIII. 's Commissioners 
of the value of the possessions of the Abbey in 1539. " The 
total annual value of all the possessions of the said late mon- 
astery " is entered as £1,595 15s. gd. This represents rent 
and tithes, &c, accruing annually, but no account was taken 
or could be taken of the fines which were paid periodically as 
lives fell in — on such property as was held by copyhold — which 
was a common tenure of church property, nor of the amounts 
paid when a lease was granted for a term of years. For 
example, Edward Tyndale, brother of William Tyndale, the 
translator of the Bible, bought the lease for 99 years of Pull 
and Pull Court from the monks in the year 1534. Whatever 
he paid for it went into the year's revenue. Bishop Ridley 
when Bishop of London, sold the lease of Bushley Park to 
George Carr for 99 years ; the money paid went into the 
treasury of the See, and his last request when at the stake 
was that either his poor tenants might remain on their farms, 
or the money they had paid be refunded to them out of his 
private fortune. But these fines were coming in every day, 
and were in addition to the annual rents on their rent roll. 
It has been estimated that these fines, together with their 
profits on farming (the wool alone was a most valuable asset), 
on their tannery, and the proceeds of their industry in other 
ways, must have been at least equal if it did not exceed their 
annual rents. If so, the total of ^1,500 must be doubled and 
amounts to ^"3,000; and if we allow for the difference in the 
value of money between then and now, we must multiply by 
ten at least, which gives us a total revenue of at least ^30,000 
a year. Now, how did they spend it ? For this I can find 
no actual figures in the records. So our inquiry must be, 



The Monks of St. Mary, Tewkesbury. 87 



what did they spend it on ? (1) On cost of the food and 
clothing of say 60 monks, and some 1 50 servants and depend- 
ents, a nice little family of more than 200 men and boys. 
(2) On the Abbot and his household. He lived apart in his 
own lodgings, and was served with the same state as a great 
Feudal Baron. He had two country houses, Forthampton 
and Stanway, to keep up. He had a Chamberlain and 
Seneschal, a Master of the Horse, two chaplains, a cellarer 
and cook, a house steward, a valet, a ^carver, a messenger, 
and a porter, and a whole retinue of servants to wait on the 
more highly placed officers. The Chamberlain had a com- 
panion, a Squire and two boys to wait upon him, with horses 
at his disposal, and so with the others in less degress down to 
the cook, who was allowed only <* one honest and knowing 
boy," but no horse. When the Abbot was out in state he had 
a train of twenty horses. He was limited to twenty by Papal 
Bull. (3) There was the up-keep on the monastic buildings 
and all the necessary repairs of a landowner on a very large 
estate. (4) In all the parishes from which they received the 
tithes they had to provide of course a vicar, who was never a 
monk, and keep his parsonage and church in repair, and pro- 
vide schooling for the children. At Evesham the monks paid 
a secular schoolmaster about £100 a year, and one monk in 
twenty was sent to Oxford. (5) Then the monks are accused 
of being litigious, at any rate they had to defend themselves 
against the encroachments of greedy Barons. Their law costs 
must have been heavy. At the death of every patron and 
each of the Kings it was necessary to obtain from the suc- 
cessors a confirmation of the titles by which their land was 
held. They were usually granted as a matter of course, but 
no doubt at great cost. As a matter of fact Gilbert de 
Clare II. deprived the monks of all his predecessors had given 
them. But the whole of these possessions were restored by 
his son. (6) Sometimes they had to fight their Bishop, as 
Abbot Peter did in 1221. The dispute began about some relics. 
The Bishop accused the Abbot recklessly (we do not know 
of what) and excommunicated him. The Abbot appealed to 



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the Pope, and went himself to Rome to plead his cause. He- 
borrowed £50 to pay his expenses (equal to about ^"500 now). 
He won his cause, and got home again in 1226. The Bishop 
withdrew the excommunication, but we are not told that he 
paid the cost of the journey, or the fees paid to the officers of 
the Papal Curia. (7) There were rates and taxes sometimes 
levied lawfully by King and Parliament, sometimes extorted 
by needy Kings. As we have seen, it drove Abbot Gerald 
from his office altogether, because he could not satisfy the 
King's demands. (8) The monks were a fruitful source of 
income to the Pope. In 1230 the monks of Tewkesbury paid 
to him 109 marks, or about ^"350, as a tithe of their goods. 

(9) But over and above all this, the monks were always 
great builders. If FitzHamon and the de Clares and 
Despencers built and added to the great church, and adorned, 
it with their chapels and tombs, still the monks found much 
also to do. In 11 78 there was a great fire, which destroyed 
the whole of the monastic buildings. Of course they had to 
be restored. In 1219 the dormitory collapsed just as the 
monks had left it ; the Prior, who had remained behind, was 
saved as by a miracle. This had to be rebuilt. In 1334 
another fire consumed two great stables and other buildings, 
besides the principal gateway of the Abbey. In 1237 Hervey 
de Sipton, the Prior, built the chapel of S. Nicholas ; in 1390 
Abbot Parker built the beautiful chapel over the tomb of the 
founder, and so on. And who can tell what was spent on 
painting and glass, on vestments and ornaments of divine 
service ? And besides all these, the useful and necessary 
adjuncts of such a community, the great Abbey Mill, the 
stables, the dairy, the slaughter-house, and such like, all of 
which had to be built and kept in repair out of the income. 

(10) And lastly, we must not forget one of the chief glories of 
every monastery, the crowds of poor that were fed and 
ministered to daily. 

In those days there was no fine old English gentleman, 
who had a fair estate, and never forgot the poor man at his 
gate. The monks were the only organised relievers of the 



The Monks of St. Mary, Tewkesbury. 



89 



poor, and Tewkesbury being on the direct road between the 
north and south of England, the demands upon their hos- 
pitality were enormous. Moreover, their houses were the 
only hotels, and kings and nobles, as well as poorer folk, 
came to lodge there, and the king found it convenient to 
pension off old servants and favourites with an order to some 
monastery to support them. At the dissolution Tewkesbury 
was spending ^"139 (or ^"1,390 in our money) annually on such 
pensioners. * 

We may conclude this part of our subject in the words of 
Father Taunton. " If the monks had vast possessions, they 
had also vast responsibilities. They looked upon their wealth 
as so much entrusted to them for others. Their vast hospi- 
talities, the exaction of kings, social changes, and disasters 
such as fire or disease, often crippled them and reduced, 
them to the verge of destruction." This was the case 
at Tewkesbury when the monks having represented to the 
Bishop of Worcester that they were so impoverished that 
they could not maintain their ancient hospitality, he granted 
them the Church of St. Philip, Bristol, to enable them to do 
so. We have an interesting ordinance drawn up by Abbot 
Gerald when he first brought his fifty-seven monks to 
Tewkesbury, in 1102, apportioning the profits accruing from 
their various estates to particular uses. Thus to provide the 
monks' table the following rents and tithes were allotted : 
Two mills in Tewkesbury and the fishing there, the tithes of 
the town and lordship, and of certain villages, a third of the 
alms given in church, the Church of S. Peter, Bristol, certain 
lands in Wales and Hereford, the lands in Washbourne, 
Stanley Pontlarge, Amney, Stanway, Toddintgon, Lemington, 
Fiddington, &c, and the Abbot gave the Manor of Tarent, 
at the request of Fitz Hamon, to improve the living of the 
monks to the extent of 12 pence a day. For their clothing, 
the Church of Fairford, the land at Middleland, certain 
churches that had belonged to Robert the Chaplain, and 100 
shillings per annum from the Abbot ; but not till the monastic 
buildings were finished. To the Secretary — The parochial 



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dues, except tithes, and one-third of the alms in church, and 
for parchment alone, the tithes of Robert de Baskerville. For 
hospitality and the poor — Chettle in Dorset, land at Peque- 
minton, an enclosure at Winchcombe, and a tenth part of all 
the monks' victuals. All other revenue was to go towards 
buying land, and ornaments for the church, and supplying 
any deficit on the above accounts. 

The Abbots of Benedictine Monasteries were elected in 
chapter freely. They might be one of their own brethren, or 
one from another Benedictine house. They had to obtain a 
conge d'elive from the Patron, and the Abbot-elect was con- 
firmed and blessed by the Bishop of the Diocese. The Abbots 
of Tewkesbury do not seem to have been distinguished men, 
at least outside their own sphere. Abbot Gerald, the first of 
Fitz Haraon's foundation, must have been a good organiser, 
a man of great influence with his Patron, a great builder, and 
a humble God-fearing man, as his flight to Winchester, and 
renouncing his great office to become a simple monk again 
proves. Abbot Alan (a.d. 1187 — 1202) had been a monk at 
Canterbury, and as Prior there had been in close relation with 
S. Thomas a Becket, and was chosen to be one of his 
biographers. He seems to have heen the only notable 
scholar among them Abbot Robert of Forthampton, known 
as Robert III., had the reputation of being a saint. He re- 
roofed the dormitory out of money set apart for his own 
household. It is related that miracles were wrought here in 
his time. A dumb man of Forthampton, a blind girl of Beck- 
ford, a boy of Ripple, and many others to the number of forty, 
were healed in 1232, and again other miracles took place at 
his tomb when he died in 1254. But I have not found any- 
thing specially interesting about the others till we come to the 
period of the Dissolution. But from its wealth and its con- 
nection with the great Earls of Gloucester, Tewkesbury held 
a high place among the Abbeys of England. One of the 
seven copies of Magna Charta was laid up here. But the 
Abbot does not invariably appear among the Mitred Abbots 
who were summoned to Parliament. His name appears once 



The Monks of St. Mary, Tewkesbury. 91 

in the reign of Henry III., twice in the reigns of Edward I. 
and II. , and generally in the reigns of Edward III. and 
Richard II. The honour, however, was far from being 
desired by the greater Abbots as being a costly burthen, and 
as taking them from their proper duties. Henry Beoly, the 
last Abbot but two, signed the declaration in the House of 
Lords in favour of Henry VIII. 's divorce from Queen Catharine, 
and Wakeman, the last Abbot, was invariably summoned. 
During the middle ages, as Feudal Barons, the Abbots had to 
find Knights for war when called upon in certain proportion 
to their holdings. Mr. Willis Bund says that the church in 
the Diocese of Worcester was of great political importance 
because of its possessions. The Bishop of Worcester could 
probably have put a larger army in the field than the lay 
Barons of the county. But while the Benedictines would 
generally side with the Bishop, Tewkesbury would follow the 
de Clares. During the Barons' wars in the 13th century, de 
Clare fought now on one side, now on the other, while Godfrey 
Giffarde, Bishop of Worcester, was consistently royalist. 

We come now to the last scene of all, the Dissolution of 
the Monasteries, by Henry VIII. It would be foreign to the 
immediate subject of this paper to discuss Henry's motives 
in his ruthless work of destruction. Suffice it to say that in 
1 536 he extorted from Parliament the grant of the property 
of all religious houses having an income of less than 
£100 a year, with the distinct proviso that the dispossessed 
monks should be drafted into the larger houses "where 
religion is right well kept and observed." But at the 
same time they allowed the larger houses to be dissolved 
if they were willing to snvvendev. But not content with this, 
Henry determined that all monasteries, large or small, 
voluntarily or against their will, should submit. With this 
object the King's Commissioners relied upon three methods 
to gain their end : (1) They tried persuasion coupled with 
promises and bribery If that failed (2) they used threats 
and where possible deposed the Abbot and secured as his 
successor one favourable to the Dissolution. (3 and lastly) 



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For those who firmly refused there was an act of attainder 
for treason, and certain death. Our Tewkesbury monks 
I am afraid succumbed to the first method, and verily 
they had their reward. Abbot Henry Beoly, 1509-29, 
as we have seen, voted for the King's divorce in the 
House of Lords, which may perhaps be taken for a 
sign that the monastery generally was on the King's 
side. But he died before the actual crisis. His successor 
was consecrated in 1531, and died within the year. The last 
Abbot was John Wakeman. He was constant in his attend- 
ance in Parliament, and when the fateful decision had to be 
made, he seems to have surrendered his trust without remon- 
strance. The surrender was made on January 9th, 1539, and 
his house was one of the very last to be dissolved. The 
reward for his subserviency was a pension of ^"239 per annum, 
or about ^2,390 of our money, with the use of his country 
house at Forthampton and other privileges, and on the 
foundation of the See of Gloucester a few years later he 
became the first Bishop of that Diocese, with, of course, a 
great addition of income. His Prior, John Beoly, received 
£ib a year (or £160). The other officers £13 6s. 8d., and 
the ordinary monks from £10 to £6 13s. 4d. It may be 
thought that these pensions are exceedingly small, but perhaps 
an income of from £60 to £100 a year was not too small for 
men who were vowed to a life of poverty. The goods and 
ornaments and chattels that were sold fetched ^1,940 of our 
money. The silver plate reserved for the King amounted to 
1,100 ounces, of which more than half was silver gilt. The 
Commissioners decided that the Abbots' lodging, the buttery, 
cellar, kitchen, and larder, the stable and the great barn next 
to Avon, and the Abbey gateway, might remain, but the 
church, the chapels, the cloisters, the misericord, the kitchen 
and the library, were deemed to be superfluous. It is one of 
the curious ironies of fate, that while the conventual buildings, 
the barns, and kitchens, and stables, which were intended to 
remain undefaced, have been utterly destroyed, the church 
and the chapels and the misericord, which were deemed to be 



The Monks of St. Mary, Tewkesbury. 



93 



superfluous, remain to gladden our hearts and eyes to this 
day. The parishioners, to their everlasting credit, raised a 
sum of nearly ^"5,000 of our money to purchase from the King 
that part of the sacred building which had served as the 
church of the monks, namely, the choir, the chapels, the 
transepts, and the tower, the nave having been used as a 
parish church probably since its foundation. 

My task is now completed. I have tried to set before you 
very briefly the fortunes of this great monastery, from its 
humble beginnings in the 8th century, through its sufferings 
under the Danes, through its glories during the middle ages, 
when it rose to such importance and magnificence under the 
patronage of the princely Earls of Gloucester, till at last the 
day came when, under the despotic rule of Henry VIII., the 
monks were dispersed, their revenues divided amongst greedy 
courtiers, their poor dependents left to starve, till, fifty years 
after, Elizabeth and her ministers had to devise the cold com- 
fort of the Poor Law to supply in some degree the lavish 
charity of the monks. We may thank God that the Church 
was left to continue to supply the means of grace, though 
shorn of much magnificence. 



ON CERTAIN RARE MONUMENTAL EFFIGIES. 



By ALBERT HARTSHORNE, F.S.A. 

Among the countless monumental effigies, which have been 
happily preserved in England, we occasionally meet with 
examples that take us out of the beaten track of study, on 
account of special peculiarities of attitude, of armour, of 
costume, or of weapons which are exhibited, or by reason of 
the badges of office or other details which are shown. 

Interest in such memorials may thus be excited in many 
ways. It may consist merely in the attitude of the individual 
represented, as we have it, for instance, in the effigy of Sir 
Oliver Ingham, at Ingham, Norfolk, 1343, shown as half 
rising from his "flinty couch" of cobble-stones; in the 
strange restless figure in oak of Sir John de Hauteville, at 
Chew Magna, Somerset, repainted in evil times ; or as in the 
rare kneeling effigy of Sir Edward Despencer at Tewkesbury, 
1375- 

Peculiarities of body armour may often justly arrest the 
attention. We have, for instance, a man at Moccas, 
Herefordshire, shown in a hauberk of scales, probably of 
horn ; another, Sir Robert de Keynes, at Dodford, North- 
amptonshire, 1305, wears a hood, hauberk, and chausses of 
banded mail, the finest of the five sculptured examples of 
that defence in England ; Sir John GifTord, at Leckhampton, 
wears the rare items the mammelieres. Others exhibit 
cuisses of pourpoint, and " scaly toes," while about two 
dozen effigies throughout the country illustrate the varied 
harness and the fascinating military costume of the middle 
of the reign of Edward II., complete with gambeson, 
hauberk, haketon, and cyclas. 

Other effigies, again, are remarkable from the weapons 



On Certain Rare Monumental Effigies. 95 

they are represented as carrying. The sword, of course, is: 
always with them, its scabbard, in rare and early instances, 
decorated with small shields — as at Hughenden, Buckingham- 
shire ; its hilt sometimes inscribed xftC — " goddes hygh name 
thereon was grave " — as in a Purbeck effigy at Winchelsea. 
It is very doubtful whether the grand and martial effigy at 
Hughenden represents Richard, youngest son of the great 
Simon de Montfort, and brother of the two barbarians, Guy 
and Simon, who slew at the altar of Sah Sylvestro at Viterbo, 
as Dante has it, " in grembo di Dio " — in God's own bosom 
— Henry, son of Richard, King of the Romans, a deed that 
sent a shudder throughout Christendom. The effigy, appa- 
rently of a Welles, carries in the right hand a short and 
naked dagger, murderous and deadly-looking as a Malay 
hriss. 

In Great Malvern Abbey church is an effigy in Purbeck 
marble, in low relief, signifying its origin in the early 
part of the thirteenth century. It may be about 1240. 
The slab narrows rapidly to the feet, every detail pointing 
to its early character ; and it was the sight of this 
remarkable figure which induced the writer to draw up 
the present notes. A man, supposed to be one of the 
De Braci family, is conventionally represented in the 
earliest form of hauberk, namely, that which was of a 
piece with the mail hood. This garment was put on over 
the shoulders, like a smockfrock, the head passed into the 
hood, opened by a flap on the side, to be afterwards tied up, 
and tightened over the brows by a band interlaced into the 
mail, a cerveliere or scull of iron, or a wadded cap, giving 
the enlarged form to the head, and defending it from the 
weight of the combined hauberk and hood, which was very 
considerable. The surcote is long, as the very early ones 
sometimes were, and the man wears on the left arm a circular 
shield or targe — a defence in use in Scotland until "the '45" 
— the parma of the Roman soldier. He carries in his mail- 
muffled right hand a long-handled martel or horseman's 
hammer, with a sharp pick on one side of the head. This 



9 6 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



was a most dreadful weapon in the hands of a bold and 
desperate man, and caused untold havoc by breaking up the 
coats of mail, and smashing the cylindrical helms and the 
heads within them. The weapon was a kind of prototype of 
the murderous bills of the sixteenth century. Readers of The 
Arte of Warre will recall how the billmen had their special 
place in the array on the field, and did, when the dread 
moment arrived, what was significantly called "the slaughter 
of the battle." Such was the bloody business of the Malvern 
man with the martel. 

Gervase Alard is shown in his effigy at Winchelsea to have 
unfastened the final ties of his sword-belt before he took his 
rest, and, with a fine sense of the fitness of things, to have 
slipped off the mittens of mail, which depend from his wrist, 
before raising his hands in prayer. In Weston church, 
Shropshire, is the wooden effigy of John de Weston, wearing, 
looped by a cord to his sword-belt, a small purse. This 
worthy knight was Keeper of the Jewels to the Princess 
Elizabeth, daughter of Edward I., the purse being the badge 
of his office. Among the fifteen diminutive monumental 
effigies in England, known to the writer, is that at Britford, 
Wiltshire, representing a butler, holding a covered cup and 
wearing a maniple or napkin. In Hughenden church is a 
slab in low relief, representing a man in armour of the end of 
the fifteenth century carrying a masuel or mace. This instru- 
ment, with its multi-flanged head, derived from the Orient, 
where it was highly thought of, and often richly inlaid and 
damascened. It hung at the saddle-bow and was in great 
request for battering the fine fluted suits of steel. Happy 
the collector who possesses but a portion of those master- 
pieces of the armourer's art. 

Perhaps still more interesting than the monuments of 
different kinds which have been alluded to are those monu- 
mental effigies proper, and the small statues in the recessed 
niches or hovels of tombs, representing figures clad neither 
in armour or in usual ecclesiastical dress, such being but 
common types, but habited in such a manner that each one 



On Certain Rare Monumental Effigies. 97 



exhibits a distinct type of civil or of minor ecclesiastical 
costume. Such are, to take paramount figures, the cross- 
legged civilian at Birkin, Yorkshire, possibly a " cruce 
signatus"; the civilian in hood and tunic, and bearing a 
sword and shield, at Loversal in the same county, about 
1320; the civilian in a loose tunic and with his right hand 
resting on the rare circular disk-head of the anelace, at 
Compton Martin, Somerset, of the same time; the forester 
at Glinton, Northamptonshire, about ^325, carrying a horn 
slung from a baudric, a sheaf of arrows, and a "mighty 
bow " — as Chaucer has it : 

" An horn he bare, the baudric was of green, 
A forester was he soothly as I guess." 

To this series may be added the franklin at Cherrington, 
Warwickshire, on a richly-canopied tomb, 1326; the yeoman 
•at Wadsworth, Yorkshire, about 1330; the "Forester of 
Fee" at Newland, Gloucestershire, 1457; and the highly 
interesting alabaster effigy of Leonard de Hastings at Ashby 
de la Zouche, about 1460, which shows him wearing a 
sclavine, and a scrip decorated, like his hat, with scallop 
shells, and his bourdon or staff by his side. This interesting 
individual had made the journey to Compostella, as the old 
lines have it : 

" You may see by the signs 
That sitten in myne hat, 
That I have walk full wide 
In wet and in dry, 
And sought good saints 
For my soul's health." 

A poem by Sir Walter Raleigh thus refers to such 
travellers : 

" Give me my scallop-shell of quiet, 
My staff of faith to rest upon, 
My scrip of joy — immortal diet, 
My bottle of salvation ; 
My gown of glory — hope's true gage, 
And thus I '11 make my pilgrimage." 

8 

Vol. XXV. 



98 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



It became the custom in later times to present small 
statuettes of St. James to wealthy pilgrims from afar, some- 
times with attendant kneeling figures representing the 
pilgrim, or himself and his wife, in proof that the pious 
journey had been made. These were usually fashioned in 
jet — azavache — and are now objects of considerable rarity. 
There is an example in the Mayer Museum at Liverpool, 
and others were obtained some years ago by the late 
Mr. C. E. D. Fortnum. They all date from immediately 
after the middle of the sixteenth century. 

At Towcester, Northamptonshire, is the remarkable monu- 
ment of Archdeacon Sponne, who died in 1448, a great 
benefactor to the town. The memorial is double, the effigy 
of the archdeacon lying on the upper slab of an open altar- 
tomb, while beneath lies " The lively picture of Death " — a 
not uncommon method of representation at this time, and of 
which examples may be found in most large churches. 
There is a notable instance to the memory of Bishop 
Beckington in Wells Cathedral. It is unfortunate that these 
peculiar monuments should have everywhere given rise to 
the childish and popular fable that the person represented 
desired to emulate our Saviour in the wilderness, and suc- 
cumbed on the thirty-ninth day. At Towcester Sponne is, 
shown in the choir-habit, consisting of a long cassock with 
tight sleeves, a " surples wythe slevys," and an almutium or 
aumasse. On the head is a coif, the figure being carved in 
clunch and the head and hands in oak, according to a not 
unusual Continental practice. At the lamentable restoration 
of the church in 1883, the effigy was denudated or stripped 
by a tool of all its coats of paint, including that which gave 
the original colours of the vestments. It seems almost 
incredible, but the figure was decapitated and a new and 
gross stone-head, with wild Medusa-like locks, put in the 
place of the wooden one. This latter had been treated with 
gesso for painting, after the usual mediaeval manner, it was in 
perfect harmony with the figure, and probably gave some 
likeness of the man. The authority for this wickedness was 



On Certain Rare Monumental Effigies. 



99 



that of the legal guardians of the memorial — the vicar and 
churchwardens. It is desirable to mention this particular 
case as a very glaring instance of the ignorant and barbarous 
manner in which local history is dislocated or written back- 
wards, and historical monuments defaced or wiped out under 
the shelter of "restoration," which daily devours apace. 

With regard to the small statues in the hovels of tombs, 
there are no more beautiful examples than those in alabaster 
or the tomb of John of Eltham, in the Abbey, 1334. Figures 
of this class, and of particular interest, may be seen on 
tombs of the latter part of the fourteenth century, as, for 
instance, on the monument of Sir Roger de Kerdeston at 
Reepham, Norfolk, 1337, and on that of Richard and 
Lancerona de Vere, at Earl's Colne Priory, Essex, 1416. 
Other and little-known examples appear on the sides of a 
tomb, with effigies in clunch of members of the De Reynes 
family, at Clifton Reynes, Buckinghamshire, about 1390. 
The collar worn by the dog at the man's feet is inscribed 38©, 
recalling the name "Terri" on the dog's collar in the brass of 
Sir John Cassey, at Deerhurst, 1400, and "Jakke," the faithful 
canine friend of Sir Brian de Stapleton, at Ingham, Norfolk, 
1438. About forty years later, towards the middle of the 
fifteenth century, rows of rigid angels holding shields — some- 
times alternating with hard conventional figures — took the 
places on the sides of the tombs of the distressful "weepers," 
and we no longer have the valuable minor types of out-of- 
the-way costume. 

Akin to the effigies of the kind that have been mentioned, 
but of far higher interest, are the scarce examples which 
exhibit compound costume. Taking the few that have been 
noticed in order of date, we have first a Purbeck marble 
effigy at Connington, Huntingdonshire, about 1300, showing 
a young man of delicate features in the usual military dress 
of the time, namely, hood, hauberk, and chausses of mail, 
and a surcote confined round the waist by a cingulum. The 
mail is of the kind known as " chain mail," though there can 
be little doubt that the different names such as "edge," 



IOO 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



"ring," " trellised," "mascled," &c, are merely the different 
methods adopted by artists to represent one and the same 
defence, namely, interlinked mail, the only pattern that was 
made, (with the exception of the variety known as " banded 
mail," of which construction we are at present ignorant) 
from Assyrian times to our own day. Over his hauberk the 
knight at Connington wears the frock, girded with a knotted 
cord, and the cowl of a Franciscan — the weed of a friar. These 
garments may indicate, either that the knight, after a life 
spent in military service, ceased to obey the summons to 
repair to Berwick or elsewhere to serve the King with horse 
and arms against the Scots, and took upon himself a friar's 
habit for his soul's health, as we have it expressed in the 
lines upon a seventeenth century monument : — 

" When I was young I ventured life and blood, 
Both for my King and for my country's good ; 
In elder years my care was chief to be, 
Soldier for Him whose blood was shed for me " ; 

or, that the weed is shown on the effigy to signify that the 
dead body had been so vested as a passport through 
Purgatory. Thus, Milton : — 

" And they who to be sure of Paradise, 
Dying put on the weeds of Dominie, 
Or in Franciscan thought to pass disguised ; " 

and Gilpin, in his Beehive of the Romish Church — 

" They do greatly glory to be buried in a monk's greasy hood." 

It may be recalled that when the coffin of King John was 
opened at Worcester in 1770, the remains of the monk's 
cowl were found enwrapping the royal head and shoulders, 
exactly as recorded by Matthew Paris. King John had first 
been buried between the sainted bodies of Oswald and 
Wulstan. The slab upon which the effigy is carved narrows 
rapidly to the feet, like all early monuments, and this one, no 
doubt, originally formed the actual lid of the coffin, and was 
placed level with the pavement and used for that purpose. 



On Certain Rare Monumental Effigies. ioi 



The effigy was elevated upon a new altar -tomb in late 
Perpendicular times. 

The brass of Sir William Ferrers, at Lutterworth, 1444, 
shows him wearing the gown of a civilian over his suit of 
plate ; and that of Sir Peter Leigh, at Winwick, Lancashire, 
1527, who entered the priesthood late in life, exhibits him 
vested with a chasuble over his armour. The case of the 
famous merchant, William Canynges, who died in 1474, 
though somewhat differing from the examples mentioned 
above, must be included in this series. He, too, took orders 
late in life, but is represented by two effigies in St. Mary 
Redclyffe, to the rebuilding of which fabric he largely 
contributed. In the one memorial he appears in a furred 
gown as Mayor of Bristol, and in the other in the choir-habit 
as member of a collegiate foundation. Seven years before 
his death he joined the priesthood, and at once became Dean 
of the College of Westbury-on-Trym, where he partly rebuilt 
the church and offices. Finally, at Rushton, Northampton- 
shire, is the alabaster effigy of Sir Thomas Tresham, 1559, 
showing him in a long black mantle, with a cross flory on the 
breast, worn over the armour. He was made Lord Prior of 
the newly-erected Order of the Knights Hospitallers, by 
Queen Mary, in 1551. The sword is buckled over the 
mantle, the armour appearing at the neck, wrists and feet. 



BRISTOL CATHEDRAL HERALDRY. 



By F. WERE. 



As it is thought desirable at the beginning of the new 
century to put on record an account of the Heraldry of Bristol 
Cathedral, I have compiled the following list with notes as 
the result of several visits. I have taken note of all that I 
have come across, and that Mr. Hayward has kindly shown 
me, but am not able to say whether it is a complete list, 
though supplemented by Woodward. I begin with the east 
window, which contains Berkeley alliances and probably 
benefactors, the dates seemingly ranging from about 1200 to 
1500. The first shield at the top is England. " Gules three 
lions passant guardant in pale or," query, Henry III. 2 : 
Berkeley. " Gules a chevron ermine between ten crosses 
pattee, 4, 2, 1, 2, 1, argent," of Stoke Gifford, possibly Sir 
Maurice Berkeley, 1339. 3: Berkeley. "Gules a chevron 
between ten crosses pattee, 4, 2, 1, 2, 1, argent," the de 
Berkeleys. Thomas, brother of Robert, who died 1243, was 
the first to bear the crosses pattee; before him they only bore 
a plain chevron. 4: Clare. "Or three chevrons gules." 
Lord Maurice de Berkeley married secondly, circa 1316, 
Isabel, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester. 
5 : Warenne. " Chequy or and azure." This quartering 
comes through Clare to 6: Despencer. "Quarterly argent 
and gules in the second and third quarters a fret or, over all 
a bend sable." Lord Maurice de Berkeley married, 1338, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Hugh Despencer. 7 : De Bohun. 
"Azure a bend argent between two cotises and six demi lions 
rampant, 3, 3, or." The Bohuns were Earls of Hereford, 
and this quartering would come through Warenne ; the 
coat is remarkable, because the Bohuns always bore " lions 



Bristol Cathedral Heraldry. 



rampant." I am inclined to think with Woodward (Heraldry 
of Bristol Cathedral: Herald and Geneaologist, vol. iv., p. 305 n, 
by the Rev. John Woodward) that it is either an artist's or 
glazier's error : if the first, then from their being called 
"lioncels" ; if the latter, from want of room, perhaps caused 
by reducing a larger shield to suit this one. 8 : De Willing- 
ton. " Gules a saltire vair." The De Willingtons were a 
Gloucestershire family ; but it is difficult to see why they 
come in here, not being included in Atkyns' Berkeley quar- 
terings : perhaps as benefactors. 9 :' : Beauchamp. "Gules 
a fess between six crosses croslet, 3, 2, 1, or." Richard 
Beauchamp (G.E.C., vii. 58), thirteenth Earl of Warwick, 
married Elizabeth, 1393, daughter and heiress of Thomas 
Lord Berkeley and de Lisle. 10: Marmaduke. "Gules a 
fess between three pigeons close argent." This is not among 
the quarterings, but I suppose comes in with Thomas Berke- 
ley, who in 1504-5 married Eleanor, widow of William 
Ingleby and daughter of Sir Marmaduke, Constable of 
Yorkshire (Atkyns, 139). n: De la Rivere. "Azure two 
bars dancetty or." This is not a quartering, but might come 
in with the next. 12: Fitzalan. "Gules a lion rampant 
or." This is a quartering most probably through Despencer. 
13: Montacute. "Argent three fusils in fess gules." This 
is not a quartering, so perhaps a benefactor. 14 : Brade- 
stone. "Argent on a quarter gules a rose or." Thomas 
Bradestone was a great friend of Maurice Berkeley, so 
perhaps a benefactor; but Barrett, p. 291, says it is Abbot 
Bradstone's. 15: Basset. "Ermine on a quarter gules a 
mullet pierced or." Margaret, daughter of Thomas Lord 
Berkeley, who died 1243, did marry Sir Ancelme Basset, 
Knt. ; but its marshalling seems out of place. 16: ... . 
" Gules on a quarter argent an eagle displayed or." Liver- 
sage attributed this to De la Mare, and so does Woodward ; 
but the last leaves out the metal of the eagle. This renders 
it false, and until the true reading is found it is better to 
leave it unnamed. 17: Clivedon. "Or a lion rampant 
sable crowned gules." Thomas, Lord Berkeley, married, 



104 Transactions for the Year 1902. 

1347, Katharine, daughter and heiress of Sir John Clivedon^ 
of Charfield, widow of Sir Peter le Veel. It has been 
attributed to Beauchamp of Essex. 

At the base of the window are stone shields, principally 
badges or devices ; but two contain the arms of Elyot" 
"(Argent) on a chief (gules) two mullets (of the first)." 
Barrett says, Robert Elliot, 1515-26 ; it is thus in the stained 
glass windows in the cloisters ; but the shield might read as 
a " bar in chief," seeing there is space between the chief and 
the edge of the shield. Also a shield bearing a saltire, which 
is attributed to Abbot Hunt, 1463, and given as "Azure a 
saltire or," but I can find no authority for this ; it is gener- 
ally a per pale coat. 

Below window on reredos or screen, now another Lady 
Chapel, there are six stone shields, two of them Berkeley ; 
two England ; two Clare ; all as before. 

CHANCEL (now ? Lady Chapel). 
S.E. WINDOW. 

1 : Beauchamp, as before. 2 : Quarterly 1 and 4, " Gules 
a mullet or;" 2 and 3, " Sable a cross or." Woodward left 
both of these unnamed : the 2 and 3 has been attributed to 
Havenell, and I will leave them so ; but I have a strong 
suspicion that 1 and 4, read as "an estoile," would be Brun, 
and 2 and 3, read as " quarterly sable and azure a cross or," 
would be Croun ; Maurice Berkeley married Isabel Croun, 
daughter of Isabel Brun. 3: Poynings. "Barry of six or 
and vert a bendlet gules." Eleanor Berkeley married Richard 
Poynings. 4: Bradestone, as before. 5: See of Bristol.. 
" Sable three ducal coronets in pale or." It has been ques- 
tioned whether the field is sable. 6 : Berkeley, of Berkeley, 
as before. 7 : ? Rodney. " Or three eagles displayed sable." 
In this neighbourhood the eagles are always gules or purpure; 
part of the eagle in chief is cut off by the party line of the 
impaling, so it is possible it was a separate shield originally ;. 



Bristol Cathedral Heraldry. 105 

impaled with it is a false coat, . . . . "Argent on a chev- 
ron or three bucks' heads cabossed entrailed sable." This has 
been thought to be Servington ; but they bore a field gener- 
ally ermine, a chevron azure, may be sable, and the heads 
or ; besides there is no such Rodney alliance to be found. 
8 : . . . . A similar shield to the impaling of 7. 9 : 
Berkeley, of Stoke Gifford, as before. 10 : Cobham. 
"Gules on a chevron or three estoiles sable." 11: Berke- 
ley. The same as 9, only with a label of three points azure,, 
the eldest son. There are also two knights who bear — 1, 
"Argent a cross gules," possibly St. George or a Vere ; 2, 
"Gules a cross argent," most probably a Knight Hospitaller. 

s.w. WINDOW. 

1 : Mortimer. "Azure three bars or an inescutcheon 
argent, in chief two palets between as many gyrons of the 
second." Thomas, Lord Berkeley, married, 1320, Margaret, 
daughter of Roger Mortimer, Earl of March. 2 : Saint Loe.. 
"Argent a bend sable and label of three points gules." The 
Saint Loes were great church builders, so possibly a large 
benefactor. 3 : ? Cobham. " Gules a chevron or." There is 
no certainty about this coat ; and seeing that the well-known 
Cobham appears elsewhere, there seems no reason why this, 
scarce variety should be attributed to them. Woodward 
thinks the chevron ought to be "argent," and therefore a 
Berkeley. 4: Berkeley. With label. See 11, S.E. window. 
5: Warenne, as before. 6: De Bohun. Here the lions are: 
not demi, but rampant. See 7 of E. window. There are also 
two knights : one bears the Berkeley and the other the 
? Cobham. See 3 of this window. 

n.e. window. 

1 : Berkeley, of Stoke Gifford. 2 : Cobham. As 10 in 
S.E. window. 3 : Berkeley. With label of three points 
azure. 

n.w. window. 

1 . . . " Sable a cross or." See 2 of S.E. window. As 
No. 3, Vere is marshalled with this ; perhaps it is intended 



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Transactions for the Year 1902. 



for "sable a cross lozengy or," which is Ufford, an alliance. 
2 : Gornay. " Or a lion rampant sable crowned of the field 
within a bordure gules." 3 : Vere. " Quarterly gules and 
or in first quarter a mullet argent. 

ON DOOR LEADING INTO S. AISLE, CARVED IN WOOD, 
TINCTURED. 

Dean and Chapter. Woodward, p. 298, says : Abbot 
Somerset. "Azure a saltire between in first quarter a port- 
cullis and in each of the other quarters a fleur de lys argent." 
Woodward says, " Saltire argent, the rest or." Barrett says, 
p. 283, that in 1624 the Dean and Chapter changed their 
seal for "three ducal coronets, in pale a saltire cross charged 
with three fleurs de lis and a portcullis." This is a wrong 
reading ; but he gives these coats properly, though impaled, 
on the plate of the Cathedral, p. 246. He must have mis- 
taken this for Abbot Somerset's : as it would have been 
violating the right of the Bishop, I doubt if it was ever done. 
In Gloucestershire Visitation of 1682 the Dean and Chapter's 
seal is given with the shields quite separate, a globe being 
between them ; but it is there stated that the 1542 seal can- 
not be found, yet this one "substantially represents the old 
one." 

CHOIR. Woodwork, 
n. side. 

Girdlestone, Canon. " (Per pale gules and azure) a 
griffin segreant (argent) over on a fess daucetty (or) three 
crosses pattee (of the first)." 

Guthrie, Canon. Quarterly, 1 and 4, " (Or) a lion 
rampant (gules.") 2 and 3, " (Azure) a garb (or) over all 
a label of four points and a crescent for difference." 

The See impaling Thorpe, Archdeacon. " (Argent) a 
fess nebuly counternebuly between three trefoils slipped 
(gules)." Here the Archdeacon has had appropriated to him 
the status of a Bishop, like Barrett's seal of the Dean and 
Chapter, but the "baron " ought to have been dimidiated — 



Bristol Cathedral Heraldry. 107 



in chief the See, in base Abbot Somerset ; see end of last 
paragraph. 

The See, impaling Monk, Bishop. " (Gules) a chevron 
between three lions' heads erased (argent)." 

Mosley, Canon. " (Sable) on a chevron between three 
mill-picks (argent) as many mullets (gules), impaling 
Nottidge. " ( Azure) a chevron between in chief two garbs 
and in base a golden fleece (or)." ' 

" Under the poppy-head of the Dean's stall,'' Woodward 
says, " on this side are, the arms of Abbot Elyott with the 
mullets pierced, but the shield is charged with a crozier 
erect in pale enfiling a mitre with labels, the lower shaft 
looped with a cord, between the letters R.E." See plate, 
P- 303- 

s. side. 

Tierce. 1 : Scott. " (Argent) three lions' heads erased 
2 and 1 (gules), between the two in chief an anchor (sable), 
on a chief wavy (azure), a portcullis with chains (or)." 
Canon Bankes married first Lady Frances Jane Scott, 
daughter of Lord Chancellor Eldon. 2 : Bankes, Canon. 
" (Sable) a cross engrailed ermine between four fleurs de lys 
(or)," a mullet in chief for difference. 3 : Quarterly, 1, Rice. 
"(Argent) a chevron (sable) between three ravens close 
proper." 2, ? Urian Reged. " (Azure) a lion rampant 
(ermine)." Woodward says, p. 304, Talbot, and gives the 
coat a " bordure engrailed," which it has not ; now if it was 
intended for Talbot, the third quartering would be Car- 
donnel, but here that is not so : see Dynevor Lineage, 
Burke's Peerage. 3, ? Gwilliam. " (Azure) three bucks' 
heads cabossed (or). Gwilliam also bore the next quarter- 
ing, but with the spearhead sable. 4 : Griffith. " (Argent) 
on a cross (sable) five crescents (or), in the first quarter a 
spear's head (gules)." See Burke's Peerage as before. This 
shield is wrongly marshalled, as it implies either a Scott 
married a Bankes and a Rice, or a Rice had two husbands, 



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Scott and Bankes : the "baron " should have been Bankes, : 
and the "femme" a dimidiated coat, Scott in chief and 
Rice in base ; Canon Bankes married, secondly, Maria, 
daughter of the Hon. Edward Rice, Dean of Gloucester. 

The See. Elliott, Dean. " (Gules) on a bend engrailed 
(or) a baton (azure), within a bordure nebuly — query, 'vair.'" 
Crest : Dexter hand issuing from clouds and throwing a 
dart (all proper). 

On poppy-head by Precentor's desk, Caley. " Quarterly 
argent and sable on a bend gules three mullets of the first." 

Berkeley, of Berkeley, as before, but with supporters, 
two mermaids, which they seem to have used temp. Edward 
III., and ensigned with a mitre, which is without labels and 
not charged with the Berkeley coat. 

Pigou, Dean. " (Or) three spearheads, 2 and 1 (gules)," 
impaling, Quarterly, 1 and 4, Smith. " ? (Azure) two bars 
chequy . „ . and - . . (query, wavy ermine) on a chief 
(or) a demi lion rampant issuant (sable)." 2 and 3, 
? Sutton. " (Argent) a fess between three escallops 
(gules)." Unfortunately the carvers forgot that this was an 
impaled coat and therefore denoted a particular person, who 
is, believe "he Dean's father; if only the paternal coat had 
been used would have been right. Crest: On wreath,, 
dove with olive branch in beak : this is not the usual Pigou 
crest, so I suppose the Smiths'. 

N. CHOIR AISLE. 
E. WINDOW. 

Three achievements, each having a crest — " A falcon,, 
wings expanded argent, beaked and legged gules, belled or." 
1 : Glemham, Dean, 1660-7. " Or a chevron gules between 
three torteaux, a crescent for difference." 2 : Quarterly of 
six. 1, Glemham. As i without difference. 2, Brandon. 
" Barry of eight (really ten) argent and gules, over all a lion 



Bristol Cathedral Heraldry. 



109 



or ducally crowned per pale of the first and second." John 
Glemham married Elenor, daughter and afterwards heir of 
Sir William Brandon, Knt. 3 : Bacon. "Azure three boars 
passant in pale or." Sir John Glemham, Knt., married 
Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress of Thomas Bacon, Esq. 
4, Antingham. " Sable a bend argent." Sir Thomas 
Bacon, Knt., married Alys, daughter and heir to Sir 
Bartholomew Antingham, Knt. 5, Baynard. " Sable a 
fess between two chevrons or." John' Bacon, Esq., married 
Margaret, daughter and heir of Robert Baynard. Esq. 
6, . . . " Azure a fret or." This quartering is not in 
'Suffolk Visitation, 1561; I cannot find any connection 
between a family bearing this coat (possibly Antingham 
might), with Glemham or the other quarterings ; but I make 
this note, that Mr. Poynton has stated, though I unfortunately 
cannot find the reference, that Dean Glemham married a 
Harrington, and that- she was either relict or relation of 
Dean Chetwynd ; her coat might be " sable a fret or ; " but 
if 6 was an error for Harrington, it would be very unlikely 
for her to appear in his own window as a quartering. 
3 : Glemham as before, impaling Parker. " Argent a lion 
passant gules between on two bars sable three bezants, 
2 and 1, in chief as many bucks' heads cabossed of the 
third." Thomas Glemham, Esq., married Amye, daughter 
of Sir Henry Parker, 14th Lord Morley, and coheiress of 
Thomas, 15th Baron. 

Round the upper ledges of Bishop Paul Bush's tomb 
are six shields, coloured, but only showing faint traces of 
his arms. Bush, Bishop, 1542. " Argent on a fess gules 
between three boars passant sable armed or a rose inter two 
eagles displayed of the last." Barrett says this was on the 
throne now removed. 

On upper altar step, a flat stone with lozenge shield 
partially defaced. Throkmorton. " (Gules) on a chevron 
(argent) three bars gemelles (sable)." Ann, daughter of Sir 
-Nicholas Throkmorton, Bart., oh. 1698. 



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On gravestone, two oval white marble shields let in ; the 
upper one quite defaced, but most probably bore the see, 
impaling Westfield, Bishop, 1G41 ; he also seems to have 
borne "Gules a cross between four garbs or." The other 
Westfield. " Argent a cross (sable)," impaling Meetkirke, 
now Metcalfe. "(Gules) two swords in saltire points 
downwards (or) ; " defaced, but a rubbing showed the hilt 
and pommel of the sinister sword to be in chief. 

Monument under E. window. One upper and three 
lower shields. 1 : Has the whole field daubed reddish ; 
quarterly, 1 and 4, Codrington, 1618. " Argent a fess em- 
battled counterembattled sable fretty gules between three lions 
passant of the last." 2, Tregarthian. " Argent a chevron 
between three escallops sable." 3, Kelleway. "Argent 
two glaziers' irons (? spokeshaves) in saltire sable (now or) 
between four pears pendant proper" (i.e. gules and or). These 
are the true coats; they are daubed on the monumeut. 
Robert Codrington was the grandson of Thomas, who 
married Mary, coheir of John Kelleway and Joan Tregarthian. 
2 : Codrington, as before. 3 : Codrington, impaling, 
Quarterly, 1 and 4, Stubbs. "Sable on a bend between 
three pheons (with shafts) points downwards argent as many 
oval buckles gules." 2 and 3, ..." Lozengy argent 
and sable." The Robert of this monument married Anne, 
daughter and coheiress of William Stubbs. Dr. Drake in 
his Hundred of Blackheath mentions, on p. 233, that " house 
and lands were let in 1565 to William Stubbs and his 
daughters Anne and Susan, on their lives, at 100s." 
Perhaps this was the Anne, but I can find no pedigree to 
prove 2 and 3 ; there was a second grant of arms in 1445 
which ought to be quartered with Codrington. 4 : Samuell, 
alias Samwell. " Argent two squirrels sejant addorsed 
gules." Robert Codrington, grandson of the above Robert, 
married in 1674 Agnes, daughter of Richard Samwell, of 
Upton and Gayton, Northamptonshire. 



Bristol Cathedral Heraldry. 



hi 



Layard, Dean, ob. 1803. "(Gules) a chevron (or) 
between in chief two six pointed mullets, the edges issuing 
rays (of the last), pierced (of the field) and in base a 
crescent (argent), on a chief (azure) three mullets as before." 

Loose shield in arched recess. Berkeley, of Berkeley, as 
before ; most probably from monument of Joshua Berkeley, 
Dean of Tuam, ob. 1807. 

On lozenge shield. Harcourt. " Gules two bars or." 
1792 to 1801. 

Raymond, ob. 1830. "Sable a chevron between three 
eagles displayed argent, on a chief of the last a bend engrailed 
inter two martlets of the field, a crescent gules for differ- 
ence." Lieut. -General Raymond married Anne, daughter of 
Alexander Forbes, of Grishal Grange, Essex. On escutcheon 
of pretence, Forbes. " Azure three bears' heads couped 
2 and 1 argent, muzzled gules." Crest : Dragon's head 
erased or gorged gules. Landed Gentry pedigree does not 
give this marriage. 

Freke. " Sable two bars (argent) or, in chief three 
mullets of the last," impaling ..." Sable three lions 
rampant argent," query, Prous. Barrett says Philip Freke 
was Sheriff of Bristol 1708, and this monument says he 
died 1729, but I cannot find his marriage. Crest : Bull's 
head couped gules (? sable), armed, collared and lined or. 

Woodward, 1828. "Azure a pale engrailed between 
two eagles displayed argent." Crest : On ducal coronet (or) 
a grey hound sejant argent. 

Burton, ob. 1838. " Sable a chevron or between three 
owls argent crowned of the second." Crest : Owl as in the 
Arms. 

Howe, ob. 1828. "Or a fess between three wolves' heads 
erased sable," impaling, " Argent a fess nebuly between 



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three mullets sable " ; this would be Blackbourne, but I 
cannot find pedigree to prove it. 

Against this wall seems to be the broken-up parts of the 
large monument of Thomas Coster, M.P., given a folding 
plate in Barrett's Bristol, p. 299 ; this had two shields. 
1 : " Ermine a chevron per pale or and sable." I suppose 
Coster, ob. 1739. He is called "Armiger," but reference 
books do not give it. 2 : "Or an eagle displayed azure." 
Rous. Thomas Coster married, first, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Thomas Rous, Esq., of Wotton-under-Edge. 

Cumberbatch, ob. 1 796. " Gules an eagle displayed 
between three trefoils, 2 and 1 or." Woodward says adjoin- 
ing this, now deprived of its shield, in the Lay Clerk's 
Vestry, Cumberbatch, ob. 1785, impaling Trinell. (Pap- 
worth.) Quarterly, 1 and 4, "Sable two swords in saltire 
proper, hilted or between three coronets of the last, one in 
chief and two in flanks." 2 and 3, Somers. "Vert a fess 
dancetty ermine." I cannot find Trinell and Somers alliance, 
but the former, like the Cumberbatchs, was most probably 
of Barbadoes. 

On wall above triforium passage, and so very hard to 
read, the two following : 

The See, impaling Conybeare, Bishop, ob. 1755. It 
looks as if the tinctures had been reversed, but should be 
" Argent a saltire sable debruised by a pale gules." His 
gravestone lies at the entrance to the chancel from the 
S. choir aisle, and bore coat, but too defaced to read. 

On wreathed pillar. Tierney, 1771. "Azure a sword 
erect proper, hilt and pommel or, between two lions rampant 
respecting each other of the last." This ought to have " On 
a chief ermine three trefoils slipped vert," and the lions 
" double queues," which possibly they have. Impaling 
Vassmer. " Azure a crane argent with its vigilance or, 
between three bezants." Woodward, p. 298. Not in 
reference books. 



Bristol Cathedral Heraldry. 



113 



S. CHOIR AISLE. 

Over entrance door into chancel on stone screen, a finely 
carved shield of the royal arms, Quarterly France and 
England, ensigned with a crown, and having for supporters, 
lately renovated in parts, on the dexter, what is usually a 
dragon, but this has only two legs and therefore a wyvern, 
with a long twisted tail supporting the shield; on the sinister, 
a greyhound. Most probably an early Henry VIII th - 

Wright. Two badges or rebus of Thomas Wright, 
Receiver-General for the Chapter, 1541. 

E. window, companion to n. choir aisle, e. window. 
1 : Glemham. See N. choir aisle, impaling Brandon. 
14 Barry of ten argent and gules a lion rampant or, crowned 
per pale of the first and second." See N. choir aisle. 
2 : Glemham, impaling Wentworth. " Sable a chevron 
between three leopards' faces or." Christopher Glemham 
married Margaret, daughter of Sir Richard Wentworth, Knt., 
co. Suffolk. 3 : Glemham, impaling Bacon. See N. choir 
aisle, also for Crests. 

E. WALL. 

Cary, 1724, defaced. " Argent on a bend sable three 
roses of the field." Crest : Swan proper, lying on triforium 
passage. 

Booth, Dean, 1708-30. " Argent three boars' heads 
erect erased 2 and 1 sable, langued gules." (Partly defaced.) 

Riley, 1828. "Or a fess between three crosses pattee 
vert." Crest : Dragon's head erased gules bezanty. 

Tomb. Bronze, and also four tinctured out of six, under 
canopy above. Quarterly, 1 and 4, Muirhead. " Argent 
on a bend azure three acorns or." 2 and 3, Grossett, 1820. 
" Azure three mullets in fess or between in chief an acorn of 
the last and in base three bezants barways," impaling, 
Quarterly, 1 and 4, Shirley, "Paly of six or and azure a 
canton ermine." 2 and 3, Waldeshef. "Azure (generally 
gules) three swords in pale bendways points sinisterways 

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downwards argent, hilts and pommels or." Shirley married 
the heiress. 

Tomb, in recessed arch between aisle and chapel com- 
monly called Berkeley. Round the arch above are shields 
bearing a chevron, Fitzharding or Berkeley ;. below, on the 
chapel side, under a frieze of horseshoe character evidently 
adapted from the Ferrers' badge, are five shields untinctured. 
1: Berkeley, with the crosses. 2: Ferrers, " Vaire " (or 
and gules). 3: The three lions of England; query, Henry 
III. or Edward I. 4: De Quinci. "(Gules) six muscles, 
3, 2, 1 (or)." G. E. C. says: Thomas Berkeley, 6b. 1321, 
1st Baron, 1295, married in 1267 Joan, daughter of William 
de Ferrers, Earl of Derby, by his second wife, Margaret, 
daughter and coheir of Roger de Quinci, Earl of Winchester. 
5 : Berkeley, " with crosses and a label azure," generally 
attributed to Maurice, son of the former. These shields, &c, 
have a modern appearance, but if old, or copies of old, this 
last shield's label has the heraldic lines on it, denoting it to 
be "azure," and therefore a very early example; but unless 
the crosses were painted in the shields in the archway, this 
tomb would belong to an earlier Berkeley, say Robert, 
brother of the Thomas who adopted them as charges. 

s. WALL. 

The See impaling Searchfield, Bishop, ob. 1622. There 
are two readings of this coat. 1 : " Argent three crossbows 
bent, each loaded with a three (? five) headed bird bolt sable, 
a chief vert." 2: Barrett says, "Azure three crossbows 
stringed argent, a chief or." The carvings resemble more the 
string loosed, like a modern catapult, as there is no middle 
stock like a modern crossbow. 

Chetwynd, Dean, ob. 1639. " (Azure) a chevron between 
three mullets (or)," impaling Harington. " (Sable) a fret 
(argent)." Mr. Poynton, in his History of Kelston, says Dean 
Chetwynd married Helena Harington. 



Bristol Cathedral Heraldry. 



Two niches, holding as many effigies, on their shields the 
Berkeley with crosses. 

On floor, gravestone. Phillips. " (Or) a lion rampant 
(sable) collared and chained of the first." 

windows : S.E. 
Quarterly, i and 4, Loscombe. " Argent on a fess 
azure between three leopards' faces entrailed sable (really 
proper, a cross ? moline inter two crosses croslet or.") 
2 and 3, Couper. " Argent on a chevron gules between 
three laurel leaves, the two in chief respecting, slipped vert, 
another chevron ermine." 

s.w. 

1 : Symonds. " Or three trefoils slipped sable," generally 
"Azure three trefoils slipped or." 2: Sykes. "Or on a 
chevron azure between three tufts of grass vert as many 
crosses croslet of the first." 3 : Symonds. " Per fess sable 
and argent a pale counterchanged, three trefoils 2 and 1 
slipped of the second." 4 : " Barry of twelve argent and 
gules.'' Papworth gives Manwaring or Stutvile, co. 
Somerset, for the last. 

Over entrance to Berkeley Chapel four stone shields, two 
Berkeley of Berkeley, and two with plain chevron and no 
crosses. Fitzharding or Berkeley. 

Old glass in window S. side of sacristy or vestibule to 
Berkeley Chapel. Three shields within a round bordure. 

1 : " Azure a fess or, over all a ? camel's head erased 
argent, charged with three ermine spots." 2 : Quarterly 
of eight. 1, ? defaced or patch; 2, "Azure with large 
diaper ? patch, a bend vert." 3. St. John. " Argent 
on a chief gules two pierced mullets or." 4, Gules ? oak- 
branch with two acorns argent." 5, " Barry of six ? azure, 
purpure or sable and gules." 6, ? Leicester. " Azure a 
fess between three fleurs de lys or." 7, ? Vernon. "Argent 
a fret sable." 8, ? Delamore. " Argent six martlets, 3, 
2, 1, sable." 



,ti6 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



In a glass case underneath, Mr. Warren has preserved 
old tiles which came out of the so-called Berkeley Chapel ; 
one of Abbot Elyot's, with the chief and two pierced mullets, 
is very perfect except the tinctures, and two of the Berkeleys 
of Berkeley are also in the same condition, together with 
broken pieces of the last. 

Williams, Bart., 1804. Almost defaced. Woodward ■ 
says : " Argent a stag trippant proper." Reference books 
add : " Hoofed and attired or, between the attires a royal 
crown proper" (being an augmentation granted by King 
John). Baronetcy extinct in 1804. In sinister chief Ulster 
badge, on escutcheon of pretence. Riley. "Or a fess 
between three crosses ? patty vert." 

Over triforium passage under Loscombe window. 
Quarterly, 1 and 4, Walker. " (Argent) on a chevron 
^sable) between three roundles (pellets) as many crescents of 
the field." 2 and 3 : . . . "A chevron between three 
castles." Woodward gives a wrong reading, but without a 
pedigree I cannot prove 2 and 3 : impaling Andrews. 
"Gules a saltire (or) charged with another vert." Crest: 
Sun in splendour proper. Motto : Passibus sequis. 

NEWTON CHAPEL— S. Aisle. 

ON TOMB E. SIDE. 

Newton (Cradobk), oh. 1444. " Argent on a chevron 
azure three garbs or." 

s. SIDE. 

1 : Barrett says this tomb has at top three shields ; " one 
belonging to a man has 24 quarterings, another belonging to 
a woman 12, and the middle one man and woman impaled." 
So in his time, 1789, the man's shield had 24 quarterings; 
.but in Woodward's time, circa 1867, numbers 1, 5 and 9 of 
hese quarterings had been knocked off, and are still so, after 
which no doubt the wretched tincturing that is on them at 
present was painted. Woodward unfortunately failed to 
notice that this was an impaled coat, and so runs the lines of 



Bristol Cathedral Heraldry. 117 



quarterings into one another ; the man bears 9 quarterings 
and jagged edges of 3, the woman 12. The first quartering 
is missing, Cradock-Newton, as before. 2 : Sherborne. 
" Ermine three fusils in fess sable." Lozenges in Gloucester, 
shire Visitation, 1623, p. 114. Robert Cradock, lord of Newton, 
married Margery, daughter and ? heiress of Nicholas Sher- 
borne. 3: Angell; Collinson says Pennington. " ? Or 
four fusils in fess azure, over all a bend gules." I think the 
former most likely, but I cannot find any alliance for either. 
4: Perott. "Gules three pears, 2 and 1, argent really or." 
Richard Cradock, the first who took the name of Newton, 
married Emma or Amicia, daughter and coheir of Sir 
Thomas Perott, Knt., of Ystington (Pembrokeshire). Glou- 
cestershire Visitation, as before. 5: Missing; query Harvie, so 
given in the Confirmation of Newton Arms, 1567, Herald and 
Genealogist, iv. 438 ; and Dr. Drake says in Hundred of Blackheath, 
Additianal Notes, xxii., perhaps modifications of Nernuyt, 
and gives the lion and billets " argent " ; whereas the blazon 
and the reading is always " Sable billetty a lion rampant or." 
But this Emma Harvie, called " Emate d. John Hardy, of 
London," in Mr. Weaver's Somerset Visitation of 1531, marries 
the same man as Emma Perott did, so possibly, 
although called daughter, she might have been widow, and 
that this quartering is an old Perott coat, as no such Harvie 
arms seem to be known ; it is also one of the quarterings in 
Sir John Palmer Acland's shield in Berry's plates. 6 : " Sable 
a chevron argent," really Chedder. "Sable a chevron between 
three escallops argent." Sir John Newton, buried at Yatton, 
1488, married Isabel, second daughter and coheir of Sir John 
Chedder, Knt. 7 : " Gules a bend between two crosses 
croslet argent," really Hampton. " Azure a bend between six 
fleurs de lys or." Lucy Hampton, ob. 1504, married — first, 
Sir Thomas Chokke ; secondly, Sir Thomas Newton ; third, 
Sir Edmund Gorges. Gloucestershire Visitation says she was 
the daughter and coheir of Matthew Hampton. 8: Bitton. 
" Ermine a fess gules." Richard Hampton married Eliza- 
beth, coheir of Sir John Bitton. 9 : Missing, really Fur- 



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neaux. "Gules a bend between six crosses croslet or." Sir 
John Bitton married Hawise, daughter and coheiress of 
Matthew Furneux, Knt. 10 : " Sable a chevron argent," 
really Cadicott. "Sable on a chevron between (Gloucestershire 
Visitation) three trees (eradicated), leaves (East Harptree 
monument) or, an eagle displayed of the field." Philip 
Hampton married Alice, daughter and heir of Walter 
Cadicott (Weaver's Somerset Visitation, p. 27). 11 : Gourney. 
f * Paly of six or and azure." Joan, heiress of Thomas 
Gourney, married Walter Cadicott. 12: Harptree. "Argent 
a saltire humetty, flory at the ends, gules." Robert Gourney v 
of Beverston, Gloucestershire, married Ellen, heiress of 
William Harptree. Impaling: i, Paston, here and every- 
where. "Azure six fleurs de lys, 3, 2, 1 " ; really, "Argent 
six fleurs de lys azure, a chief indented or." Sir Henry 
Newton married Catharine, daughter of Sir Thomas Paston. 
2, " Sable a fess between two chevrons argent," really 
Peeche. " Argent a fess between two chevrons gules." 
Walter Paston married Ciceley, daughter and heir of Simon 
Peeche. 3, Here Paston, wrong as before ; ought to be 
Leeche. " Ermine on a chief indented gules three ducal 
coronets or." Clement Paston married Ciceley, daughter 
and heir of William Leeche. 4, " ? Sable a chevron argent," 
really Somerton. "Or on a chevron between three lions' 
heads erased gules, as many bezants." Clement Paston 
married Beatrix, daughter and heir of John Somerton. 
5, Walcote. " Azure an inescutcheon within orle of 
martlets argent." 6, " Gules a chevron between three birds 
argent," really Barrey. "Argent a chevron between three 
bears' heads couped sable, muzzled or." Judge William 
Paston married Agnes, daughter and coheir of Sir Edmund 
Barrey. 7, Hemgrave. " Ermine (generally ' argent ') a chief 
indented gules." Query, Brome. 8, "Ermine a fess gules," 
which is Bitton, but really Watsam or Watsand. " Argent a 
fess between two (also three) crescents gules," but apparently 
more correctly, as it is a quartering of Gerbridge, " Argent 
a fess in chief two crescents gules." 9, " Argent a lion 



Bristol Cathedral Heraldry. 



119 



rampant guardant gules," really Hatherfield. " Azure a 
lion rampant guardant or." io, Gerbridge. " Sable a fess 
between two chevrons or." I have not been able to connect 
7 and 9, but 10 comes through 6, Barrey, as Sir Edmund 
Barrey married Alice, daughter and heir of Sir John Ger- 
bridge. 11, 44 ? Azure a chevron argent," really Peever. 
44 Argent on a chevron gules three fleurs de lys or." 12, 
Mawtbye. 44 Azure a cross patty throughout or." John 
Paston, Esq., married Margaret, daughter and heir of John 
Mawtbye. 

Cradock Newton, as before, impaling wrong Paston. 
Crest, above, partly defaced : a king of the Moors armed in 
mail, with gauntlets under his girdle crowned gold, kneeling 
on his left knee in the act of delivering up his sword all 
proper. 

On lozenge shield, 12 quarterings. 1, 44 Ermine two bars 
wavy azure." I suppose we must consider this is intended 
for Paston. 2, 44 Argent a fess between a chief indented 
az, and a chevron gules." This also must be intended for 
Peeche. 3, 44 Ermine a chief indented gules." This, al- 
though being Hemgrave, and is repeated in its proper place, 
No. 7, by the marshalling, ought to be the part that it is of, 
Leeche. 4, 44 Or a chevron sable between three lions' heads 
erased gules," sufficient to show it to be Somerton. 5, 
44 Azure an inescutcheon within an orle of martlets argent," 
Walcote. 6, 44 Argent a chevron between three bears' 
heads couped sable, muzzled or," Barrey. 7, Hemgrave, 
as before. 8, Watsand. 44 Argent a fess and two crescents 
in chief gules." 9, Hatherfield, as before. 10, Ger- 
bridge. Query, with one chevron only. 11, 4 4 Argent on a 
chevron gules three lozenges or," Gerbridge. This may 
possibly be the correct 11 ; but the oldest marshalling known 
says 11 is Peever, as given before. 12, Mawtbye, as 
before. 



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Six small shields. 1 : Paston, impaling " Or a chevron 
between three lions' heads erased gules," intended for Somer- 
ton. 2 : Cradock Newton, impaling Sherborne, as before. 
3 : Paston, impaling " Ermine a chief indented gules ;" most 
probably Leeche : may be Hemgrave. 4: Paston, im- 
paling Barrey. 5 : Paston, impaling " Argent a cross 
engrailed sable," query. Most probably a wrong blazon, 
as there seems to be no Paston marriage of a family that 
bore such a coat. 6 : Paston, impaling Mawtbye, as before. 

S.W. SIDE. ON TOMB, W. SIDE. 

Cradock Newton, impaling " Per pale or and gules, over 
all a double-headed eagle displayed ? sable or proper;" really 
" couterchanged," though sometimes " azure and or," Stone. 
Sir John Newton, oh. 1661, married Grace Stone. Crest: 
the same as the one over Sir Henry's tomb, but with sword 
in dexter hand. 

ELDER LADY CHAPEL. 
Berkeley, of Berkeley, on the surcoat of Maurice 
Berkeley. 

N. TRANSEPT. 

Brass. Saunderson. Two crests and mottoes. 1: On 
wreath, " A tree with two pendant fruits, query hawks' lures, 
from lower branches." Saunders. Motto, " Depressa 
resurgo," not given in books. 2 : On wreath, " A Talbot 
passant argent, spotted sable." Motto, "Coelum patria 
Christus via " ; this is the Saunderson crest, but not the 
usual motto. 

N. WINDOW. 

i : Colston. " Argent an anchor between two dolphins 
hauriant respecting proper." Motto, " Go and do thou like- 
wise." 2 : Merchant Venturers. " Barry wavy of eight 
argent and azure on a bend or dragon passant, wings 
addorsed and tail extended vert, on chief gules a lion of 
England between two bezants." Motto, " Indocilis pauperiem 
patri." 3: Dolphin Society. "Argent a dolphin naiant 
embowed proper." I question this coat having been granted. 



Bristol Cathedral Heraldry. 



121 



4: See of Gloucester. "Azure two keys addorsed in 
saltire, wards uppermost, or," impaling See of Bristol, as 
before ; the united Bishopric. 5 : Bristol City, " Gules 
in the sinister base on a mount vert a castle masonried, 
with two domed towers, on each a pennon argent ; in the 
dexter base barry wavy of six of the last and azure, thereon 
a ship sailing from behind castle or, two masts in sight on 
each as many sails and a flag, all of the third." Motto, 
"Virtute et industria." 6: Christ's^. Hospital. "Argent 
a cross gules." Colston was educated there. 

N. WALL. 

Maze, oh. 1849. Ermine on a bend engrailed azure be- 
tween two eagles displayed, another bend or charged with 
three lions passant sable, query proper." Crest: Eagle 
displayed or (? ermine or erminois), charged on breast and 
each wing with a cinquefoil gules. Motto, "Garde ta bien 
aimee." 

Brass. Macliver. "Argent on a fess between in chief 
two crosses croslet fitchee gules, and in base a salmon 
naiant barways proper, an Eastern crown or." Crest : Out 
of mural coronet or a swan sable, collared, lined and crowned 
with an Eastern crown of the first. Motto, " Be mindful." 

On Moument, two shields. 1 : Bristol City, as before, 
untinctured with crest and supporters. 2: Gore, oh. 1814. 
" (Gules) a fess between three crosses croslet fitchee (or) ;" 
impaling Ireland. " (Gules) three fleurs de lys, 2 and 1 
(argent) on a chief indented (of the last) a lion passant (of the 
first) between two torteaux." Crest : An heraldic tiger 
rampant (argent) gorged (gules). Colonel William Gore 
married Sarah, daughter of John Ireland, of North America, 
and was Colonel of the Bristol Volunteers. 

W. WINDOW. 

Six shields. 1 : The See. 2 : Mosley, as before. 3 : 
Girdlestone, as before. 4 : Elliott, Dean, as before. 



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5: Norris. "Quarterly 1 and 4 argent, 2 and 3 gules or, a 
fess azure." If this is intended for Archdeacon Norris, it is 
wrong, as he was a Pilkington, and his correct coat is on the 
bronze tablet in the nave. 6: Randall. "Azure on a cross 
erminois a cinquefoil vert between four pierced mullets sable." 
2, 3 and 4 are on the Choir woodwork. 

On west wall is a tall monument, now denuded of its 
shield, which Mr. Woodward read; it is to Captain J. Elton, 
R.N., ob. 1745. Elton. " Paly of six gules and or, on a 
bend sable three mullets of the second, a crescent for 
difference." Second son of Sir Abraham Elton ; impaling 
quarterly: 1, Yate. "Azure a fess and in chief two mullets 
or." Captain Elton married Caroline, sixth daughter and 
co-heiress of Charles Yate, of Colthrop, county Gloucester. 
2, Berkeley. " Gules a chevron argent between three 
crosses pattee or." Gloucester Visitations gives the crosses 
argent, so this is a variation of Berkeley. John Yate 
married Margaret, daughter and coheir of John Berkeley, 
ob. 1321. 3, Box. "Gules a stag's head cabossed or." 
Walter Yate, of Arlingham, county Gloucester, married 
Joan, daughter and heir of John de Box; she died 1586. 
4, Woodward says : "Azure a fess argent between two 
chevrons or." (....) pedigrees seem rather mixed; 
but there was a William Yate, of Colthrop, aged 54, in 1682, 
who married Mary, daughter and coheir of Thomas Mourse, 
Esq., of Longhope, county Gloucester. Now the Mourse 
coat is "Guies a fess between two chevrons argent," so I 
should think this is what was intended. 

Before the nave was built the east tower arch was filled 
with a stone screen, on which was the organ. On this screen 
were carved several shields, which Woodward was able to 
read, and with the exception of one are still lying in the 
Cloisters. 1 : Henry VIII. " France and England quarterly, 
ensigned with a royal crown, and with a dragon gules and 
a greyhound (a good deal defaced) argent as supporters." 
2 : Prince Edward. " France and England quarterly, with 



Bristol Cathedral Heraldry. 



123 



a label of three points (argent), ensigned with a coronet, 
issuing from which is the Prince of Wales' badge of three 
ostrich feathers partially defaced, and the letters P.E. above." 
This would show that there was a screen here soon after the 
Reformation. On two finely wrought corbels- (1) 3 : Berkeley, 
of Berkeley, as before. On the nose, 4 : The See impaling 
Wright, Bishop, 1622-33. " P er P a ^ e ( or an< ^ argent) on a 
chevron (azure) between three boars' heads couped fesswise 
(sable) as many bezants." 5 : The See, impaling " A 
chevron between three mullets," which Woodward thought 
was Bishop Mansel; but he was quite late, 1808, whilst the 
corresponding corbel bears the date 1629, and the shield has 
no appearance of being stuck on. I think it really repre- 
sents Dean Chetwynd, 1617-39, as before, south choir aisle, 
and therefore represents the Dean and Chapter, his violating 
the right of the Bishop having evidently misled Mr. Wood- 
ward. (2) 6 : Merchant Adventurers. Untinctured, as 
before, north transept. On nose, Bristol City, as before, 
untinctured, north transept. 7 : Berkeley, of Berkeley, as 
before. Mr, Woodward gives an eighth shield, which I 
have not been able to find : Ironside, Bishop, 1660, or his 
son, 1689-01. Both Barrett and Woodward give it as belong- 
ing to the first. " Quarterly azure and gules a cross fleury 
or " ; but the Ironsides bore another coat, which might 
possibly be a variation for the son, " Per pale azure and 
gules a cross flory counterflory or"; but as this shield was 
later it was probably affixed to the screen separately. 

The west wall of the Cathedral joined both the transepts' 
west walls, against which was placed a great number of 
monuments, the bulk of which are now in the Cloisters ; but 
there was also a poor west window, which Woodward says 
contained two shields ensigned with mitres — 1 : Plain glass, 
but most probably The See impaling Robinson, Bishop 
1710-13. "Or on a chevron vert between three staggs 
tripping proper, as many cinquefoils of the field." Barrett^ 
p. 333, says the west window of the Cathedral bears his 



124 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



arms, read as follows : " Vert on a chevron sable between 
three bucks passant or, as many estoiles of the last." 
Papworth gives the Bishop two coats — one with a field and 
cinquefoils or, and chevron vert ; the other, the field vert, the 
chevron and bucks or, and the cinquefoils gules ; so perhaps 
both were in the window, as Woodward says. 2 : See of 
London. " Gules two swords in saltire proper (? argent),, 
hilts and pommels or," impaling Robinson, but it is broken 
and imperfect. 

S. TRANSEPT. 
E. WALL. 

1: The See, impaling Butler, Bishop, 1740-50. 
" (Argent) three covered cups in bend between two bendlets 
engrailed sable." 2: See of Durham. "Azure a cross or 
between four lions rampant argent;" impaling Butler, 
-Bishop, 1750-2, as 1. 

On flat stone in the middle at the base of screen. Smyth, 
George, of North Nibley, co. Gloucester, 1712-13. " (Sable) 
on a chevron engrailed between six crosses pattee fitchee 
(or) three fleurs de lys (azure) each charged on the top with 
a plate," impaling, Woodward says, "... a fess wavy 
between six billets . . . ." In the 1682 Glos. Vis. there 
is a " George Smith, at. 17, 1682, of Nibley 1700" but it does 
not give his marriage : this is Dowdeswell. " Argent a 
fess wavy between six billets sable." He married Margaret, 
daughter of Charles Dowdeswell, of Forthampton, co. 
Gloucester. (Glos. N. & Q., III., 664.) Crest : a falcon's 
head erased. 

On Screen, two shields and crests. 1 : Burton, ob. 1817. 
" Argent on a bend cotised sable three lions' heads erased or, 
a martlet for difference;" impaling Strangways. "Sable 
two lions passant in pale, each paly of six argent and gules." 
Crest : Falcon preying on an animal. I cannot find this 
marriage or crest. 2 : Strangways, as before. Captain 
William Henry, ob. 1841, impaling, "Per fess sable and 



Bristol Cathedral Heraldry. 



gules, a pile issuing from dexter base in bend sinister 
argent. ..." I cannot find man, marriage, or coat in 
reference books, unless intended for Ragg or Norton. 
Most probably foreign. Crest : Lion, as in the arms. 

Behind Screen upstairs. Wastfield, 1770. "Gules a 
fess between six billets argent ' really, fess being defaced,' on, 
it three Catharine wheels sable," impaling " Argent a 
chevron between three ? lions' heads (might be ' gambs ') 
gules." . . . Papworth, Roshill. * I cannot find mar- 
riage. Crest : A lamb passant sable holding a banner 
? gules (books say argent) charged with a Catharine wheel of 
the first. 

s. WALL. 

Bright, oh. 1831, and his wife Mary Peck Maye. " . . . 
three boars' heads erased close fessways, 2 and 1 . . . 
between eight crosses croslet fitchee ..." I cannot find 
this or the marriage in reference books. 

There was Hamond. " (Per pale gules and azure) three 
demi-lions passant guardant, 2 and 1 (or)." Crest : A wolf's 
head erased (quarterly, or and azure). Query, Archdeacon 
Hamond, 1733. 

S. WINDOW. 

Three shields. 1 : Tyndall. " Argent a fess gules be- 
tween three garbs sable." 2 : Tyndall, impaling Elton, 
" Paly of six argent and gules on a bend sable three mullets 
or." Thomas Onesiphorus Tyndall married Caroline Lucy 
Elton. 3 : Elton, with baronet's inescutcheon. 

w. WALL. 

Reeve. "Sable on a chevron between three fleurs de 
lys (or) as many pheons (spearheads) points downwards 
(azure)." Crest : Griffin's head erased gules. Motto, "Vires 
acquirit eundo." 

CLOISTERS. 

N. SIDE. 

These monuments have been very much mixed up. 
Daniell, 1802. " Gules a lion rampant or." Woodward 



126 



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read it as " Paly of six sable and ermine, a lion rampant 
argent." These were the Gloucestershire Daniells, so it 
looks as if it had been changed to mean the Dorset Daniells, 
who bore a quarterly coat, the first quartering being " Or a 
lion rampant gules." Crest : Cubit arm erect proper enfiled 
with a ducal coronet or, defaced, really holding a sword or 
cross croslet fiitchee. 

Coote, 1795. Almost defaced, but Woodward read it as : 
"Argent a chevron sable between three coots proper," and 
on escutcheon of pretence Rodbard. " Or a chevron ermine 
between three bulls ? sable." 

Monument is here, but no shield on it, which Woodward 
read as "Azure," really, I believe, " Gules, a saltire between 
four fleurs de lys or." Batten, impaling, quarterly, 1 and 4, 
"Azure two lions passant in pale or;" query, intended for 
Dottin. " Peau two lions passant in pale each per pale or 
and argent." 2 and 3, . . . . "Azure two bends or." 
? Doyly ; but it does not occur in Dottin pedigree, Burke's 
Landed Gentry. Abel Dottin Battyn married Mary Dottin. 

On monument, without name; but the shield belongs to 
Susannah Cobham, of Barbadoes, ob. 1806. Quarterly 1 
and 4, Cobham. " Gules on a chevron or three lioncels 
rampant sable." 2 and 3, .... " Gules two lions 
passant in pale or," may be "argent"; impaling defaced, 
but sufficient to show that Woodward's reading was correct : 
Jordan. " Sable an eagle displayed in bend between two 
bendlets argent, a sinister canton or." 

Under monument to a Vernon, 1794 : a ver y much defaced 
shield, but showing scraps of lines and a chief azure. This, 
I think, is what Woodward read as Weeks, ob. 1819: " Paly 
of six gules and or, on a chief azure three eaglets displayed 
of the second;" if so, this belongs to a monument on the 
east wall of the cloisters. 



Bristol Cathedral Heraldry. 



127 



There is a blank shield below a monument to one of the 
Alleynes of Barbadoes. Woodward said it was " indistinct, 
but probably " Quarterly 1 and 4, Alleyne. " Per chevron 
gules and ermine in chief two lions' heads erased or." 2 and 
3, "Argent a lion rampant ? sable;" possibly intended for 
Gay. 

LAY CLERKS' VESTRY. 
Henderson, M. P., 6b. 1810. " (Gules) three piles issuing 
from the sinister (argent) on a chief (of the last) a crescent 
(azure) between two ermine spots; " impaling Bull. " (Gules) 
on a chevron between three bulls' heads couped (argent) as 
many roses (of the first)." Crest, defaced : most probably 
a dexter hand holding a star ; there looks like the top of a 
star left. 

Vaughan, Sir Charles, 1630. "Sable a chevron between 
three boys' heads argent crined or, each wrapped about the 
neck with a snake proper (vert)." On esquire's helmet on 
wreath or and sable, a boy's head as in the Arms. Wood- 
ward saw this in the graveyard. 

Campbell, 1797. " Gyronny of eight argent (? or) and 
sable a bordure compony ermine and of the first (? ermines)." 

Window in Vestry, two shields. 1 : ? Edward the Con- 
fessor. "Azure a cross flory between five martlets or." 
2 : Berkeley, of Berkeley, with a label of three points azure. 

S.E WALL. 

Somerset. " France and England quarterly within bor- 
dure compony argent and azure;" impaling, Quarterly 1 
and 4, Molyneux. "Azure a cross moline ? pierced, and in 
dexter chief a fleur de lys or." 2 and 3, Dowdall. " Gules 
On a fess between five martlets argent, a crescent sable 
thereon, another of the second for difference. " Crest: 
Portcullis with chains or nailed azure, and the Beaufort 
supporters, Dexter, Panther argent spotted various, fire 



128 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



issuing from mouth and ears proper, gorged with plain 
collar and chained or. Sinister, Wyvern with wings en- 
dorsed vert, holding in the mouth a sinister hand couped at 
the wrist gules. Motto, " Mutare vel timere sperno." Lord 
William George Henry Somerset, Canon of Bristol, married, 
in 1813, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Molyneux, Bart. 
Samuel Molyneux, of Armagh, oh. 1692, married Anne, 
daughter and heir of William Dowdall. 

Somerset, as former; impaling Annesley. "Paly of six 
argent and azure a bend gules." Atchievement as before. 
Lord John Thomas Henry Somerset married, in Dec, 1814, 
Lady Catharine, daughter of Arthur first Earl of Mount- 
morris. 

Cookson. " Per pale argent and (gules) two armoured 
legs spurred couped at thigh fessways counterchanged," 
impaling Elton as before. Crest : Demi-lion rampant sup- 
porting a staff raguly proper. Motto, " Nil desperandum." 
Joseph Cookson married Elizabeth, second daughter of 
William Elton, of Clifton. 

Applewhaite. Woodward read this as " Argent a fess 
engrailed azure between three apples slipped and leaved 
proper." It is now, " Argent a fess engrailed sable between 
three pomeis." Crest : Dexter arm embowed holding ? apple 
branch. This is not the Applewhaites of Suffolk, given in 
the Armory, and their crest is a cubit arm erect holding a 
book. This Edward was of Barbadoes, oh. 1803. 

Porter. Within a garter charged with the word "Agin- 
court " on wreath, their crest : A portcullis argent, chained 
or; above, a rose and the date 1415. 

On floor. Two shields, part of the fine tomb of Sir John 
Yonge, which was against the sedelia in the chancel origin- 
ally, but was removed, and when Woodward visited was 
lying in fragments in the graveyard. One has faint traces of 
colour, which perhaps might indicate " Or three pales gules 



Bristol Cathedral Heraldry. 



129 



within a bordure ? sable " ; this would be Basset. The 
other, " Lozengy argent and sable a bend of the last," which 
might be " Lozengy argent and vert on a bend azure (or of 
the last) two (may be three) ibex heads erased of the first 
attired or " ; Yonge. Crest : Usually an ibex head ; it is so 
in the Red Lodge, but here the carving looks more like 
feathers, so I suppose a griffin's head ; it is also badly 
defaced. There is still another shield belonging to this tomb 
out in the graveyard; the coat has vanished, but there are 
traces of colour on the mantling. 

Windows. Two shields of each of the following : — 
1 : England. 2 : Berkeley of Berkeley. 3 : France and 
England. 4: Nailheart (Abbot Newland). A badge or 
rebus, not strictly heraldic: Argent a human heart gules 
(distilling blood) pierced in chief with three nails or, one 
erect and two in saltire (between the letters I. N.)." This 
appears on his effigy in chancel, on bosses of the roof, and I 
believe on one of the bells, as well as on surrounding 
buildings. 5: See of Canterbury. "Azure a pastoral staff 
in pale or ensigned with a cross pattee argent, surmounted 
by a pall throughout of the third, fringed and bordered of 
the second, charged with four crosses formee fitchee, 2, 1, 1, 
sable ;" generally reversed, the staff "argent " and the cross 
"pattee or." 6: Elyot, Abbot. See east window of chancel. 

NAVE. 
n. aisle. 

Brass banners bearing the shields reversed on one side to 
imitate flags. 1 : Quarterly 1 and 4, Palmer. " Or on two 
bars gules six trefoils slipped 3 and 3 argent, in chief a grey- 
hound courant sable." 2 and 3, Jordan, as in cloisters. 
Crest : Demi-panther rampant guardant incensed proper, 
holding a branch vert fructed gules. Motto, " Palma virtuti." 
2-: See of Gloucester, impaling See of Bristol. 
3 : Palmer. 4 : Bristol City. 5 : France and England, 
quarterly. 

10 

Vol. XXV. 



I 3° 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



Bronze. Two shields. 1 : Norris, Archdeacon. "Quarterly 
argent and gules fretty (or), over all on a fess azure three 
bezants." Crest: On a mount (vert) a raven rising (sable). 
Motto, " Dum spiro spero." 2 : Pilkington. " (Argent) a 
cross flory voided (gules)." Crest: A husbandman mowing 
with scythe proper. Motto, " Now thus, now thus." 

s. AISLE. 

Palmer brass. Two shields. 1 : France and England, 
quarterly. 2 : Bristol City. 

WINDOW. SECOND FROM S. TRANSEPT. 

i : See of Bristol. 2 : 1 impaling Ellicott, Bishop, 
1863-97. " Lozengy or and azure a bordure argent." 
3 : Bristol City. 4 : George. " Argent on a fess engrailed 
gules between three doves volant azure, beaked and legged 
or, as many bezants each charged with a lion's head erased 
sable;" impaling Otway. "Argent a pile and chevron sable 
counterchanged." 

WINDOW, NEAREST BAPISTRY. 

i : Rogers. " Argent a chevron between three stags 
courant gules." 2: Casterton. "Argent four lozenges gules 
each charged with an amulet or." 3 : Gee. "Gules a sword 
in bend argent pommelled or." 4: Dixon. "Gules on a 
bend or between six plates three torteaux, a chief erminois." 

ADDENDA. 

Woodward says that on the floor of the nave (the present 
. choir) was formerly a small lozenge slab bearing these arms : 
Grylls (Cornwall). " Or three bendlets enhanced gules." 

On the former west wall Woodward read the following, 
not known now : " William Woolery, of Barbadoes, died 1789, 
aged 48, ... two woolpacks in pale inclosed by two 
flaunches or, each charged with a . gules," and adds, 

"The- charges and tinctures are indistinct." Burke, in the 
General Armor)', gives the following arms for the name 
Wolley : "Vert a fleur de lys or, between two woolpacks in 



Bristol Cathedral Heraldry. 



pale argent, inclosed by two flaunches of the third, each 
charged with a wolf passant azure." Papworth says 
Wolley, London ; so the former looks like a variation. 

Woodward says : on floor I imagine either in or near 
S. Transept, where there is a large scaling flatstone, as Smyth 
of Nibley comes next, was Mary Long, died 1765, aged 64- 
" (Sable) a lion passant (argent), on a chief (of the second) 
three crosses crosslet (of the first)"; impaling, Quarterly 
1 and 4, Roper. "Per fess (azure and or) on a pale 
counterchanged three bucks' heads erased (of the second)," 
2, Zouche. "(Gules) ten roundles (bezants), 4, 3, 2, 1, 
a canton ermine." 3, " . . . two chevrons . . . a label 
of five points . . ."; this would be St. Maur : "Argent 
two chevrons gules a label of five points azure." Samuel 
Long, born 1700, married Mary, second daughter of Bar- 
tholomew Tate by Mary, daughter and coheir of Edward 
Noel, being coheir with her sister Catherine to the Baronies 
of Zouche of Harringworth, St. Maur, and Lovel of Cary. 
So Woodward misread the bucks' heads, as Tate is " Per 
fess or and gules a pale counterchanged three Cornish 
choughs proper." 

Woodward says there was in S. (choir) aisle, now 
denuded of its shield in lay clerk's vestry, Bell, ob. 1813. 
" Sable a fess ermine between three church bells or." 

Woodward says there was in N. (choir) aisle, Wallis, ob. 
1777. "Ermine a bend or"; (tinctures doubtful), not visible 
now. 

NORMAN GATEWAY. 
As this is part of the Cathedral grounds, it may not be 
amiss to add the heraldry on if to this paper. 

N. SIDE. 

1 : " Gules a cross flory between five martlets .... 
(or)"; this is semi-modern, and is evidently a mistake for 
"Azure," the lines being vertical not horizontal, when it 



132 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



would be Edward the Confessor. 2 : France and England 
quarterly, ensigned with a crown. 3 : Clare. " Or three 
chevrons gules." 4: England. 5: Quarterly, 1, Poyntz. 
" Barry of eight (or and gules)." 2, Acton. " Quarterly per 
fess indented (argent and azure).'' 3, Clanbow. " Paly of 
six (or and azure) on a fess (gules) three mullets (of the 
first)." 4, Fitznicholas. " Quarterly (gules and or) a bend 
(argent)." Sir Nicholas Poyntz married Mawde, cosen and 
heire of Sir John Acton, of Acton; Sir John Poynton, son, 
married Elizabeth, cosen and coheire to Sir Thomas 
Clamvow ; Robert Poyntz, son of John, married Katherin, 
daughter and heir of Thomas Ffitznicoll : so says Glos. 
Visitation. 6: Berkeley. "(Gules) a chevron between ten 
roses (argent) barbed. . . ." This seems to be a variety of 
Berkeley that was not much used in this district, though 
there are amongst old glass in neigbouring churches many 
small argent roses barbed or which might have belonged to 
such a coat ; but I have not come across a perfect shield. 
7 : Berkeley, of Berkeley. 

s. side. 

1 : Abbot Elyot. 2 : Berkeley, of Berkeley. 3 : Ber- 
keley, of Stoke Gifford. 4 : Abbot Newland's badge or 
rebus. 

ENTRANCE TO ABBOT'S LODGINGS, LOWER COLLEGE GREEN. 

i : Berkeley, of Berkeley. 2 ; Abbot Newland's badge. 

A word of praise is due to the Rev. John Woodward, 
who happened to read most of these coats at a time when 
no catalogue had been made, and before most of those in the 
Cloisters had been removed from the old West Wall ; seeing 
he has been able to save for the heraldic student of to-day 
many that would have otherwise been unreadable now. 



NOTES ON FRENCH JUBES OR ROOD-LOFTS, 
AND THE THREE STONE ONES STILL 
EXISTING IN FRANCE. 

By F. F. TUCKETT. 

Much interest having been excited amongst our members by 
Mr. F. F. Fox's admirable and beautifully illustrated Presi- 
dential Address on " Roods and Rood-Lofts," I venture to 
lay before you, by way of modest postscript, a few notes on 
the subject, partly gathered from various articles by that 
great architect, M. Viollet le Due, and partly the result of 
enquiries made this spring during visits to a dozen or more 
of the greater cathedrals of France. 

Mr. Fox observes that "the ambones of the Greek and 
Latin churches up- to the fourteenth century were not at 
all in form what we call a ' rood-loft,' and the French 
a 1 jube,' " being "rather vast pulpits . . . than screens 
like those of the Western churches, which, dating probably 
from the thirteenth century, form a separation, a sort of raised 
gallery, between the choir and nave." He adds that "there 
does not exist in France a single jube of the ancient period, 
and yet the abbey churches, cathedrals, and even many 
parish churches possessed them." 

This latter statement (probably referring to a date earlier 
than the thirteenth century) is doubtless correct, but I think 
it may be worth noting that, independently of some debris of 
former jubes still existing— especially some lovely painted 
and gilded thirteenth century fragments carefully preserved 
in a southern side chapel of the vast crypt of Chartres 
Cathedral, — my wife and I, in our recent wanderings, came 
upon a fine and perfect example in stone in "Ste. Madeleine," 
the oldest church in the city of Troyes, commenced in the 
eleventh, continued in the twelfth, and finished at the end of 
the fifteenth or beginning of the sixteenth century. The jube, 
which constitutes one of its chief ornaments, is from the 



*34 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



chisel of Jean Guaide (1508 — 1517), and the illustration 
will give a better idea of the delicacy and richness of the 
execution than any mere description could do. Its height' 
is 6.45 metres, or about 21 feet. 

In the church of St. Etienne du Mont (commenced in 
1517 and completed in 1626), which occupies the site of the 
abbey founded by Clovis on the summit of the hill over- 
looking Paris on the south, and in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the Pantheon, is another stone jube which was 
begun in 1600. It is in the style of the Renaissance, and the 
sculptures are the work of a little-known but very talented 
artist, Beard senior. The two lateral spiral staircases, which 
also give access to the triforium, are a very prominent 
feature of the structure. For the details, the photographic 
reproduction will render further description unnecessary. 

I now come to the third and, 1 believe, only other existing 
stone jube in France, which is certainly the most splendid of all, 
and can hardly at any time have been surpassed in delicacy 
of workmanship. I allude to that in the cathedral of Albi, 
the small capital of the Department of the Tarn, and 
situated on the river of the same name, rather less than 
50 miles N.E. of Toulouse. Albi was the capital of the 
Albigeois country, the scene of the terrible crusade under 
Simon de Montfort (father of the great Earl of Leicester, 
who perished in the battle of Evesham) against the Albigenses 
early in the thirteenth century. The cathedral, dedicated to 
" Ste. Cecile," is of brick, and was commenced in 1282 and 
finished in the fifteenth century. The ornamentation, as 
may be seen in the illustration, is quite lace-like in its 
marvellous delicacy. Cardinal Richelieu is said to have 
been so charmed with it in 1629 that he had a drawing made 
of it and the choir, with the intention of constructing a 
chapel of the same character in his Paris residence. The 
choir itself is similarly, and not less exquisitely adorned. 
The entire work was carried out under Bishop Louis I. 
d'Amboise (1473— 1502). 

In addition to the three stone jubes just described, 



Notes on French Rood-lofts. 



135 



M. Viollet le Due states that wooden ones still exist in some 
country churches of Bretagne, the most remarkable being 
that of St. Fiacre at Le Faouet (Morbihan), which dates 
from the end of the fifteenth century and is entirely painted. 

Let us now for a moment consider the origin of the jube 
as it has existed since the thirteenth century. M. Viollet le 
Due tells us that the great French cathedrals built at the end 
of the twelfth and beginning of the thirteenth centuries not 
only possessed no jtibes, but were not erected with a view to 
such a structure. The sanctuary was uniformly unenclosed, 
and the jube only made its appearance after the Act of Union 
of the Barons of France in 1246, when the bishops were forced 
to surrender their claim to have cognizance of all judiciary 
proceedings — a claim based on the pretext that, every suit 
being the result of a fraud, and every fraud a sin, it was for 
the religious authority to judge in matters of real, personal, 
or mixed property, feudal or criminal disputes, and even 
simple misdemeanours. Being restricted by the firmness of 
St. Louis, the establishment of royal bailiffs, and the organi- 
zation of the parliament, to a spiritual jurisdiction, except 
that which they exercised as feudal lords, the bishops 
contented themselves with converting the cathedrals into 
episcopal churches, and shut themselves up with their 
chapters in those vast sanctuaries, elevated originally by an 
inspiration at once political and religious. 

In the case of the monastic churches the participation of 
the faithful was only an accessory, and the monks, shut up in 
the choir, were not, and need not be, seen from the nave ; 
the faithful heard their chants, saw the clerks mounted on 
the jube to read the epistle and the gospel, and only caught 
sight of the altar through the doorway of the jube when the veil 
was withdrawn. There was always in these monasteries a 
considerable number of strangers, pilgrims, and refugees for 
whom the nave of the church was reserved, and who there 
passed a large portion of their time, sometimes remaining 
there even throughout the day and night. Thus it became 
necessary to close the choir of the Brethren. This arrange- 



i 3 6 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



ment, however, did not apply to the parochial, still less to 
the cathedral churches. These last, when they were almost 
all rebuilt in France at the end of the twelfth century, had 
at once a religious and a civil character, and except the altar 
surrounded by its draperies nothing obstructed the view. 
In constructing them on a huge scale the object of the 
bishops was rather to offer to the citizens ample space in 
which not only religious ceremonies but civil assemblies 
should have abundant room. In fact, episcopal jurisdiction 
was the true link which united the ancient Basilica and the 
Christian church. The cathedral was not simply a church 
appropriated to Divine worship, but retained, especially 
during the early ages of Christianity, the character of a 
sacred tribunal ; and, as the civil was not entirely distinct 
from the religious constitution, cathedrals in France continued 
until the thirteenth or fourteenth century to be edifices at 
once religious and civil. They were frequented not only in 
order to take part in religious services, but assemblies of a 
purely political character took place in them, though doubt- 
less religion had its part in these great civil or military 
gatherings. 

The spirit which animated their construction was, in 
opposition to the monasteries, to draw and unite the dwellers 
in populous cities around their bishop, so that the religious 
festivals should be common to all alike. Therefore the choirs 
and sanctuaries were only slightly raised, the transepts were 
left free to the congregation, and the ambulatories were 
generally on the same level and were not separated from the 
choir by any barrier. With the second half of the thirteenth 
century there came the change already referred to. Whether 
the bishops and chapters were no longer willing that their 
cathedrals should retain the character of great halls suitable 
for large popular assemblies, or found themselves too much 
exposed to view in choirs accessible on all sides, they began 
by setting up jubes in front, and shortly afterwards erected 
lofty and entirely closed barriers around the choir, protecting 
rows of high-backed and canopied stalls. The canons were 



Notes on French Rood-lofts. 



137 



thus secluded in the cathedrals, as the cloistered regulars 
were in their monastic churches. But since it was essential 
in the cathedrals that the faithful should participate in 
religious services, though unable to witness the ceremonies 
which took place in the entirely enclosed choirs, there were 
constructed in episcopal churches numerous chapels around 
the ambulatories and even along the walls of the naves. 
The dominant idea which had inspired the bishops at the 
end of the twelfth century, when they proceeded to construct 
cathedrals on new plans, was thus abandoned almost before 
the fabrics were completed, and in less than a century the 
majority of the choirs of these great churches were shut in 
and the rites of worship largely concealed from the faithful. 
Whatever variety of causes may have contributed to such 
a result, amongst the number may probably be reckoned 
disputes between the bishops and their chapters, which 
resulted in the former having to give way to the desire of 
the latter, who were particularly interested in the enclosures. 

In parish churches the choir reproduced on a smaller 
scale the arrangements adopted in the cathedrals ; but, as 
they were especially for the use of the faithful laity, the choir 
was generally only enclosed by an iron railing, and the altar 
was visible through the arches and delicate supporting pillars 
of the jubes. Moreover, it does not appear that jubes were 
originally erected at the entrance of the choirs of these 
parochial churches, but were set up at the end of the fifteenth 
and commencement of the sixteenth century. 

In conclusion, it would seem that the result of the 
changes introduced into the choir by its enclosure on the side 
of the ambulatory and the construction of a jube across its 
entrance, was the practical exclusion of the laity from taking 
more than a very subordinate part in the performance of 
worship in the choir, their share in it being limited to hearing 
the reading of the epistle and gospel from the jube and the 
chanting behind it. 

The question may be asked, What has led to the 
general disappearance in France of the jube or rood-loft, 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



•even where the isolation of the choir from the ambulatory 
has been maintained ? I confess that, in my ignorance, I 
had imagined that the change might be one of the results 
of the great Revolution. I was surprised, therefore, to find, 
on making enquiries in one cathedral after another, that the 
removal of these beautiful but impeding structures had con- 
siderably preceded that great national awakening, generally 
by at least half a century, and was due apparently to 
considerations of general convenience and with a view to the 
fuller participation of the laity in all the details of the 
service. About the same time, in many cases, the glorious 
glass of the choir clerestory windows was taken down, and 
plain or grisaille substituted, with a view to admitting more 
light into the previously too deep gloom of the sanctuary. 

The great cathedrals of France, especially in the north, 
were at their original construction the outward and glorious 
sign of a great national upheaval against secular and 
monastic feudalism, of which the bishops, supported by the 
Monarchy, skilfully availed themselves. They, in their turn, 
as has been seen, sought to practice the very jurisdiction 
from which their own power had suffered, and, when baulked 
in the attempt by St. Louis and his parliament, they — largely 
doubtless at the instigation of the canons — seem to have 
resorted to the plan of enclosing themselves in the choir 
from the vulgar gaze as far as might be. 

Certainly, whilst we may regret the loss of so much 
exquisite sculpture, we cannot but rejoice in the far nobler 
architectural vistas opened up by its disappearance, and 
even indulge a hope that the day may come when our own 
beautiful cathedral of Gloucester may again be seen in all its 
noble proportions, without any such impediment as that 
which now so painfully disfigures it. 



MONUMENTAL EFFIGIES IN BRISTOL AND 
GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 



By ALBERT HARTSHORNE, F.S.A. 

If- we except the memorial of Edward II. with its sumptuous 
canopy in Gloucester cathedral, and the canopied tombs of 
the Despencers and Sir Guy de Bryan beneath the stately 
vaults of Tewkesbury, we perceive no superiority in the 
Gloucestershire effigies over those of other districts. Indeed, 
it must be confessed that, generally speaking, the county 
takes a moderate position when compared, for example, with 
the monuments of Northamptonshire, Yorkshire, or Devon, 
both in number and in consequence. And while it is some- 
what disappointing to the casual observer to find but two 
abbatical and one episcopal effigy of the Reformed Church in 
Gloucester Cathedral — a state of affairs greatly differing 
from that at Wells, York, Salisbury, Worcester, or Peter- 
borough, other figures of considerable interest are en- 
shrined in the Romanesque fane, with its astonishing veil 
of Perpendicular and its architectural tours de force. And 
although there are in the long series of Berkeley effigies at 
Bristol representations of the course of armour during a 
period of three centuries and a half, they do not appear as 
the striking examples one would have been justified in 
expecting in memorials of so great a mediaeval family. 
Moreover, some of them suffered both from " restoration " 
(restoration of an effigy !) and assignation, about a century 
and a half ago. 

In taking a cursory survey of the effigies of the county, 
by way of a general introduction to their fuller study in a 
Classified List, it need hardly be premised that they offer 



140 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



precisely the same reliable evidence of the course of armour 
and costume as may be found in any other district of 
England, the Purbeck effigies of the thirteenth century being 
naturally the oldest ; and the effigies proper in the county 
during the early years of the fifteenth century are affected 
as to their number by the fashion for brasses, exactly as 
elsewhere. It is to be regretted that the studies of Stothard 
in Gloucestershire carried him no further than to the 
Cathedral and to Tewkesbury, and that the representations 
of effigies in the histories both of Rudder and Atkyns 
have no more merit than those in Dugdale's Warwickshire 
and "Halstead's" Genealogies of the seventeenth century, and 
are as unreliable as the engravings in Gough's Sepulchral 
Monuments, in Lipscombe's Buckinghamshire, and other county 
histories of the eighteenth, and the early part of the nine- 
teenth centuries. 

A noteworthy feature of the Gloucestershire effigies is that, 
with the exception of the effigy of Edward II., and those of 
Hugh Despencer, died 1349, son of Hugh "the younger" (who 
was slaughtered with such shocking barbarity at Hereford in 
1326), and his wife at Tewkesbury, not a single alabaster 
figure appears until the last quarter of the sixteenth century. 
If this condition can only be accounted for by the long 
distance of the Derbyshire quarries from Gloucestershire, it 
is the more remarkable from the fact that alabaster effigies 
found their way during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries 
to much greater distances in England, and even as far as to 
Brittany, so highly was the material valued which sur- 
rendered with such ease to the chisel. But probably many 
alabaster effigies have been destroyed. The wholesale 
system of monumental sculpture in alabaster, with purely 
conventional countenances, does not therefore apply now to 
Gloucestershire, as it does to Northamptonshire and else- 
where, and we are consequently thrown back upon a long 
and somewhat inferior series of effigies, executed in the 
abounding local stones, those only of the middle portion of 
the fourteenth century being sculptured with anything like 



Effigies in Bristol and Gloucestershire. 141 

attractive artistic skill. Many of the effigies of the later 
period exhibit great rudeness ; all are, however, of high 
value as original productions of numerous local schools of 
sculpture, or mediaeval stoneyards, of which there is no 
recorded information ; numbers, indeed, must be from the 
hands of mere village masons. 

The stone effigies extending thus late, almost, in fact, up 
to the middle of the seventeenth century, one is not surprised 
to find the serious deterioration that became manifest in 

IP? 

them. It was the natural result of circumstances, well 
known to all students of history and archaeology in England ; 
and it is only here and there that monumental effigial art 
in Gloucestershire, of the later days, is redeemed by such 
memorials as those of Sir William Sandys and his consort, 
in alabaster, of 1644, evidently the work of Nicholas Stone, 
and by those of Alderman Blackleach and his wife, of 1639 
the works of an unknown hand. It is by a pure guess, 
gathered apparently from a perusal of Walpole's Anecdotes, 
that these excellent figures have been assigned to Le Sceur, 
or Fanelli, and though the latter is rather a tempting attri- 
bution, there seems little reason why . Stone should not be 
considered their author. 

The importance of monumental effigies as authentic 
examples of armour and costume has been so long and so 
fully recognised that the point need only be alluded to here, 
in order to say that such stony records are naturally only 
valuable in these respects up to a certain point, on account 
partly of the nature of the material used in their production, 
and partly owing to the absence of the painted decorations 
with which the figure, particularly during the early half of 
the fourteenth century, was embellished. This branch of 
the study has therefore to be supplemented by minute 
attention to illuminated manuscripts, it being further 
premised that the enquirer has made drawings to scale 
with painful care of the subjects, and noted in colours on 
the spot the remnants, if any, of the tinted gesso ornaments 
and other decorative features of the effigies. The Memoirs 



142 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



of C. A. Stothard indicate the amount of time and labour 
that is essential for such efforts. 

Another and perhaps more important question than those 
of armour and costume, arising out of the general subject, is 
that of portraiture. That verisimilitude was occasionally 
carried out with minute care is revealed by the royal 
memorials at Fontevraud, so admirably decyphered and 
illustrated by Stothard. No one can doubt the accuracy 
of the likeness of Henry II. in his effigy, and of his son 
Cceur de Lion, both as regards the sculpture and the 
painting ; indeed, the two countenances exhibit the family 
resemblance that might be expected between father and 
son. And, similarly, portraiture may be claimed for the 
effigies of Eleanor of Guienne, Isabella of Angouleme, also 
at Fontevraud, and Berengeria of Navarre, formerly at the 
Abbey of L' Espan, and now in the Cathedral of Le Mans, 
the three figures being also so greatly unlike each other as 
to preclude the idea of representations of regal personages 
quelconqites. The effigy of King John at Worcester — ruined 
by deplorable ignorance some years ago — is doubtless a fair 
likeness of that able monarch. That the latten effigy of 
Henry III. in the Abbey is a portrait, is shown by the 
countenance of the King at different periods, from youth to 
age, on his Great Seals. The figure of Queen Eleanor, also in 
the Abbey, and in latten, is purely conventional, but valuable 
as a mediaeval standard of feminine grace and beauty. The 
effigy of Edward II. at Gloucester is again a conventional 
bearded statue with regal attributes, bearing no doubt only 
a general likeness to the original. The circumstances of 
the barbarous murder and restrained burial must have 
precluded any cast from the royal face for the use of a 
sculptor, established though the practice already was at 
the time, as we know from the writings of Cennino Cennini. 

To touch now upon ordinary military memorials of the 
early period, — the Purbeck effigies, — such as remain in the 
Temple church, at Bristol, and elsewhere. We find a 
counterpart of one of the Temple effigies, lying on his 



Effigies in Bristol and Gloucestershire. 



143. 



sword, at Stowe-nine-churches, Northamptonshire. That at 
Castle Ashby in the same county is so close a replica of the 
figure of William Longespee the younger at Salisbury that 
the one might almost be mistaken for the other, and it is 
apparent that the effigies of Maurice de Gaunt and Robert 
de Gournay at Bristol come from the same school of sculp- 
ture ; and it can hardly be doubted that all those mentioned, 
and many others, are purely routine figures which were kept 
in stock. Moreover, all have the peculiar long straight limbs 
and dignified martial bearing observable in thirteenth-century 
military figures in Purbeck, referable to a common and 
closely-contemporary origin. The Purbeck and freestone 
effigies with the mail laboriously carved link by link, as in 
the Gaunt and Gournay figures, led shortly before the end of 
the thirteenth century to an easier method of treatment, and 
one that lent itself more readily to the efforts of the painter 
and decorator. This was the employment of gesso, which, 
being laid in varying thicknesses upon the stone surface, 
could be impressed with matrices of different patterns, or 
delicately worked in designs with a brush, to be afterwards 
painted or gilded. Thus links of mail were stamped, and 
decorative patterns produced of the most exquisite delicacy, 
protected sometimes by glass. A cross-legged effigy at 
Cleeve gives an example of the method of treatment. The 
gessoed figures are hardly likely to be portraits, save under 
special circumstances. The effigy of Sir Guy de Bryan at 
Tewkesbury is a notable and a late example of the gesso 
process, representing him of middle age. He died at the age 
of ninety, in 1390; the beautiful canopied monument is of 
that date, and the figure consequently not a portrait. Some 
of the mail and splints of his interesting and much-perished 
suit have been gilded and some silvered. 

Wooden effigies, so rare in the county, offer important 
examples of the gesso treatment. That attributed to Robert 
Courthose, — but long after his time, — in Gloucester Cathedral, 
has been so dealt with. In evil times it has been coated 
over and over again with oil paint. It would, be a 



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Transactions for the Year 1902. 



legitimate and meritorious act of the Dean and Chapter to 
have these noxious shrouds removed, to rescue this neglected 
relic from its seventeenth-century iron cage and to place it 
in a better position. In all probability, a rare example of 
early mediaeval art might thus be revealed. 

The two Crupes effigies at Whittington are excellent 
instances of heraldry and military costume of the beginning 
of the fourteenth century. The voluminous surcotes are of 
the kind which entangled the legs of men suddenly called 
upon to fight on foot, and made them an easy prey to the 
enemy. These untoward attributes caused the curtailment 
of the picturesque vestment which, changing to the cyclas, 
finally resulted in the jupon three-quarters of a century later. 

One of the most remarkable effigies in the county is that 
at Leckhampton — honoured in a coloured plate as " Ritter 
Johann Gifford, starb 1327," in Hefner's beautiful " Trach- 
ten." The mammelieres, the sword-belt, the fringed camail, 
haketon and genouilleres, or any of the delicate details of the 
armour will repay the most careful study. In like manner 
the effigy said to be of Sir Thomas Berkeley at Cubberley, 
of the same period, is an excellent example of armour and 
costume. Both are by the same sculptor. 

Of the Berkeley effigies at Bristol none of them, save the 
two latest, of the seventeenth century, appear to indicate 
even an attempt at portraiture. They have unfortunately 
suffered somewhat, as has been intimated, from " restoration." 
The details of the sword-belt of Maurice III., Lord Berkeley, 
died 1326, are rather odd than practicable, and like those of 
the more interesting figure of Maurice IV., died 1368, have 
endured too much from Lady Betty Germaine's antiquarian 
experiments to give the figures high position among the effigies 
of the county. The three military statues at Winterbourne 
St. Michael, though rude, have both merit and value : the 
earliest, cross-legged and wearing a cyclas — apparently the 
only example in the county, — greatly resembles the delicately- 
sculptured alabaster figure of Hugh Despencer, son of Hugh 
" the younger," at Tewkesbury; the latest, that of Sir Thomas 



Effigies in Bristol and Gloucestershire. 145 

Bradeston, is of the end of the reign of Edward III. With 
this series must be included the effigy at Tewkesbury, of just 
before the middle of the fourteenth century, long attributed to 
a Lord Wenlock, who was killed at the battle of Tewkesbury 
in 1471. Thanks to the ready acumen of Mr. St. Clair 
Baddeley, we now know that a member of the Burley family 
is here represented. Besides wearing a camail of " banded 
mail," other remarkable details of armour are manifest, in 
spite of damage by whitewash, plaster, and denudation. 

Reverting for a moment to the subject of portraiture, we 
may draw as follows from a printed source (with the full 
permission of the writer) : — " It may be recalled that Isabella, 
Countess of Warwick, widow of Richard Beauchamp, died 
July, 1439, and who sleeps beneath the stately vaults of 
Tewkesbury, left the remarkable instructions in her Will that 
a statue of herself should be made all naked, with the hair 
cast backwards, and according to the design and model 
which Thomas Porchalion had for that purpose. We know 
— and from no other source — to what extent the fifteenth and 
early sixteenth century sculptors in England had cultivated 
the study of the male nude, from the ' lively picture of 
death,' which so frequently occurs in large churches, 
stretched on the substructure of the tomb bearing the effigy 
proper above ; and we are, unfortunately, too familiar with 
the silly legends in relation to each of these striking works of 
art. That beneath the fine portrait statue of Bishop Beck- 
ington at Wells is a notable example. But we have in 
England no sculptured instances in churches, in life-size, of 
the mediaeval nude figure such as Thomas Porchalion should 
have had in contemplation. Doubtless the clerics would 
have opposed their introduction, though they certainly 
allowed, and probably themselves executed, such representa- 
tions to a smaller scale ; as, for instance, in the graphic wall- 
paintings of the Seven Deadly Sins, and in the carvings of 
the Misericordes." 

At Tewkesbury, again, we have the figure of Edward 
Despencer kneeling upon a tasselled cushion, towards the 

11 

Vol. XXV. 



146 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



high altar, under a charming open canopy, on the top of the 
Trinity Chapel. From its elevated position, this remarkable 
monument has escaped both destruction and " restoration," 
and remains to the present day a most valuable example of 
an effigy in armour painted to the life, doubtless a true 
portrait of Edward Despencer, who died in 1375. 

A satisfactory type of female effigy — though devoid of 
artistic merit — is one of two of the same period at English 
Bicknor, represented with the front of the long flowing 
gown caught up under both arms, and with the mantle 
fastened by a cord across the breast. This is the very usual 
disposition of drapery at the latter end of the thirteenth and 
the early part of the fourteenth century, and examples may 
be found throughout the kingdom. To this period, and later, 
also belongs the characteristic conventionality of the straight 
under eyelid, so universally associated with effigies during so 
lengthy a period as alone to indicate to how small an extent 
portraiture was then attempted. Other effigies of ladies in 
the county, such as those at Newland, Bristol, Winterbourne, 
Leckhampton, and Cubberley, besides offering little that is 
remarkable in costume, exhibit the coarseness and want of 
artistic quality so frequently noticeable with such memorials 
made in the county. From these must be excepted the 
alabaster figure of Elizabeth, wife of Hugh Despencer, son 
of Hugh " the younger," under the delicate canopy at 
Tewkesbury, evidently deriving from Derbyshire. 

Civil costume is well exemplified by the effigies of 
Gloucestershire. The late fourteenth-century Franklin in 
St. Mark's, Bristol ; Canynge in duplicate at St. Mary's, 
Redcliff, in fifteenth-century civic and in civil habits; and the 
rare figure of Junk Wyrall, 1457, at Newland, in the garb of 
a Forester of Fee, are well-known instances. Less familiar 
and more remarkable is the incised figure of a Bow Bearer 
of the time of Elizabeth, and the still rarer brass of a Free 
Miner. Both the latter are at Newland, and though not 
effigies proper are too good to pass over. 

Of ecclesiastical figures, Gloucestershire offers numerous 



Effigies in Bristol and Gloucestershire. 147 

and excellent examples. Perhaps their artistic superiority 
may be attributed here and there to clerical instruction and 
supervision, and implying to a certain extent portraiture, and 
in a larger degree than it appears to have obtained in con- 
nection with military and civil figures. The Purbeck effigy 
of Abbot Foliet in the cathedral, died 1242, has interest of a 
different kind. But the artistic character of the canopied 
head is not so evident in the abbatical figure. At Cowley is 
a well executed effigy of a priest of the early part of the 
fourteenth century. There are sundry ill-shaped clerkly 
figures, both in church and churchyard, scattered about the 
country, and two small fourteenth-century effigies of canons 
at Bitton have great value as examples of costume. 

The effigies of the sixteenth century are few and of very 
moderate merit, while those of the seventeenth century, 
with the exceptions already noticed, and possibly certain 
others, call for no special remark. 



LIST OF MONUMENTAL EFFIGIES IN BRISTOL 
AND GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 



Edited by MARY ELLEN BAGNALL-OAKELEY. 

In accordance with a resolution passed at the Congress of 
Archaeological Societies in union with the Society of Anti- 
quaries, it has been decided by the Council of the Bristol 
and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society to compile a 
complete list of the Sepulchral Effigies in the counties of 
Bristol and Gloucestershire up to the year 1800, with all 
•details of costume, heraldry, &c. It will be printed in rural 
deaneries as the returns come in, and when complete will be 
issued as a separate volume. Mr. Albert Hartshorne, F.S.A., 
has most kindly written an Historical Introduction and 
Synopsis of the principal effigies, which greatly adds to the 
value and interest of the returns. 

The returns have been filled up in accordance with the 
instructions contained in the following schedule : — 

SCHEDULE FOR COMPILING A LIST OF MONUMENTAL 
EFFIGIES IN BRISTOL AND GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 

The description should be given on foolscap-sized paper 
on one side only; and not more than one effigy should be 
described on one leaf unless two or more effigies belong to 
the same monument. For the purpose of this return a 
sepulchral effigy should be considered to be the representa- 
tion of a deceased person carved in any material, either 
life-size, diminutive, or bust, in high or low relief, or incised 
on a stone slab. Brasses are not included, as they have 
been already described by Mr. Cecil Davies. 

Care must betaken to describe the costume accurately, or 
refer to a similar example described in the Transactions of this 
Society, or some well-known work on effigies. See papers 
by Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley : on Ecclesiastics, Vol IX., p. 51 ; 
Effigies of Berkeley Family, Vol. XV., p. 89 ; Ladies' 
Costume, XVI., p. 111; Civilians, Vol. XVIII, p. 253. 



Effigies in Bristol and Gloucestershire. 149 



Photographs of the tombs and effigies will always be useful 
to the Editor and for reproduction in the Transactions ; and 
in cases where it is difficult or impossible to obtain a good 
photograph of the figure, a drawing should be made if an 
engraving or lithograph is not known of. 

Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley, the Rev. W. E. Blathwayt, and the 
General Secretary will always be ready to send a list of 
effigies they know of in any parish church, or to give any help 
or information in their power, fn answering the following 
questions, the number in the schedule should be given, and 
the same order retained. When completed, the return should 
be sent to the Editor, Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley, Tre Cefn, 
Monmouth. 

Rural Deanery. 

Town or Parish and Dedication of Church. 
Name and Address of Visitor and date of visit. 

1. — Class: (i) Regal; (2) Military, i.e. Knights, &c, in 

armour ; (3) Ecclesiastical [this should be subdivided 
into (a) Bishops and Abbots, (b) Priests in Eucharistic 
vestments, (c) Clergy in Choir dress, (d) Minor orders; 
(e) Monks in their Habits ; (4) Civilian, including 
Mayors in their gown of office ; (5) Academic or 
Judicial; (6) Ladies. 

2. — Form of Monument [effigy, semi-effigial slab, incised 

slab, cadaver, bust, or medallion, &c.]. 

3. — Material [stone, Purbeck or other marble, alabaster, 

wood, or bronze (latten)]. 

4. — Size, whether of life or diminutive. 

5. — Description of Costume, &c. [refer to similar examples]. 

6. — Under head [helm and crest, cushions (with or without 

supporting angels), or other object]. 

7. — Under feet [lion, dog, or other beast or figure]. 

8. — Description of tomb and canopy, or of slab if orna- 

mented [including small figures (such as " weepers " 
or angels) on the sides or end of tomb, and all 
heraldry] . 

9. — Copies of inscription (and place of same) if before 1800; 

and name and date of person commemorated. If the 
inscription is given correctly in Bigland, Lysons, 
Fosbrooke, or other well-known County work, it will 
be sufficient to give the reference. Where name and 
date are not known for certain, say so: give supposed 
name and date, and reasons for assigning them. 

10. — Any remains of painting and gilding, or of gesso- 
decoration. • , , , . 



150 Transactions for the Year 1902. 

11. — Mutilations and restorations. 

12. — Present position in Church or Churchyard [and former 

position if removed]. Mention any local traditions 
connected with effigy or monument. 

13. — Where illustrated and described. 

14. — General remarks, as to condition, &c, &c. 

15. — Historical notes: give authorities, with references. 

Note. — It is assumed that most effigies are recumbent 
(i.e. lying on the back), but variations, such as figures 
kneeling, lying on the side, or resting the head on the hand, 
&c, should be noticed. 

Care should always be taken to record cross-legged effigies 
of Knights (which should not be described as " Templars" or 
"Crusaders"), and to note whether ladies accompanying 
them are shown cross-legged also. 

WILLIAM BAZELEY, 

Hon. Gen. Secretary. 

RURAL DEANERY OF BISLEY. 
By ST. CLAIR BADDELEY 

I. AND II. 

MISERDEN, CHURCH OF S. ANDREW. 
MONUMENTS IN MANORIAL CKAPEL IN THE SOUTH AISLE. 

1. Knight and Lady. Sir William Sandys and Margaret 
Colepepper. 1644. 

2. Recumbent effigies, lying west to east. 

3. Fine English alabaster. 

4. Life-size. 

5. (1) Sir William Sandys, recumbent, with hands in 
attitude of prayer : wears his beard square-cut, moustachios 
long, and long hair. He wears a falling (saffron) band. He 
is represented in full armour of the period in the brassarts 
and grevieres hinged, and cuffs upturned and lace edged. 
His scarf descends from over his right shoulder to below his 

left thigh. The sword hilt is gilded and deeply hollowed. 

■ 



Rural Deanery of Bisley. 



Almain rivets and tuilles. Four-strapped skirt of mail, with 
escalloped lining, over full hose of the period. 

His feet with round-toed solerets, much bestudded, and 
gilded spurs. 

7. (1) At his feet, for crest, a griffon. 

5. (2) Lady Sandys wears her hair in bushy locks, not 
ringlets (longer than is usually the case in effigies of the 
time), descending as low as her collar. A long veil edged 
with lace falls from a coverchief over a hood as far as her 
left hip, where it reappears from concealment, and thence 
continues down to the left ankle. 

She wears a double cape stiffly collared, which is fastened 
by a cord ending in two little tags with small beads. It 
likewise is edged with broad lace roses, with buds and leaves 
formally displayed in escallop. The left arm, reposing on 
her bosom, presses up the two folds of this cape, so as to 
display well the sculptor's skill. The sleeves are worn loose, 
and end in large stiff-edged cuffs bordered with lace. Both 
wrists are encircled with double-row bracelets of pearls. 
The right hand holds at her side, at full length of arm, a closed 
volume by its back. The straps of it are red and unloosed. 
The stomacher is pointed, and the lady wears a plated sur- 
cingle with a quadrangular clasp. Her shoes are square- 
toed. Skirt full. 

6. (2) Head rests on a cushion. 

7. (2) At the feet (for covert) a falcon wearing a gilded 
bell upon each tarsus. 

8. (1) On the north flank of the tomb, between three 
shields, are shown his three sons kneeling to east, upon 
tasselled cushions. All are in armour ; but one of them only 
is in full armour, the eldest, who holds in his right hand a 
skull. The middle of these wears a (buff) coat, remarkable 
for the unusual elaboration of its buttoning back and front. 

The shields bear : (1) Or, a fess dancetty between three 
crosses crosslet fitchy, gules ; and (2) Arg., a bend gules, for 
Culpepper. The faces are strikingly good-looking. Two 
wear moustachios and peaked beards. The monument 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



measures — length, 7 feet; width, 5 feet; and height from- 
ground, 3 feet. 

13. Bigland's Hist, of Glos., Vol. II., p. 224 — 227, gives 
engraving and description. 

14. The whole monument is in excellent preservation. 

8. (2) At the western flank of the monument are repre- 
sented an infant swaddled, two little children sleeping, with 
a skull under their respective left hands, and one grown-up 
daughter, kneeling. On the south flank are three more 
daughters, kneeling, in succession, having bows to their 
sleeves. 

15. Bigland states that the sculpture " is very accurately 
copied from two paintings of Sir William Sandys and his 
Lady, by Sir Cornelius Johnson (Jansen ?), which were sent 
to Italy for that purpose. This superb monument cost 
^"1,000." Vol. II., p. 224. 

There is, however, no ground whatever for attributing 
the workmanship to other than English hands. The treat- 
ment is purely and representatively English. The figures are 
depicted with their eyes open as living ; and if we compare 
them with the well-known effigies of William Lord Spencer 
and his Lady, and other works, by Nicolas Stone (who died 
in 1647), we shall inevitably come to the conclusion that we 
have here another masterpiece of that artist. 

The monument is often stated to be Italian. I took Mr. 
Albert Hartshorne to see it for this reason, and he states 
there can be no question as to its origin in the workshop of 
Nicolas Stone. He died August 24th, 1647, and the non- 
appearance of these effigies in his note books, now in the 
Soane Museum, is accounted for by the probability that they 
were almost the last of his works, and were probably not 
paid for at the time of his death. 

III. 

PARTRIDGE MONUMENT. 

i. (4) Civilian. Gentleman and Lady. Anthony and 
Alice Partridge. 1625. 



Rural Deanery of Bisley. 



153 



2. An architectural-frame monument in classic style, 
containing the two kneeling figures of man and wife, 
divided by a predella. It is in the north wall of the 
chancel. 

3. Of stone. 

4. Smaller than life-size. 

5. (1) The gentleman wears a flattened ruff, his hair 
short, with beard, in a peak. Mantle loose, no armour; 
bag-breeches, leather-topped boots, a sword strap (sword ?). 

5. (2) The lady wears a stiff ruff, and tight sleeves with 
turned-up cuffs. Her hood is a Paris one, from which falls 
a long veil. She wears a mantle and buttoned gown. 

8. Monument consists of a deep plinth inscribed, and 
upheld by three stone brackets, which carries two classical 
columns, which in turn support a cornice, panelled under- 
neath with rosettes. Within the central space the kneeling 
figures face one another— the husband on the left and the 
wife to the right of the spectator. Above them are three 
escutcheons, bearing : (1) " Chequy (arg. and sa.) on a bend 
(gu.), three escallops (or)"; (2) same, impaling Cartwright. 
(3) "Or, a fess embattled between three cart-wheels (sa.)"; 
Cartwright alone. 

9. Inscription given in Bigland, p. 226, vol. ii. 
14. Condition good. 

MISERDEN. 
KINGSTON MONUMENT. 
IV. 

1. Gentleman in armour. William Kingston, Esq., 
High Sheriff of Gloster. 

2. Recumbent, effigy. 1614. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

. 5. Hands raised in prayer. Short hair and beard. 
Stiff band and cuffs. Bag-breeches, six-strapped skirt: 
elaborate bows beside knees. Wrinkled Spanish leather 



154 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



boots, round-toed. An overflap on the front of each shoe is 
fastened to the spurstrap. 

6. A cushion, bordered and tasselled. 

7. A goat. 

8. Altar-tomb. On the front are two shields in relief, 
bearing: (1) "A saltire between four leopards' head or"; 
(2) same impaling, but unfilled up. 

"Azure a cross or between four leopards' faces argent"; 
impaling (2), " Argent on a fess gules three roses of the first 
between six martlets of the second." Washbourne (a poor 
reading.) — F.W. 

9. Here lyeth the body of William Kingston, of 
Miserden, Esquier, and heire to Anthony Kingston, 
Esquier, who married Mary, daughter to John Wash- 
bourne, of Wickenford, in the County of Worcester, 
Esquier, &c. Given correctly in Bigland, vol. ii., 226. 

12. Eastern wall of Sandys' Chapel. 

BISLEY— CHURCH OF ALL SAINTS. 

1. (2) Military. Unknown Knight. (Perhaps a 
Mortimer ?). 

2. E.E. canopy tomb, with armoured effigy of a 
knight of thirteenth century (early). 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. Helm, ridgy and hinged. Shield (ecu.) worn on 
left arm, guige for same passes over right shoulder and 
around the neck. Belt worn loose at waist. Epaulette 
plates (epaulieres). Hands upon breast, together. 

7. A dog at feet. At this early date a dog is so general 
it can scarcely be armorial. 

9. No inscription or heraldic bearings. 
12. Outer S. chancel wall. 

Atkins says (Hist, of Glos., p. 282): "Effigies, of a 
knight-templar, supposed to be for the Founder." 
14. This effigy is considerably worn down, and it is there- 
fore difficult to detect the chain-mail. 



Rural Deanery of Bisley. 



155 



15. According to Atkins (p. 282), this effigy was formerly 
in the S. Aisle of the Church. It may be decided, however, 
on grounds of style, that it does not belong to the canopied 
recess wherein it now lies, the said canopy obviously being 
of later date than the effigy. 

SAPPERTON— CHURCH OF ST. KENELM. 
POOLE MONUMENTS. 
I. & II. 

1. Knightly. Sir Henry Po6Ie and Anne his wife, 
daughter of Sir Wm. Wroughton, of Broad Hinton, 
Wilts. 

2. Architectural classic. 

3. Fine pink-veined alabaster, 

4. Life-size. 

5. (1) Sir Henry Poole, bearded and moustachioed, kneels 
opposite to his lady. He is in armour, with full breeches to 
knees, and wears his mantle ermine lined. He has epaulettes 
and loose-braided sleeves, a stiff band, free of the gorget, 
which, like his breastplate, is richly chased in relief. His 
skirt of taces has three straps each side. The sword strap 
is patterned. Armlets hinged. Cuffs upturned. Leather 
boots, turned over and down at calf. 

5. (2) Kneeling figure of Lady Poole, praying, on a 
cushion. Wears stiff ruff, and a necklet, gilded and jewelled, 
with long ropes of pearls. Her mantle has epaulettes and 
collar. Her hair is in ringlets, and it is fastened behind 
with a flowered circlet set upon a red bandlet. The flap of 
her Paris hood is turned back so as to project, overshadowing 
her forehead. Her bodice is bestudded ; gown tastefully 
looped up around hips and across body. Cuffs, and pearls 
again for bracelets. 

Free of the central monument, behind Lady Poole, 
kneels a male member of the family, holding a tilting lance- 
head in his gauntleted right hand. Wears a flattened ruff, 
an elaborate sash and sword-guard, legging leather boots, 
tag of boot worn loose. 



156 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



Similarly, to the rear of Sir Henry Poole, kneels Sir 
Deverux Poole, who was knighted by Henry IV. of France, 
in 1590. He is represented, however, on a smaller scale 
than the foregoing figures, in complete armour, over which 
is a tabard, the back of which is embossed. He wears a 
stiff" ruff, and the tabard bears " azure, semee fleurs-de-lis or, 
charged with a lion rampant, argent." On his right shoulder, 
a label. 

Arms on central monument : 

Quarterly (1 and 4), " Az. semee fleurs-de-lis or, a 
lion rampant arg." (Poole). 

(2 and 3), " Arg. a chevron az. between three 
stags' heads caboshed gules" (Buerton — im- 
paling also quarterly— ■ . 

(1 and 4), "Arg., a chevron gules between three 
boars' heads coupee, or v — -false, really "sa. 
armed or " (Wroughton). 

(2 and 3), "Arg. three chevronels az. a crescent for 
difference gules." Really, " az. three chevronels 
arg. and crescent for difference of the second." 
(Lewknor). 
12. At north end of N. transept. 

III. 

On E. side of N. transept in a canopied niche lies an 
armoured figure of another Poole. 

1. Military. 

2. Effigy, recumbent. 1574. 

3. Poor stone, ill-fashioned. 

4. Life-size. 

5. Complete scale armour. Hands raised together in 
prayer. He wears longish beard, and moustachios, and a 
short ruff. Elaborate genouillieres, pointed sollerets. Has 
worn an Order, now gone ; but three chains which sustained 
it remain. 

14. Bad condition. 

r ....... 0 .w. 



Rural Deanery of Bisley. 



157 



SIR ROBERT ATKINS (JUNIOR), I7H. 

In S. transept E. wall. 

1. (4) Civilian. 

2. Effigy represents him as living, and in a reclining 
attitude on a slab. 

3. White marble. 

4. Life-size. 

5. Lies on his left side, leaning with elbow upon a 
cushion. His left hand holds a closed volume; his right 
arm rests upon his right thigh. He looks upward. Clean 
shaven ; wears a full wig. His shirt open at throat. Loose- 
ruffed cuffs. Buttons down centre of coat ; loose mantle over 
his legs. Square-toed shoes, buckles ; no rings on fingers. 

8. Arms : " Arg. a cross cotised demi fleurs-de-lys on the 
sides (azure) between four mullets pierced sable " (Atkins) ; 
impaling — " Gules five (really four) fusils in fess argent." 
{Rudder " Or "). Carteret. 

12. E. wall of S. transept. 

14. Good condition. 

STROUD PARISH CHURCH. 1 

DEDICATED TO S. LAWRENCE. E-'I 

I. ■ ' '' "> r ' ' 

1. (5) Judicial., 

2. Architectural Jacobean frame monument, with a man 
in attitude of prayer. 

3. Alabaster, mostly painted over. 

4. Nearly life-size. 

5. Wears tight slashed doublet, buttoned up the, chest. 
Gallic hose, stuifed and slashed, bows beside the knees; 
stockings^ Over all a furred, loose mantle, with long loose 
sleeves. Under sleeves of doublet tight slashed, and termi- 
nating in ruffs. On the head (wearing moustachios and 
rshort, pointed beard) a close-fitting cap (legal coif). Kneels 
on an embroidered and tasselled cushion, praying at a 
cushioned, desk, , 



158 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



8. A single-panelled round arch, forming a niche be- 
tween two disengaged classic columns, painted black, and 
having composite capitals rising from a deep plinth, and in 
turn supporting an elaborate cornice, bearing in centre a 
crested and mantled shield between two rectangular pillars, 
each topped by a golden ball. At foot of shield, right and 
left, diminutive figures, a cupid and a bearded nude male. 
(Time ?). 

Arms: On shield — Quarterly, 1 and 4, "Per chevron 
az. and arg. in chief two eagles rising or" (Stephens); 
2 and 3, " gules on a bend plain cotised argent a bendlet 
wavy azure" (Lugg, of Hereford). 

For crest, a demi eagle displayed (or). 

On central voussoir of the arch below, the first coat 
impales — " az. a fess argent, between two lions statant 
quadrant or," 2 and 1. 

" The first coat impales " Az a fess argent between two 
lions statent quadrant or, 2 and 1." Query : "Az a fess arg. 
between three lions statent guardant or, 2 and 1. ' Thomas 
Stephens — Elizabeth Stone : the nearest London coat of 
stone I can find is, " Sable a fess between three tigers 
passant or.": — F.W. 

In spandrils of the arch each of these coats occurs 
separately. 

9. Inscription of Thomas Stevens, armiger, Attorney- 
General to Henry and Charles, sons of King James I., 1613. 
With punning Latin quatrain. This is given in Notes and 
Recollections of Stroud, Fisher. 

10. Colour and gilding well preserved. 

12. E. wall of S. transept. Original position not known. 
Probably S. aisle ? 

14. A conventional type of head and feature; probably 
not a portrait. 

II. 

(2) In tower on N. wall. An oval medallion in white 
marble, bearing profile of William Knight, Esq. 1786. 
Upon pyramidal slab of yellowish breccia marble. 



South Forest Rural Deanery. 



159 



PAINSWICK— CHURCH OF S. MARY THE VIRGIN. 
N. aisle terminal chapel. N.W. not in situ. 

1. (5) Judicial. Known to belong to John Seaman, 
D.C.L., obit. 1623, and his wife, Anne Norton, whose arms 
are described by Rudder as having been seen by him " on the 
tomb," which, however, has long since vanished. 

2. The kneeling and praying figures have, without 
doubt, belonged to a framed monument of James I.'s time. 

3. Alabaster. 

4. Slightly under life-size. 

5. His figure and costume compares closely with that of 
Thomas Stephens, in Stroud Church, and the description 
given of that conventional one will do for this example. 
They appear to be works of the same artist. 

The female figure, which, like that of the man, has the 
hands gone, has also lost the front of the Paris hood, and 
her nose, and the tassells of cushion on which she kneels. 
Her hair is worn in ringlets, and she has a long veil, ruff,, 
cuffs turned back, full gown, short stomacher buttoned down 
the front. 



SOUTH FOREST RURAL DEANERY. 
By M. E. B. OAKELEY. 
CHURCH OF ALL SAINTS, NEWLAND 



I. 



I. 


(2) Knight in armour. 


2. 


Recumbent effigy. 


3- 


Stone. 


4- 


Life-size. 


5- 


See below. 


6. 


Tilting helme. 


7- 


Lion. 


8. 


No heraldry; no weepers; on modern, high tomb: a 



bad copy of the old one destroyed at restoration of church. 



i6o 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



9. No old inscription : a modern brass on left side of 
tomb states it to be for Sir John Joyce of Clearwell, died 1349. 

10. None. 

11. Has been scraped, and all trace of chain removed 
except inside right arm, hands, feet, and face mutilated. 

12. In south aisle. 

13. B. &> G. Transactions, vol. vi., p. 364. 
Atkins, 301. 

14. Fair. 

15. None. 

This effigy is wearing close-fitting jupon, below which the 
chain hauberk shows, handsome jewelled bawdrick, from 
which sword hung on left side (now gone) ; bascinet, the 
top of which has been cut off; camail, the rings of which 
were scraped off at late restoration. Arms and legs in mixed 
mail and plate, but the former has been entirely removed by 
.cleaning. 

; II. 

1. (6) Lady lying by side of No. 1. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life size. 

5. See below. 

6. Cushion supported by angels. 

7. Lion. 

8. No heraldry; no weepers ; on modern high tomb. 

9. No inscription. Traditionally said to be Lady Joyce, 
of Clearwell (wife of last effigy), who died 1362. 

10. None. 

11. Has been scraped all over. Hands, face, part of 
veil, and cloak on right side mutilated. 

12. In south aisle; was formerly in (?). 

13. B. &> G. Transactions, vol. xvi., pp. 1, 16, pi. xiii. 

14. Fair condition. 
15. 

This effigy lies on right side of No. 1. The lady is wearing 



South Forest Rural Deanery. 



161 



a sideless sur-eote, which shows girdle and tight sleeves of 
under-cote ; long cloak with jewelled fastening (like belt of 
No. i), the end of which hangs below her waist; reticulated 
head-dress and veil, with a frill of cap showing. 

iii. 

1. (3&) Ecclesiastic. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. Young priest in long flowing eucharistic vestments 
without any ornament ; long hair. 

6. Cushion. 

7. Dog. 

8. No canopy ; figure on slab, which rests on an iron 
support in north aisle. 

9. No inscription, but of early 14th century work ; 
probably an early vicar. No heraldry. 

10. None. 

it. Face and hands damaged. 

12. In chapel at the end of north aisle. This monument 
has been moved several times. 

13. B. & G. Transactions, vol. vi., p. 363 ; vol. ix., plate 3, 
p. 66. 

14. Good condition except the slight mutilation, and 
remarkably good workmanship. 

IV. 

1. (36) Ecclesiastic. 

2. Recumbent emgy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. Priest in stiff ornamented eucharistic vestments ; 
wears boots ; feet rest on bracket. 

6. Nothing under head. 

7. Bracket. 

12 

Vol. XXV. 



162 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



8. This effigy rests on an iron stand. 

9. No inscription. Early 15th century. 

10. None. 

11. This figure is not mutilated, but left corner of slab 
broken off. 

12. Now lies by No. 3 in chapel at end of north aisle. 

13. B. &> G. Transactions, vol. ix., plate 4, p. 66. 

14. Good condition. 

V. 

1. (6) Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. Long sur-cote tucked under each arm, showing cote 
below. 

6. Head gone. 

7- (?)■ 

8. No tomb. 

9. None. 

10. None. 

11. Much mutilated. 

12. Lies at end of south aisle. Has been moved several 
times. 

13- 

14. In very bad condition ; bad, coarse workmanship. 

15. Nothing known; but from the dress is as early as, if not 
earlier than, the date given for the erection of the church. 

VI. 

1. (4) Civilian. 

2. Recumbent effigy. (In churchyard.) 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. See below. 

6. Cushion, with tassels at corners. 



South Forest Rural Deanery. 



163 



7. Hunting dog or brache. 

8. On high tomb with panelled sides ; a slightly sunk 
quatrefoil in each. 

9. " Here lyeth Junk Wyrall Forster of Fee 3 the which 
dysesed the viii. day of Synt Lauroc the yeare of oure Lord 
mcccclvii. on his soule God have mercy. Amen." 

The date 1457 was cut in old figures on the slab when 
probably the inscription was more legible. 

10. None. 

11. Slightly damaged on hands*. The horn at his side 
has been chipped recently. 

12. Now in churchyard on north-east side. Formerly in 
the church. 

13. B. G. Transactions, vol. vi., p. 361 ; vol. xviii., pi. 8, 
p. 14. Sir Henry Dryden in Uavt de Venevie par Gullaume 
Twisi, p. 64. 

14. It is much to be regretted that this almost unique 
effigy is lying in the churchyard without any protection from 
wind and weather, and the wilful damage from children and 
passers by. It has suffered much quite recently. 

VII. 

1. (4) Civilian. 

2. Incised figure. (In churchyard.) Plate. 

3. Stone (local). 

4. Slightly under life-size. 

5- 
6. 

7- 

8. Raised tombs, with panels of Jacobean type (round 
arches and scroll work). 

9. No inscription. 
10. 

11. Nearly overgrown with moss. 

1 Near this figure are two slabs lying on the ground with some human 
figures in low relief upon them, but too much worn to say if they are 
ecclesiastics or civilians, 



164 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



12. On south of churchyard. 

13. B. & G. Transactions, vol. vi., p. 362 ; vol, xviii., p. 267. 

14. Will soon be entirely obliterated from the effects of 
weather and moss. 

15. Figure of a man carrying a bow and three arrows. 

It is supposed to represent some member of the family of 
Wyrall, as the office of "Bow-bearer" to the King, and Chief 
Forester of Fee, continued with them till the family became 
extinct in the 18th century. The figure is represented in 
jerkin or doublet buttoned in front, and girt round the waist 
with a belt, long tight sleeves slightly puffed at the shoulder, 
falling bands (or collar) of a kind which came into fashion 
early in the 17th century. His breeches are stuffed and 
fastened at the knees with ribbons ; tight hose, with shoes cut 
low and slightly pointed. A low-crowned, broad-brimmed 
hat. In his left hand he carries a long bow ready strung, his 
right hand holds an arrow, and two spare arrows stuck into his 
belt. — B. and G. Transactions, vol. xviii., p. 267. 

VIII. 

1. (5) Judicial. 

2. Bust. 

3. White marble. 

4. Rather larger than life. 

5. Wears wig with long curls, falling bands. 
6. 

7- 

8. The bust stands on a white marble sarcophagus, with 
pyramidal slab of grey marble behind it. Upon the slab are 
the arms and crest of the Probyn family — 

Erm., on - a fesse gu. A lion passant or. Crest : An 
ostrich's head erased arg., ducally gorged or, holding in the 
beak a key, wards downwards, of the last, with motto, 
" Manus hcec inimica tyrannis." 

9. Upon the sarcophagus above mentioned is the 
following inscription: — "John Probyn, Esqre., nephew & 



South Forest Rural Deanery. 



heir of S r Edm d Probyn. Died 22 March, 1773, aged 70. 
Ann, his wife, daughter of John Howell, Esqre., of this place ; 
and Elizabeth Ann, his sister." 

On a marble slab below is the following: — "Sacred to the 
memory of S r Edm d Probyn, Kt., Lord Chef Baron of his 
Majesty's Court of Exchequer, who died the 17 day of 
May, 1742. Dame Elizabeth Probyn, the Widow & Relict 
of S r Edmund Probyn, the daughter of S r John Blencowe, 
Kt., one of the Justices of the Court of Common Pleas at 
Westminster. Died 22 day of October, 1749, & at her 
particular desire was buried in this chancel near the remains 
of her deceased husband." 

10. None. 

11. Perfect. 

12. On east wall of chapel in south aisle. 

13- (?)• 

14. Perfect. 

15- 

CHURCH OF ST. MARY THE VIRGIN, ST. BRIAVEL'S. 

1. Doubtful. 

2. Slab, with head let in. 

3. Stone. 

5. Head with veil and wimple. 

6. 

7 

h. Coffin slab, with triple cross. 

9. None. 

10. None. 

11. Slightly damaged on edge. 

12. See below. 

13. B. &>. G. Transactions, vol. . . . , p. 76, pi. ix. 
14. 

15- 

The Rev. W. Taprell Allen, late Vicar of St. Briavel's, 
says: "I have thought it probable that this coffin-slab once 



166 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



covered the remains of Robert, Abbot of Lire (de Lyra), in 
Normandy, who died 1272, and who was a Canon Residentiary 
of Hereford Cathedral. He and his house transferred the 
patronage of Lydney, with St. Briavel's, to the Dean and 
Chapter of Hereford. When I went to St. Briavel's in 1867, 
I found this coffin-lid in the porch, and removed it into 
the church, and later on placed it in the Easter tomb, 
in the south transept, which I discovered, re-opened, and 
restored." 

(The date is about 1312, and the ball-flower ornaments 
are in favour of its being the work of a Hereford sculptor 
who had been employed on the ball-flower work of the 
Cathedral. It may very well be the memorial of a Hereford 
canon. — A.H.) 

II. 

1. (4). ^ 

2. Effigies. 

3- 

4. Life-size. 

5. Man's costume is a civic gown, &c. A fine monument 
for William Warren and his wife (Mariania Catchmay) was 
pulled down when the old chancel was rebuilt in 1.861, and 
various parts of this monument are still lying against the new 
chancel walls, and stowed away on the stairs to the old rood 
loft. They were rescued from destruction by the late Vicar 
(Rev.W. Taprell Allen), who tried to induce the representatives 
of the family to re-erect the tomb, but without effect. The 
following is Mr. Allen's description: ''The two recumbent 
figures lay under a handsome canopy, supported by marble 
figures I — P. Above the canopy were three figures of Faith, 
Hope, and Charity, and in the panels of the lower part of 
the monument were the figures of a son who died, aged 20, 
and behind him a swaddled infant. On another panel are 
figures of his daughters — Mary, who married George Gough 
of Hewelsfield, Esq., and Margaret, married — James, Esq., 
of Sully or Sorlwell. He was a Deputy-Constable of St. 



South Forest Rural Deanery. 167 



Briavel's Castle. William Warren resided at Willsbury, 
and died, seized of the manors of Stowe and Willsbury, in 
14th Elizabeth, 1572, leaving only the above-mentioned 
daughters co-heiresses." 

Bigland, in his History of Gloucester, has a partial repre- 
sentation of this monument. 

CHURCH OF ST. MARY THE VIRGIN, LYDNEY. 

EFFIGY IN THE CHURCHYARD TO BE REMOVED INTO 

THE CHURCH. 

Reported by Rev. F. Eales, R.D. 
A black stone slab with life-size figure of a man in 
low relief, clothed in a long flowing robe and with hands 
closed upon the breast, and apparently holding between 
the palms a heart. The initials " G. P." are carved on the 
right and left of the head, and upon the right of the head 
and neck the date " April the 13, 1630." 

Mr. Saunders, the aged Parish Clerk, declares the 
following traditions : — 

" At the restoration of the tower," presumably in 
1630, "one of the workmen lost his balance and his 
life in leaning over to catch an apple thrown up to 
him from below." 
(This story occurs with slight difference at several other 
places.) 

I do not feel quite sure that the initials " G. P." or the 
date are as ancient as the figure, but the latter at any rate 
appears to be so. 

I find that T. Philpotts was vicar (1623 or 1628 to 1638). 
I had at first thought the long flowing robe to have been 
clerical. 

CHURCH OF ST. MARY THE VIRGIN, 
ENGLISH BICKNOR. 

I. 

1. (6) Lady. Plate. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 



168 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



3. Forest stone. 

4. A little larger than life, 6 ft. 6 ins. 

5. Lady wears wimple and veil, cote high at the neck, 
with long sleeves; over this a long sur- cote which falls in folds 
to the feet, and is tucked up under each arm. A mantle 
hangs over the shoulders and is fastened across the chest 
with cords. 



6. 


Plain cushion. 


7- 


Dog. 


8. 


None. 


9- 




10. 


Shows traces of gesso. 


11. 


Nearly perfect. 


12. 


On floor of north aisle. 


13. 


Nowhere to my knowledge. 


14. 


Good. 


15- 





Probably Cecilia, heiress of the Manor of Bicknor in her 
own right. She married (second wife) Robert de Muchegros 
of Kemerton. She died 1301. 

II. 

1. (6) Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigy. (Plate.) 

3. Red sandstone. 

4. Larger than life. 

5. Wears wimple and veil, cote with long sleeves. 
Sur-cote very long, tucked under each arm ; mantle over. 

6. Cushion. 

7. Bracket. 

8. None. 

9. None. Probably Hawisia de Muchegros, who held 
the Manor as heiress of Cecilia (see previous entry). She 
married John Lord Ferrars, son and heir of Robert, eighth 
and last Lord Derby. She died 1350. 

10. Shows traces of gesso. 



South Forest Rural Deanery. 



169 



12. 



*3- 
14. 



10. 




Good. 



III. 



1. (36) Priest in eucharistic vestments. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. Eucharistic vestments, but neither stole nor maniple 
are visible. 

6. Cushion. 
7- 

8. Now under recessed arch, quite plain. 

9. None. 

10. None. 

11. Head is modern, of wretched workmanship; eyes and 
nose are mere slits. 

12. At present in vestry, on north side of church. Locally 
known as " the Lady of the Manor." Probably it represents 
Ralph de Abenhale, presented to the living by Cecilia de 
Muscegros in 1288, or Walter de Otlee, " admitted to the 
Church " June 23, 1340. 

13. B. &* G. Transactions, vol. i., p. 82 ; vol. ix., p. 266. 

14. Fair. 

15. None. 

CHURCH OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST, RUARDEAN. 



In this church are the fragments of one or more effigies, 
and a recessed arch in the north wall of the nave, which, 
however, appears earlier than the remains of the effigies. 
The fragments consist of — 

(a) A funeral urn, with ornamental cover, all in one stone ; 



Reported by Rev. F. Kales, R.D. 



in good order. 



iyo Transactions for the Year 1902. 



(b) Figure of infant boy, reclining ; perfect. 

(c) Figure of infant ; headless. 

(d) Trunk of large recumbent figure, with folded hands; 

head and lower part gone, dress perfect. 

(e) Female head, with wimple, nearly life size : does not 

fit (d). 



RURAL DEANERY OF BITTON. 
By M. E. B. OAKELEY. 

Deanery— BITTON. 
Parish— PUCKLECHURCH. 

Church of St. Thomas a Becket. 
Date of visit, &c— W. E. B. May 18, 1901. 

I. 

1. (4) Merchant. (Plate.) 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size ; head rather large, well carved. 

5. Recumbent figure, hands together: wears a long robe, 
with tight sleeves ending below the wrist, and a wrist-band 
also tight and buttoned. A tippet over the shoulders comes 
down between shoulders and elbows. In left of the robe is 
a slit, through which is- a cord fastened to a purse. The 
eyes are open, the hair long and hanging down on each side 
of the face. A slight moustache and short beard ; the upper 
and lower lips are either partly shaved, or do not grow much 
hair. 

6. Cushion, with knobs at corners, and laid crossways on 
another cushion. 

Supporting angels are at each side. 

7. Dog. 

8. The figure rests under a flat-topped canopy, with 



Rural Deanery of Bitton. 



171 



flat ogee arches at each side ; a battlemented and recessed 
moulding runs round under the edge of the top. 

11. The hands are broken, and the angel on the left 
much broken ; the angel on the right has arm broken. 

12. Under the east arch, between nave and east end of 
north aisle. Part of the canopy was in the churchyard before 
the restoration of the church. 

14. Figure pretty fair. Canopy cut away at west end of 
north side. 

II. 

1. (6) Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life. 

5. The dress is long, and full at the feet, fitting tightly 
to the body, with tight sleeves ; two loops seem to come 
from the shoulders, falling below the waist and brought back 
under the arms. A cloak hangs from the shoulders, with a 
belt seen round the waist. In the bend of the left elbow, 
close to the body, is a fold of dress pulled up. Wears 
veil and wimple ; across the forehead is a plait of hair. 

6. Pillow, higher on right than left side. 

7. Dog. Fore part raised, with head looking back at the 
figure. 

8. The figure rests, leaning rather to its left, under a 
canopy, like the other tomb, but in better order. Above the 
flat top rises round the window, under which is tomb, a high 
ogee canopy. It runs up into pinnacles at each side, with a 
higher one in the middle, and has a small quatrefoil orna- 
ment along the moulding. 

11. Hands gone; edge of plinth broken; face a good 
deal obliterated. 

12. Under the easternmost window of the north wall of 
north aisle. 

14. A wash of thin cement seems to have been brushed 
■over the figure and lower canopy. 

This figure looks as if it had been exposed to the 



172 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



weather. Is it the one referred to by Miss Swaine in her 
paper? (B. G. Transactions, vol. iii., p. 35.) 

Both these figures are described in the Transactions,. 
vol. xxiii., pp. 69, 70. 

Deanery— BITTON. 

Parish— DYRHAM. Church of St. Peter. 
Date of visit, Sec— W. E. B. May, 1901. 

I. 

1. (2) Knight. 

2. Effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. A little under life. 

5. He wears cuisses, genouilieres, jambes, round-toed^ 
articulated solerets, breast-plate, plates over shoulders, skirt 
of aces, engraved brassarts, ornamented elbow-joints, a ruff. 
His hands in articulated gauntlets, rowel spurs with square 
buckle. Sword has a cross hilt, the scabbard is ornamented, 
and hangs by ornamented strap from belt, which is fastened 
by square buckle. He has a trimmed beard and short hair. 
Hands together. 

6. Helmet. 

7. Lion. 

5. The wife, on her husband's right, has her head on 
elaborate cushion and her feet on a dog with a collar. Hands 
together. She wears shoes and an embroidered under-skirt, 
which a quilted (?) over-gown is turned back to show open 
from the waist, where it is tied in with a scarf. Sleeves tight 
and ornamented, small ruffles at wrist. She wears a ruff, 
and her cap is rather peaked in front, with back turned over 
head (Paris head). She wears a ring on little finger of 
right hand, and one on forefinger of left. 

8. The tomb is a large one under a canopy, supported 
by solid masonry on east and south, open under round arch 
on west and two round arches on north. Length, 8 ft.; 
width, 4 ft. 8 ins. ; height from floor to slab on which figures 
rest, 2 ft. 4 ins. ; height to top of canopy, about 10 ft. 6 ins. 



Rural Deanery of Bitton. 



173 



In south wall are three small openings and two carvings 
of weepers in bas-relief. The canopy has columns fluted in 
upper half at corners, and between arches on north carving 
in spandrels, and a rich interlaced frieze and open-work 
balustrade above it. In middle of north side, coat of arms. 
Wynter and Brain, at west side Wynter arms. 

Winter Shield — Dyrham Church : " (Sable) on a fess, and 
in chief a crescent ermine, one of the last for difference 
argent" — Wynter: impaling quarterly 1 & 4, " ;Sable, may 
be azure) on a fess between three bugle horns stringed 
(argent) a hemple hackle (gules)." 2 " (? Sable) on a cross 
(or) an oak slip of three acorns (vert.)," query Doyngell. 
3 " (Azure) six plates 3, 2, 1, on a chief (argent) a lion 
rampant (of the field) " — Degon or Digus. Bigland read 
2 and 3 wrong. 

The weepers on south side are, to left, four men: the first 
three in armour kneeling on cushions, with their helmets at 
their side, the last a boy in long dress : all wear ruffs. To 
right, seven female figures ; three of them have head-dresses 
with veils (?) hanging out behind, and all wear ruffs. 

The tinctures are not indicated except the ermine, and 
the crescents for difference are most likely proper instead of 
argent. 

9. On east wall: " Georgio Wynteri armigeri. (qui animam 
•efflavit XXIX. die Novembris Ano Dmi 1581) Anna Wynter 
uxor pia charo conjugi hoc monumentum posuit. Statuens, 
cum et ipsa Dei jussu vitse hujus stationem peregerit hie 
juxta mariti funus suum quoque reponi. Ut quibus vivis 
unus erat animus, eisdem et mortuis, unus esset corporum 
quiescendi locus, sub spe futurce Resurrectionis." 

On the ornamental slab on which the figures rest, along 
the edge, is: " Psal. 33. Redimet Dominus animas servorum 
suorum." 

Round the side of the lower part of tomb in and out round 
some of columns, and between them, are : " Mole . sub . hac . 
placidam . capiunt . en . membra . Georgi . Wynteri . requiem . 
duros . persaepe labores. Qui . solida . in . terra . qui . flucti- 



174 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



vagantibus . undis. Et . pace innocua . simul . et . pagna- 
cibus . annis . Sustinuit . patrioe . du . publica . munia gessit. 

" Anna . fuit . quondam . hoec . illi fidissima . conjux 
undenas . thalami sobole . tulit . ista . viriles quatuor et 
septem . generoso . stemate . natas." 

12. At east end of south aisle. It was possibly moved 
from a position a little further west. 

14. General condition good. 

15. George Wynter bought Dyrham from Sir Walter 
Dennys. G. W. was brother of Sir William Wynter, of 
Lydney, who was Yice-Admiral at the Armada. 



Deanery— BITTON. 
Parish— IRON ACTON. 

Church of St. James the Less. 
Date of visit, &c. — W. E. B. June 21, 1901. 

I. 

1. (2) Knight. 

2. Effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life. 

5. High helmet and camail, overlapping plates on 
shoulders, gauntlets. 

8. Upper part of figure ; wears moustache, hands folded ; 
part of a recumbent effigy. 

12. It is let into socket on pillaster projecting from 
north parapet of tower, and stands above parapet. 

9. About Edward III. from dress. 
11. Only upper half of body. 

13. Mentioned vol. iv., p. 84, B. &> G.A.S. 

14. Much weathered. 

II. 

1. (6) Lady. 

2. Incised slab. 

3. Stone. 



Rural Deanery of Bitton. 



175 



4. Life. 

5. Wears a dress with tight-fitting body, low in neck, 
laced from hands to waist, skirt full, sleeves tight. Reticulated 
head-dress. 

8. Inscription runs round slab in a border. 

9. "Here ly th Anne, the firste wife of Roberd Poyntz, of 
whos sowle God have mercy. Amen." 

Date before 1420, as her husband died that year and she 
was first wife. 

12. East of south aisle, Poyntz Chapel. 

13. Mentioned vol. iv., p. 81, B. S» G.A.S. 

14. Much worn. 

III. 

1. (6) Lady. 

2. Effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life. 

5. Long dress, rather full : it is caught up in the bends 
of elbows. Reticulated head-dress, with veil. 

6. Cushion. 

7. Beast. 

8. Figure rests on floor : the hands are folded and hold 
something larger than that which the other figure does, 

9. Possibly a little later than the Knight. 

11. Beast's head, much worn ; also features of effigy. 

12. South side of chancel, said formerly to have been 
standing against east wall of Poyntz Chapel, south aisle. 

13. Described slightly vol. iv., p. 83, B, &* G.A.S. 

14. The whole much worn. 



IV. 

1. (2) Knight. 

2. Incised slab. 

3. Stone. 

4. Rather under life; slab, 6ft. 6 ins. 

5. Figure wears helmet ; body in plate, with skirt of 



176 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



traces ; gorget with slight trace of mail (?) ; round shoulder 
pieces, brassarts on arms, gauntlets with pointed cuffs ; legs 
in plate, genouilliers not large, with band or strap going 
round leg ; solerets of plate. 

7. Dog. 

8. Inscription runs round slab in a border. 

11. Been broken across in two places. 

12. East of south aisle, Poyntz Chapel. 

13. Mentioned vol. iv., pp. 81-82, B. &> G.A.S. 

14. Face, left shoulder, arm, and part of leg, much worn 
away. 

15. Stepyl in inscription may be the preaching cross. 
Vol. iv., pp. 81-82, B. & G.A.S. 

9. " Here lyth Robert Poyntzs, Lord of Iren Acton and 
thys stepyl maked, who deyde the fyftene day of Junne, the 
year of owre Lord MCCCCXX., of whos sowle God have 
mercy. Amen." 

V. 

1. (2) Knight. 

2. Effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-figure, about 5 ft. 6 ins. 

5. Wears high basinet, camail, hauberk of mail showing 
at armholes coming below jupon ; arms covered by brassarts 
of plate (?) with elbow- pieces having a band inside ; 
epaulieres ; the legs seem to be in mail with genouillieres. 
The sword-belt is low on the hips, and in front of it 
hangs either the end of the belt or a broken poinard ; hands 
in gauntlets; rowel spurs on feet. 

The figure is like that of Thomas, third Lord Berkeley, 
1361. B. &* G. A . S. Transactions, vol. xv., pi. 6. 

6. Helmet slightly cut away. 

7. Beast; head gone, tail broken. 

8. Figure rests on floor; the hands are folded over breast, 
and appear to hold something, (heart (?).) 

9. Reign of Edward III., possibly Sir John Poyntz 
(vol. iv., p. 83, B. &> G.A.S. Transactions). 



Rural Deanery of Bitton. 



i77 



11. Most of sword is gone; the toes of right foot worn 
away ; little fingers gone. 

12. South side of chancel, formerly said to have been 
standing against east wall of Poyntz Chapel, south aisle. 

13. Described slightly, vol. iv., p. 83, B. &> G. A. S. 
Transactions. 

14. Whole much worn. 

Deanery— BITTON. 
Parish— MARSHFIELD., 

Church of St. Mary. 
Date of visit, &C—W.E.B. June 8, 1901. 

1. (6) Lady. 

2. Effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life. 

5. So much worn and obliterated as to make description 
very difficult. 

It may be a figure with hair puffed out at the sides ; or 
with a couvre chef falling at each side. 

Some trace Of mantle, and of the place where the dress 
or robe ends, about seven or eight inches above feet. 

6. Large cushion or pillow. 

7. A lump which may be dog, but impossible to say. 

8. The figure is recumbent : hands seem to have been 
folded. 

9. It has been suggested it might have been the effigy 
of an abbess (?). It seems earlier than end of 15th century. 

11. Face and head almost worn away: hands gone, and 
lower part of arms and the feet also : the whole figure 
blurred and worn. 

12. South side of church, a little west of south door; 
possibly formerly in small chapel on south of south aisle. 

14. The whole so much worn as to be hardly describable. 

15. Atkyns says that Marshfield was connected with 
Keynsham Abbey : he also says, " The Abbey of Tewkesbury 
hath presented to this Church." 

Vol. XXV 



i 7 8 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



Deanery— BITTON. 

Parish— BITTON. Church of St. Mary. 
Date of visit, &c. — W. E. B. May 16, 1901. 

I. 

1. (3 c) Canon or chantry priest or prebendary of the 
church. (Ellacombe's History of Bitton.) 

2. Effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Diminutive. 

5. Surplice long, just showing feet; almuce (hood is up 
like a cowl) ; cope hood loosely round neck ; almuce ends 
show wide in front. 

6. Cushion. 

8. About 3 ft. 8 ins. long. 

11. Face and hands rather worn. 

12. Chapel on north of nave, which is possibly Lady 
Chapel. 

13. Ellacombe's History of Bitton, pp. 33-34 ; B. & G. A. S. 
Transactions, vol. ix, p. 69. 

14. Somewhat worn. 

II. 

1. (3c) Canon, called chantry priest or prebendary of the 
church, in Ellacombe's History of Bitton. 

2. Effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Diminutive. 

5. Dressed in surplice short enough to show feet, which 
are in shoes ; almuce ; collar flat on shoulders (ends hang 
down) ; cope, the hood of which lies on pillow. Cassock 
visible at wrists. 

6. Cushion or pillow, resting crossways on an oblong 
pillow. 

7. Dog(?) 

8. The effigy is about 3 ft. 6 ins. long. 



Rural Deanery of Bitton. 



179 



11. Face, and hands indistinct. 

12. Chapel or north of nave, which is possibly Lady 
Chapel. 

13. Ellacombe's History of Bitton, pp. 33-34; B. &>G.A.S. 
Transactions, vol. ix., p. 69. 

14. A good deal worn and some of the shapeness gone. 

Ill, 

1. (3^) Ecclesiastic. 

2. Effigy 

3. Stone. *" 

4. A little under life size. 

5. Sandals. 
Alb. 
Stole. 
Tunic. 
Chasuble. 

? Looks like Pall. 

11. Only the lower part of figure, broken off just below 
the knees. 

12. Chantry Chapel, found among the fillings - up of 
hagioscope on south side of chancel arch. 

13. Ellacombe's History of Bitton, p. 9. 

14. Pretty good condition. 

IV. 

1. (2) Knight. 

2. Semi-effigial slab. 

3. Stone. 

4. Nearly life size. 

5. A fragment of effigy, giving part of left leg clothed in 
chain mail and part of surcoat showing, with sword belt ; the 
left hand holds sword. There is a kind of genouilliere, some- 
what shaped to the knee. 

11. Only part of figure. 

12. Chantry Chapel; the fragments were found built in 
the western wall. 

13. Ellacombe's History of Bitton, pp. 36-37. 



i8o 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



V. 

1. (6) Lady. 

2. Effigy. 

3. Stone (?). 

4. A little under life. 

5. Late 13th century. 

A veil over the head, with band round it. 
9. Possibly Petronilla de Vivon, 1286. See History of 
Bitton, p. 37. 

11. Only head and upper part of slab. 

12. Chantry Chapel or Lady Chapel. 

13. History of Bitton (Ellacombe), pp. 36-37. 

VI. 

1. (2) Knight. 

2. Effigy. 

3. Purbeck. 

4. Above life size. 

5. The figure is in rather low relief, with some of the 
work incised, completely clothed in suit of chain mail, 
wearing a surcoat ; the sword lies on the breast from right 
shoulder over the left thigh, the pomel projects above the 
shield, which carries a fess, (the coat is said to be Ermine, 
a fess gules), he wears prick spur. Very short. 

6. Cushion. 

7. Dog. 

8. Slab about 6ft. Sins. The shield is believed to be 
coat of the de Buttons. 

12. Against wall of vestibule of Chantry Chapel, found 
a few inches below surface of gound on south side of the 
Church in 1826, where was believed to have been a Mortuary 
Chapel. 

13. History of Bitton (Ellacombe), pp. 8, 35-36. 

14. Broken across : surface getting tender in places. 

15. Supposed to be Robert de Button: lived in reign of 
Henry III., father of Thomas de Button, Bishop of Exeter. 



Rural Deanery of Bitton, 



181 



VII. 

1. (6) Lady. 

2. Slab, with head. 

3. Purbeck, I think. 

4. About 6 ft. 4 ins. long. 

5. Hair hanging down side of face. Two ornaments at 
each side of forehead. 

8. Coffin lid. Slab narrows to base. Double moulding, 
with inscription between ; a floriated cross on tall shaft 
with stepped foot (head is above the-cross). 

9. Emmote : De : Hastinges : gist : ici : Deus : Saal : 
me : eit : merci : 

11. Features of face obliterated. 

12. Chantry Chapel or Lady Chapel (?) against north 
wall, found, like Robert de Button's effigy, under surface on 
south side, 1826. 

13. Ellacombe's History of Bitton, pp. 8, 35, 36. 



HERALDRY. 



Head by F. WERE during Excursion to Winterbourne, 
Almondsbury, etc., June 6th, igoi. 

WINTERBOURNE CHURCH. 
CHANCEL. 

Flat Stones. i : " (Gules) a chevron between three 
Saracens' heads affronte, the two in chief couped and the 
one in base erased ; (argent) crined (or) wreathed (azure 
and sable)." Griffith. (Bigland says, " Argent a chevron 
sable between a blackamoor's head affronte ppr.") 
Christopher, G., 1717, impaling " (Argent) on a cross 
(sable) five lozenges (or)," Brightwell. Lysons in his History 
of Bucks says Griffith married Brightwell. Crest : On 
esquire's helmet on wreath a stag's head cabossed. 2 : 
Griffith, impaling " Ermine on a chief (sable) two 
? griffins combatant (argent)." Aide, Kent ; Bigland, Auld. 

1 cannot find this marriage. 

Monument. " ? Azure three escallops in pale or," 
Symes, 1669, impaling "Argent on a cross sable a 
leopard's face or," Bridges. Thomas Symes married Amy, 
daughter of Edward Bridges, of Keynsham. Quarterly, 1 
and 4, " (Azure) three bends (argent) a chief ermine." 
Martin (George), 1837. 2 and 3, " Lozengy (gules) and 
vair on a canton (or) a mullet of six points (sable)." Guise. 
Quarterly, 1 and 4, "Sable a griffin passant ? or." Brice. 

2 and 3, " Gules five fusils in fess ? argent." ? Daubney. 
I cannot find this alliance or one like it. Brice, 1842. 

n. chantry. 

Brass, E. wall. " Per fess nebuly ? a fess (argent and 
sable), three bucks' scalps 2 and 1 (counterchanged) 
? crescent in chief for difference," Buck, 1612, impaling 

"Vol. XXV. 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



" (Gules) a saltire (argent)," Nevill. " Kenelyn Bucke 
married Ellyne, daughter of Thomas Nevill, younger brother 
of the Lord Latymer " (Gloucester Visitation, p. 211). 

Effigies. Out of ducal coronet (or) a boar's. Rudder says 
bear's head and neck couped (sable). The Bradestone crest. 

Monument. Rudder gives this coat as " Argent on a 
bend or three eagles displayed sable." Browne. This is 
false, but it may have been so in his time, and is too much 
defaced now to say for certain. I made out the bend and 
two eagles. The nearest Browne to this is " Argent on a bend 
double cotised sable three spread eagles of the first." But 
the crest is not the same. This is, out of a castle parapet, 
possibly mural coronet, a demi eagle displayed, impaling. 
Rudder says, " Paly of six argent and sable three eagles 
displayed counterchanged," which Papworth says is Whit- 
comb, but I cannot find the marriage. 

S. CHANTRY. 

A great many Bradestone roses, but I could not see a real 
shield. 

ALMONDSBURY CHURCH. 
N. TRANSEPT. 

"Gules a lion passant ? ermine between three hawks' 
lures argent." Chester. On escutcheon of pretence, 
" Gules on a fess argent between three boars' heads couped 
close or, a lion passant azure." Gough. Thomas Chester 
married Mary, daughter and heiress of Jeremy Gough and 
widow of George Gwinnet. Crest : Lion's gamb erased 
gules holding broken sword argent, hilted^or. "Post funera 
virtus." 

S. TRANSEPT. 

1 : " (Argent) on a bend (sable) three calves passant or." 
Veele. 2 : " . . . a chief ermine." ? Harding. Not 
in books ; but the first entry in the Gloucester Visitation, 
p. 172, is, " Galfridus Vele, sans data^Matilda filia et 
cohaeres Harding alias Berkley de Huntingford." 3 : " (Gules) 
a chevron between ten (Bigland, seven) crosses patty (argent)." 



Heraldry. 



185 



Berkeley. 4 : " Quarterly (or and gules) a lion passant 
guardant (azure)." Gloucester Visitation, p. 172, says Masey, 
but on p. 208 Sore. Now I cannot find that Massy bore the 
lion guardant. Bigland says it is so on the monument. At any 
rate, the pedigree says, Robert Vele de Chersfield married 
Hawisia filia Sore (Rudder says, de Gore) et haeres St. 
Fagon, by which St. Fagan's came to the Veeles : the 
marshalling is in favour of its being Sore, as it is before 
Kingston, whereas the pedigree gives the Massy marriage 
after the Kingston." 5 : " Three lozenges conjoined in 
fess." Bigland, " ? Sable three lozenges conjoined in fess 
ermine." Gifford. 6: "(Sable) a lion rampant double 
queued (or)." Kingston. Gloucester Visitation,^. 172, " Petrus 
Veale eques auratus quinto Ed. II. married Hawisia filia et 
haeres . . . Kingston de Tatworth." 7: "(Or) a lion 
rampant (sable) crowned (gules)." Clevedon. Gloucester 
Visitation, p. 173, "Petrus Vele Miles married Catherina filia 
et haeres Johannis Cleuedon militis." This is of value as 
showing the marshalling, since this Peter was the son of 
" Petrus Vele Miles vixit 2 Ric. II.," who married " Cecilia 
filia et haeres Massy de Charfield." Therefore the Massy 
ought to have come in between 6 and 7. The Clevedon 
quartering does not appear in the Gloucester Visitation. 
8: "(Argent) a fess raguly (gules) between three pellets, 
really roundles and charged with a roundle " (a rough 
way of expressing an annulet). Gloucester Visitation says, 
"Annulets sable" for Vyell. William Vele, of Tortworth, 
married Susanna, daughter and coheiress of . . . Vyell 
(p. 173). But curiously the fourth quartering on p. 172 
is given as Vyell when it is Torrington, and the fifth 
Torrington when it is Vyell. Pole calls the fess " trunked," 
so it is sometimes read humetty. 9 : Gloucester Visitation 
gives this as " (Gules) two bars and in chief a lion passant 
(or) an annulet for difference." Torrington. But it seemed 
to me to be ? a dimidiated coat with the roundles charged with 
roundles in base. Rudder thinks that Thomas Vele, son of 
Sir Peter Vele and Catherine Clevedon, married Hawes (left 



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blank in the Gloucester Visitation, p. 173) Torrington ; but I 
should think it was more likely a quartering of Vyell, both 
of them being Devon and Cornwall families, though I cannot 
find the alliance; impaling quarterly, 1 and 4, "(Gules) two 
chevrons (argent)." Phetiplace. 2 and 3, " (Argent) on a 
bend between three crosses croslet fitchy (sable) as many 
cinquefoils (or)." Kentwood. The only entry that might 
lend some clue to it is in the Oxford Visitation, where 
Isabell Warren, apparently an heiress, married first . 
•Kentwood, and secondly William Phetiplace, s.p. ; but then 
if this was the Phetiplace, the coat of Warren as well as 
Kentwood ought to be here. Gloucester Visitation, however, 
says that "William Vele, of Over, co. Gloucester, married 
Margaret, daughter of W. Phetiplace, of Maydencott." The 
inscription on the monument said Edward Vele o'b. 1577, and 
Catherine 1575. Gloucester Visitation says that Edward Vele, of 
Over, first son, married Catherine, daughter of John Hollaway ; 
so as Edward was the son of William and Margaret, 
the arms belonged to his father. The crest of the Veles 
was a garb or, enfiled with a ducal coronet gules ; the 
feet of the effigy rested on a garb. Round the base were 
four shields. On E. side Berkeley and either Sore or 
Massey; on W. side the ? Harding and Vele. 

On Monuments. Quarterly, 1 and 4, "(Argent) lion 
rampant (sable) within bordure engrailed (gules) may be of 
the last." Dowell. 2 and 3, " (Azure) on fess engrailed 
between three swans' heads and necks erased (or) ducally 
gorged (gules) as many cinquefoils (of the third)." Baker. 
On escutcheon of pretence, " (Argent) three bars wavy (azure)." 
Browning. The last entry in the 1682 Gloucester Visitation 
says, "Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of John Browning, 
married John Baker Dowell, of Almondsbury." Crest : On 
wreath demi lion rampant. Also Baker as before, with cresi : 
Sinister arm, embowed, armoured, holding swan's head and 
neck as in arms fessways. Bigland gives an Ivy shield 
(1630), which is wrongly marshalled, but I failed to see it. 
Also one to Lawford (1679). 



Heraldry. 



over COURT. 
Chimney-piece. Royal arms of ? James I. with crest and 
supporters within garter and its motto. On dexter side : 
" Lion within bordure engrailed." Dowell. Sinister side: 
" Chevron between three ? wolves' heads erased." Most 
probably a Dowell marriage, but I cannot find it in pedigree. 



HERALDRY. 

Read by F. WERE during Chipping Campden Meeting, 
August 20th to 22nd, 1901. 

Having some time to wait at Ashchurch on my way to 
Chipping Campden, I read the heraldry in the church, 
and as it is a Gloucestershire parish, I thought these notes 
may fitly be joined in. 

S. NAVE. 

Brass. "(Azure) five escallops in cross (or)." Barker, 
1671. Crest: On rock (argent) a falcon close (or). It is 
hard to distinguish the rock from the mantling, but the bird 
is some way above the shield and has no wreath. 

Monument. "Argent on a bend gules cotised azure three 
horseshoes of the first.'' Ferrers. Rudder gives this as 
field "or" and without cotises ; but the field and horseshoes 
should be "or" and the bend cotised. Crest : On esquire's 
helmet on wreath an ostrich holding in beak a horseshoe or. 

chancel 

Flat Stone. "... bend wavy . . . impaling 
a chevron , . . between three griffins' heads 
erased . . ." There being no tinctures, it is hardly 
possible to give names, but the inscription says Thomas 
Smithsend (Rudder, Smithend) and Paulina his wife, 171 7 
to 1735. I can only find this family mentioned twice in 
the Gloucester Visitation of 1 682-3, but the Christian name is 



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Richard. Crest: Rudder says a swan, but web feet are 
all that are visible, the flooring of pew covering the rest. 

SACRARIUM. 

Monument. "Sable a fess embattled between three lions 
rampant or." Steight. Crest : Round tower masonried 
and cupola argent is Spicer's crest. Rudder gives this 
coat without tinctures as on flat stone, which I did not 
see; but it was to Nicholas, 1763. This was to William, late 
of Twyning, 1801. The coat as tinctured is Spycer, and the 
monument was erected by Nicholas Spicer Steight, so it 
looks as if the latter took the former's coat. Bigland calls 
the crest a castle triple-towered, but this one had no 
turrets ; he also gives the coat without tinctures. 

Brass, N. wall. "Argent a fess between three crescents 
sable." Atlay, 1895. Above Royal Artillery badges, and 
medals pendent from ribbons. 

VESTRY. 

Royal arms, Georgian. "Argent a cross flory sable." 
Banaster, impaling "Gules a fess between three fleurs de 
lys or." Papworth says Goodhind, perhaps the fess wavy 
for Hicks. Bigland says "cross moline," which is wrong; 
and Rudder says "patouce," but the ends are too curved for 
the last, and the middle not pointed enough. Crest : On 
esquire's helmet on wreath a peacock close ppr. Monument 
says George Banaster, senior, 1734, but I cannot find 
marriage. 

WINDOW. S.E. CHANCEL. 

1 : "Azure two keys in saltire wards uppermost dexter 
oppressing sinister or," Bishopric of Gloucester, impaling, 
"Sable three ducal coronets in pale or," Bishopric of 
Bristol. 2 : "Or a fess chequy azure and argent." Stewart. 
On escutcheon of pretence, "Argent a lion rampant gules 
debruised by a bendlet or," ? the bendlet raguly. Steward. 
Charles Holden Steward, of Northway House, 1894. 



Heraldry. 



189 



WORCESTERSHIRE. EVESHAM. 

ALL SAINTS' CHURCH, 
S.E. 

1: Quarterly, 1 and 4, "Argent three boars' heads couped 
close, 2 and 1, sable." Glodrydd. 2 and 3, "Gules a lion 
rampant reguardant or." Meredith, may be Cadwgan- 
2 : "Argent a chevron sable between three crescents gules." 
Withers. 3: "Quarterly gules and azure, may be vert, 
four pheons in cross points inwards, argent." Trubshawe. 
"I rest to rise". Robert Blayney, 1856. The 1 and 4 
would seem to come in with Wigmore, but the pedigrees in 
Hereford Visitation and Burke do not agree, the first making 
Elizabeth daughter of Richard and the latter daughter and 
heiress of Edmund Wigmore. Glodrydd's quartering is 
generally a lion "argent," which would be Cadwgan ; but here 
it is "or," so would be Meredith. Therefore this is inherited 
by Blayney, and the heiress Wigmore, if she was one, is 
ignored, so that the Visitation seems correct. I can find but 
slight references to Trubshawe, but it comes in certainly as a 
quartering of WTthers. 2: "Gules a chevron or and a chief 
ermine." Blayney, impaling "Azure three demi lions 
rampant 2 and 1 or, on canton of last r a crescent sable," 
Harrison. Thomas Blayney married secondly Anna 
Harland, daughter of Thomas Harrison. 3: "(Azure) three 
demi lions rampant 2 and 1 (or)." Harrison, Henry, 1880. 
•Crest : Demi lion rampant (argent) holding garland (vert). 

NAVE. 

On lozenge. "? Azure fretty argent." Cave, 1728. 
"Or two bars gules," really "Barry of six or and gules 
in chief a label of five points argent may be sable. 1 ' 
Stovin, York, impaling "... on chevron between thre e 
bucks' heads cabossed as many . . ." ? 

1 : ". . . ? Azure a chevron between three griffins' heads 
erased . . . ? argent." Gardner, 1713. Crest : Griffin 
sejant resting dexter claw on book sable. Two more of 
the same. 2: Quarterly, 1 and 4, "Sable eleven mullets, 3, 



igo Transactions for the Year 1902. 



2, 3, 2, 1, or." Baylies. 2 and 3, "Ermine on a chief 
sable three battleaxes erect or," Shephard, impaling- 
"Argent a cross engrailed sable between four pellets each 
charged with a pheon of the first," Fletcher. William 
Baylies married Anne Fletcher, 1732. 

N. TRANSEPT. 

The two quarterings of Baylies and Shephard as before, 
with escutcheon of pretence. Quarterly, 1 and 4, "Or 
six martlets 2, 3, 1, between two chevrons gules." Cookes* 
2 and 3, "Sable a buck's head cabossed or." ? Wybbe, 
which Grazebrook gives as this with "a cross cross- 
let between the attires." He says that the Jennets quartered 
this coat, and as William Cookes married the daughter and 
coheiress of Humphrey Jennetts, both coats came to 
Cookes. William Baylies married Elizabeth, daughter and 
heiress of Thomas Cookes. Crest : This read as, On a 
mount a buck courant reguardant argent; but Grazebrook 
says it is, Buck salient reguardant argent attired or, from 
(? on) a fireball vert. Defaced, too indistinct to read, im- 
paling "Paly of six sable and argent a bend" ... if gules,, 
More. ? Watchell, 1717. Cave, 1698, as before. 

N. AISLE. 

Quarterly, 1 and 4, " . . .a buck's head between the 
attires a trefoil . . . really. "Sable a stag's head cabossed, 
argent, attired and between the attires a cross patty fitchee 
or." Bulstrode. 2 and 3, "Argent a chevron gules between 
three squirrels sejant sable (cracking nuts) or." Scobington, 
impaling Gardner, as before. Edward Bulstrode married 
Mary, daughter of Samuel Gardner. 

PORCH. 

"(Azure) fretty (argent)," Cave, 1685, impaling "(Azure) 
on a bend between six leopards' faces (or) three water-bougets 
(sable)," Hunt. I cannot find this marriage. Grazebrook 
says that Abbot Lichfield's name was Wycks, 1546. 



Heraldry. 



WORCESTERSHIRE. 
WICKHAMFORD CHURCH. 
CHANCEL. 

Over monument two shields. Quarterly, i and 4, "Or 
a fess dancetty between three crosses croslet fichee gules." 
Sandys (this coat is worked in as a border all round the 
arches of the tomb). 2 and 3, "Per fess gules and azure a 
tower embattled and domed argent." Rawson. William 
Sandys, who married Margaret, daughter and heiress of 
William Rawson, was, Burke's Commoners (i. 309) says, great- 
grandfather of the Archbishop of York ; Kent Visitation (p. 148), 
grandfather; but as Burke says George Sandys in Kent 
Visitation who married Margaret, daughter of John Dixon, 
died in 1584, and the Archbishop who died in 1588 was aged 
69, I think Burke must be wrong and Kent Visitation right. 
Crest: On "esquire's " helmet on wreath a griffin segreant 
per fess or and gules (collared daucetty of the last). The 
sculptor was evidently wrong in giving an esquire's helmet 
to these shields, as both Sir Samuel and Sir Edwin were 
knights-baronets ; so that they must have been copied from 
MSS. existing before 1613 or 1684, the dates of their 
baronetcies. 

On oval shield. As last without crest. 

On lozenge. Quarterly, 1: "Sable a chevron between 
three bulls' heads cabossed argent." Bulkeley. Burke 
says Penelope, daughter of Sir Richard Bulkeley, married, 
1614, Sir Edwyn Sandys. 2 : "Argent a fess daucetty gules." 
Chedle. Nash says Kidwally. Richard Bulkeley married, 
1307, Agnes, daughter and coheiress of Roger Chedle. 3 : 
"Or a bend ? azure." Nash says Carthorp, but I cannot 
find this connection ; Papworth says also Vernon. Now 
William de Bulkeley, time of Edward III., married Alice, 
daughter or sister and heiress of Sir Nicholas de Vernon, 
of Whatcroft. 4: "Azure a garb or." Grosvenor. The 
only connection I can find is in Cheshire Visitation, p. 55, 
which says Thomas Bulkley, ob. 1591, married Elizabeth, 



192 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



daughter of Randoll Grosvenor, of Bellaport, but this does 
not say that she was an heiress. 5 : " Quarterly argent and 
gules a bendlet azure." Massey. But it seems to be 
doubtful whether the Massey that married the Chedle bore 
exactly this coat or that she was an heiress. 6: "Argent a 
fess sable between three crescents gules." Pateshull. I 
cannot find the connection. 7 : ? " Sable three boars' heads 
erect 2 and 1, or laugued gules." Nash says Starkey, and 
gives the field as azure ; but this must be wrong. If then the 
field is sable, which with the boars' heads erect is more likely, 
then it would be Booth. 8: "Argent a heron sable." 
Starky. Nash leaves this blank ; but there can be no doubt 
about the family, though their connection, except with the 
Booths, does not seem proved. All these quarterings, except 
the first two, seem difficult to trace, and possibly are not 
correct. Sandys, impaling Bulkeley. According to Kent 
Visitation her name was Catherine, daughter of Richard 
Buckley de Anglesey, and she was his fourth wife, he having 
married previously Margaret Eveleigh, Anna Southcott, and 
Elizabeth Nevinson ; so there were two Sir Edwyn Sandys, 
one of Ombersley, Worcestershire, who married Penelope, 
and the other of Northborne, Kent, who married Catherine 
Bulkeley. 

Quarterly, Sandys and Rawson, as before, impaling. 
Quarterly, 1 and 8, " Argent a bend engrailed gules." 
Culpeper. 2: "Argent a chevron sable between nine 
martlets, 5 and 4, gules." Hardreshall. John Colepepper, 
of Bay Hall, Kent, married Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress 
of Sir John Hardreshall, of Hardreshall, Warwick. 3 : "Or 
a cross engrailed gules, a martlet in chief azure, for difference." 
Hardhill or Hartshill, called Hawte in Rutland Visitation. 
4: "Gules a chevron between three martlets argent. 
? "Argent a chevron sable between three martlets gules." 
Wakehurst. Nicholas Colepeper married Elizabeth, 
daughter and coheiress of Richard Wakehurst. 5 : " Azure 
a fess between two chevrons or." ? Tendering. How this 
comes in I cannot make out ; it does not appear in the Kent 



Heraldry. 



193 



quarterings. 6: " Argent on a bend sable three ? martlets 
or." This is so given in the Kent Visitation; but I had my 
doubts about the birds when I read them, though I think 
they are so. It is most probably "Argent on a bend sable 
three eagles displayed or." Erneley. John Colepeper, 01 
Wakehurst, married . . . daughter and coheiress of Erneley. 
7: "Ermine on a bend sable, three cinquefoils argent." 
? Edolphe. This is not in the Kent quarterings, but Symon 
Edolphe, of St. Radigunds, married Anne, daughter ot 
William Culpeper de Wigsell, but I cannot find any heiress. 
No doubt Canon Bazeley is right in saying Sir Samuel 
Sandys married Mercy Culpepper, but she does not appear in 
any pedigree I have got. Rudder says Sir William Sandys 
married Margaret, daughter and heiress of Walter 
Culpepper, of Hanburrough, co. Oxford ; so there was a 
double marriage in the families. The only authority I can 
find is Grazebrook, who says she was the only daughter of 
Martin Culpepper. 

On lozenge these last eight quarterings. " Argent a bend 
engrailed gules," Colepeper, impaling "Ermine on a bend 
sable, three cinquefoils argent," Edolphe. See No. 7 in 
Culpeper's quarterings. Crests : ? Falcon wings expanded, 
argent beaked, legged and belled or. Culpeper's. This 
looked tinctured per pale or and gules. Ibex's head erased, 
sable maned, armed and attired or. Edolphe's. 

Sandys and Bulkeley, 1626. • 

Small shields below. 1 : " Sable a bend between two 
arms and hands couped above elbows bendways vambraced 
argent." Brace. John Brace married Cicely Sandys. Nash's 
reading of this is wrong. 2: "? Sable on a fess argent 
between three anchors or as many lions' heads erased gules." 
Wenman. Anne Sandys married Sir Francis Wenman. 
3 : " Azure a chevron argent." Nash says third daughter. 
I think this must be meant for " Sable three chevrons 
interlaced in base or on a chief of the last as many pellets." 
Ewbank in his pedigree. Mercy, who married . . . 
Ewbank, was fifth daughter. 4: Nash says, "Sable three 



194 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



boars' heads in pale or." I think this must be meant for 
" Gules on a fess or between three boars' heads couped argent 
as many lioncels rampant sable." Wyat. Sir Francis 
Wyat, of Boxley, Kent (Nash says Burley, Worcester) 
married Margaret (pedigree says Mary),'daughterof Sir Samuel 
Sands {Kent Visitation, p. 142). 5 : Nash says, " Argent a 
bend gules." I think this must be meant for " Gules a 
cross botonny argent charged with five pellets." Humfrey. 
Richard Humfrey, of Retenden (1634), married Mary, 
daughter of Sir Samwell Sands, of Ombersley {Essex 
Visitation, p. 425). 6 : Nash says, " Argent a fess sable in 
chief a mullet of the second between two pellets." This 
would be Dineley. Edward Dineley, of Cropthern, Worcester, 
married Joyce Sandys, sixth daughter, as in his pedigree. 
7 : " Azure three bars and in chief as many mullets or." 
Pytts. Elizabeth Sandys married first Edward Pytts, of 
Kyre ; she is the seventh daughter in Nash's pedigree. Nash 
gives no families to the coats as he read them, but calls them 
eldest and second, etc., daughters in the above order, which 
does not quite tally with his pedigree, but it is evident that 
at some time or other they have been sadly blundered over 
All these coats impale Sandys. 

sacrarium. 

Flat stone. On lozenge, 2 bars, and it might read 3 bars 
with the base of the lozenge filled with the third, as it is in 
relief at the same level on the surface as the other two, but 
is " (Argent) two bars and in chief three mullets (gules)." 
Washington. Penelope Washington was the daughter of 
Colonel Sir Henry W. and Elizabeth Pakington ; the 
last re-married Colonel Samuel Sandys. 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE. CHIPPING CAMPDEN. 
MARKET HOUSE. 
" (Gules) a fess wavy between three fleurs de lys (or) on 
fess Ulster coat for baronet." PIicks. Crest : On " esquire's ,r 
helmet and wreath a defaced crest, really buck's head 



Heraldry. 



195 



couped at neck or gorged with a wreath of laurel proper : 
above, on arcading, Anno Domini 1627. Here is another 
example of a wrong helmet. 

GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

Two shields side by side. 1: ". . . a chevron between 
three goats' heads, more like cocks', erased . . ." and 
the date 1487. This would make it the coat of John Fereby, 
alias Verby (Rudder), the founder of the school. I do not 
think this is correct, as the Ferebys (or Ferbys) of Kent 
living at that time bore " sable a fess ermine between three 
goats' heads erased argent," so that the chevron should be a 
fess ermine. 2 : Hicks, as before. 

CHURCH. 

S.E. CHANTRY. 

" Or fretty gules, a canton ermine." Noel. Impaling 
" Argent on a fess azure, three lozenges, may be fusils of the 
first, really or." Fielding. Baptist Noel, third Viscount 
Campden, married first Anne, daughter of William Fielding, 
first Earl of Denbigh. 

On lozenge. Quarterly, 1 : Noel. 2 : " Gules semee of 
nine crosses, croslet fitchy, a lion rampant or." Hopton. 
Andreas Noel, of Dalby, co. Leicester, married secondly 
Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of John Hopton, of co. 
Gloucester, relict of Sir John Penint (Leicester Visitation). 
3 : " Azure semee of nine crosses croslet three boars' heads 
couped close or." Hevyn. William Hopton, of Hopton, 
Salop, married Margaret, daughter and coheiress of John 
Hevyn, of Cleobury, Salop. 4 : " Argent semee of nine 
crosses croslet (? sable or azure) two organ pipes in pile 
mouths in chief gules." Downton. John Hevin, of Hevin, 
co. Hereford, married Isabel, daughter and heiress of Thomas 
Downton (Shropshire Visitation). 5 : " Barry of six or and 
gules." St. Owen. Roger Downton, of Downton, co. 
Hereford, married Jane, sister and heiress of Thomas St. 
Owen, 1403. 6: "Azure a lion rampant, argent within 



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bordure engrailed or (may be argent)." . Tirrell. John 
St. Owen married Jane, daughter and heiress to Hugh Tirrell. 
Monument says Penelope Noel, daughter of Edward Noel. 
Bigland saw two banners: (1) arms as the last; and (2) 
Hicks quartering, "Gules a chevron ermine (Collinson says 
argent) between three organ rests, really clarions or." 
Arther. This represents the marriage of Robert Hicks,, 
of Cheapside, London (G.E.C.), but of Bristow {Gloucester 
Visitation), with Juliana, daughter of William Arthur, of 
Clapham (Clapton), co. Somerset. 

Monument of the two life-sized figures of Sir Edward 
Noel and Dame Juliana Hicks. Four shields. 1 : Noel 
impaling Hicks. 2 : The same as the lozenge of Penelope. 
3 : Noel. 4 : Quarterly, 1 and 4, Hicks with crescent in 
chief for difference ; 2 and 3, Arther, as before. 

Noel, and on nobility helmet on wreath the crest : Buck 
statant (Rudder) at g(r)aze — (argent) attired (or). Suppor- 
ters, two bulls (argent), armed and unguled (sable), surmounted 
by viscount's coronet. Motto, " Tout bien ou rien." 

Monument, Hicks, and crest : Out of viscount's coronet 
a helmet of nobility ; on wreath, a buck's head, as before. 
Motto, " Nondum metam." 

s. aisle. 

Defaced. Bigland gives it as " A talbot passant, in chiet 
two annulets." I think this is wrong. I believe it ought to be 
"Sable a lion passant argent langued gules, in chief an 
annulet or." Taylor. Crest : On wreath a talbot statant 
proper; ? a leopard passant proper. Charles Taylor, 1718. 

n. aisle. 

" Sable a chevron between three towers argent." This 
is ? Dunch or Spicer, but monument says William Atkins, 
1729. 

chancel sacrarium. 
" (Sable) a fess between three saltires humetty (or)." 
Smith {Gloucester Visitation, Smyth). Crest : On esquire's 
helmet on wreath, two serpents nowed and intertwined azure, 



Heraldry. 



197 



? proper. Below, three shields: (1) Smith; (2) Smith 
impaling quarterly. 1 : " (Gules) on a chevron argent, three 
bars gemelles (sable)." Throgmorton. 2: "Argent a fess 
embattled between six crosses, croslet fitchy, 3 and 3 (gules),' 
really "on the fess three crescents of the field." Olney. 
Sir Thomas Throgmorton married Margaret, daughter and 
heiress of Robert Olney, of Weston Bozom (Warwick 
Visitation). 3 : " (Sable) a chevron between three crescents 
(or). Spiney. Thomas de Throgmorton married Elinor, 
daughter and heiress of Guido Spineoy lord of Coughton, in 
co. Warwick. 4: "(Gules) three birdbolts, points down- 
wards (? argent)." Boson. Robert Olney married Goodith, 
daughter and heiress of William Boson. All these shields 
were painted, as the omission of the three fleurs de lys and 
as many crescents on the Olney proves. (3) Smith impaling 
quarterly, 1 and 4, " (Argent) a chief vairy (or and gules), 
over all a bend (azure), and on bend a crescent ? of the first 
for difference." FitzHerbert. Thomas Smith married 
Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress of Eustace FitzHerbert. 
2 and 3, " (Azure) a cross moline quarter pierced (or)." 
Molyneux. John FitzHerbert married Cecily Molyneux. 
Monument says Thomas Smith married two wives, first 
Elizabeth FitzHerbert, and secondly Catherine, daughter of 
Sir George Throgmorton. Gloucester Visitation, 1623, says 
that Thomas Smith married Elizabeth, daughter and co- 
heiress of Eustace FitzHerbert, and does not give the 
second ; but it gives his grandfather (also a Thomas) as 
marrying Catherine, daughter of George Throgmorton, Knt., 
and widow of Robert Winter. Now Thomas Smith died in 
1593, and his marriage with Elizabeth FitzHerbert would 
tally with this date, as his generation is the last but one in 
the Visitation; therefore it is necessary to find out what 
Robert Winter this is. In Gloucester Visitation he is stated to 
be Robert Wynter, son of Roger Winter, who married Elizabeth 
Hungerford ; but the second son, who married Elizabeth 
Wyrrall, is also Robert, so I think this one is likely to be 
Roger. This is confirmed by an entry in the same Visitation 



198 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



p. 240, where Elizabeth, who married Thomas Bushell, is 
described as " filia Rogeri Winter de Huntington ex 
Katherina Throgmorton." Also on p. 279 he is stated to be 
Robert Winter, son and heir, of Hodyngton, marrying 
Katherine . . . who survived him, where he would be 
grandfather of the last entry. In Warwickshire Visitation, 
Kath. Throgmorton is " (1) mar. to Wm. Winter, (2) to Tho. 
Smith, of Camden." She would be grandmother of the last 
generation entered, where, as in the Winter first pedigree 
{Gloucester Visitation), she would be great-grandmother ; so if 
he was Robert (not Roger), it looks as if he died 1550, before 
Robert, who is called second son, was born. Elizabeth 
FitzHerbert died 1 559, so Catherine had ten years of widow- 
hood. All this tends to prove that the Smith pedigree in the 
Gloucester Visitation is wrong. 

CHANCEL floor. 
Brass : four shields. " (Sable) on a cross within bordure, 
both engrailed, or may be argent five roundles (pellets), in 
dexter chief a pierced mullet." Grevel. William Grevel 
and Mariona his wife, 140 1 and 1386. 

S. WALL OF CHANCEL. 

Crest : Issuing from clouds a dexter arm in fess ? proper, 
vested (gules) cuffed (azure), holding in the hand (Fairbairn 
says a javelin) ? a mirror, or else a globe in its frame. 
Nicholas Field, 1786. "Argent a cross engrailed sable 
between four pellets, each charged with a pheon of the first." 
Fletcher, 1746. Bigland says that Fletcher impaled 
Bateson, but I did not see it. 

EBRINGTON CHURCH. 
" (Azure) a chevron between three kites' heads erased (or), 
and Ulster inescutcheon." Keyt. Baronetcy'created 1660. 

s. CHANCEL. 

Keyt, as before, without inescutcheon. Crest : On esquire's 

helmet on wreath a kite's head erased or. Motto, " Ne tuque 
si veris extra." 



Heraldry. 



199 



Below four shields. i : Keyt, impaling "Or a chevron 
between three crosses, patty fitchy sable (the last ? gules)," 
Riley. William Keyt, of Ebrington, Esq., oh. 1632. 
{Gloucester Visitation , .1682-3, says 1682 ; but he is the second 
generation, and burial would not have come in), married 
first Eglantine, daughter of Edmond Riley, of Cambden. 
2 : Keyt, impaling quarterly, 1 and 4, " Sable, three salmons 
hauriant, 2 and 1, "argent, fins gules, so, more correctly, 
proper," Salmon. 2 and 3, " Argent a bend azure between 
in chief a pierced mallet, and in base an annulet gules." 
Samon, so Papworth says; but it is the second quartering of 
Samon in the Nottingham Visitation, 1 and 4 being Samon, 
2 this, and 3 Entwistle. The latter's marriage is given, 
though not as heiress, but not the intermarriage. Gloucester 
Visitation, 1682, says William Keyt married secondly Eleanor 
Salmon, daughter and coheiress of John Salmon, of Notting- 
ham." Rudder (p. 435) says Lucy, and their coat, which is a 
wrong reading. 3 : Keyt, impaling quarterly, 1, "Sable, three 
church bells, 2 and 1 argent, a canton ermine," Porter; 
2, Salmon, as before ; 3, Samon, as before ; 4, " Gules, a 
fess between six billets argent." Bigland says Styveley ; 
Papworth, Styvekey as the family; but I can get no trace of 
it. These Porters were of London and Sussex, as well as of 
Mickleton, this being the coat of John Keyt, of Ebrington, 
Esq., ob. 1660, who married first Joan, daughter of Thomas 
Porter, of Mickleton, who was first husband of Eleanor 
Salmon before William Keyt. 4 : Quarterly, 1, Keyt ; 
2, Porter; 3, Salmon; 4, Samon; 5, Styvekey; impaling 
" Ermine on a chief indented gules three escallops or," Taylor. 
John Keyt, created baronet 1660, married Margaret, sole 
daughter and heiress of William Taylor, of Middleton Cheney, 
and Alice, daughter of Nicholas Odell, alias Woodhull, of co. 
Northampton (Metcalfe's Northampton Visitation, p. 200). 

n. chancel sacrarium. 

Three shields. 1 : "Azure a bend engrailed argent cotised 
or," Fortescue, impaling dimidiated coats : first, " Gules 

15 

Vol. XXV. 



2oo Transactions for the Year 1902. 



three clarions or," Grenvile ; second, " Argent three 
crosses croslet in bend sable," Northcote. Col. Robert 
Fortescue married first Grace, daughter of Sir Bevile 
Grenvile, secondly Susannah, daughter of Sir John Northcote 
and Grace Halswell. 2 : Fortescue. Crest : On nobility 
helmet on wreath a "scutum" argent. Motto, "Forte 
scutum salus ducum," which Prince translates, " A strong 
shield doth safety yield." 3: 1 and 6, Fortescue. 2, "Or 
a raven sable." Corbet. I cannot make out why this 
comes in ; the Bottreaux brought it to Devonshire. 3, 
" Gules, really sable, a crescent and mullet in chief (generally 
within the horns), or really argent." Densell. Martin 
Fortescue, son of the Chancellor, married Elizabeth, 
daughter and heiress of Richard Densell, of co. Devon. 
4, "Argent on a bend sable, really vert between six crosses 
croslet fitchy, ? really gules three crosier staves or." 
Treawin, alias Were {see Pole, 339). Richard Densell 
married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of William Were 
by Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of John Fillegh. 5, 
"Gules a fess vair between six crosses formee ? fitchy or." 
Fillegh. This monument was erected by Col. Robert 
Fortescue to commemorate Sir John Fortescue, of Ebring- 
ton, Chancellor of England {ph. circa 1471) in 1677. (Such 
bad silver has been used in tincturing the shields in this 
church that it has oxidised to black lead.) 

Tomb below of Sir John Fortescue. On panels alter- 
nately Fortescue and " (argent) two bends engrailed really 
unde (sable)." Stapletqn. Sir John Fortescue married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Miles Stapleton. 

Flat stones, chancel. 1 : Keyt, impaling Porter and 
Salmon. 2 : Quarterly, 1 and 4, Keyt. 2, Taylor. 3, " (Sable) 
a fess ermine between three crescents (or) on fess a mullet 
? or for difference." Coventry. Sir William Keyt, Bart., 
married, 1662, Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Francis 
Coventry, third son of Thomas, Lord Coventry {Gloucester 
Visitation, p. 102). Impaling " Per pale (or and gules) a cross 
patty fitchy humetty counterchanged." Clopton. William 



Heraldry. 



201 



Keyt married, 1687, Agnes, daughter of Sir John and Barbara 
Clopton. 3 : Keyt, impaling " (Or) on fess (sable) three 
eagles displayed (of the field)," Harrison. John Keyt, 
oh. 1660, son of William and Eglantine Riley, married 
Margery, daughter of William Harrison, co. Worcester, 
oh: 1667. 4 : Keyt with label, impaling 16 quarterings 
(Bigland says 24), almost defaced ; but they must be those 
of Talbot, as he says Elizabeth, daughter of John Keyt 
and wife of John Talbot, 1656. So this must be marshalled 
wrong. 

Monument : three shields. 1 : Taylor. 2 : 1 and 6, 
Keyt with Ulster inescutcheon on chevron. 2, Porter. 
3, Salmon. 4, Samon. 5, Styvekey. Escutcheon of 
pretence. Taylor. Crest: On knight's helmet on wreath 
a kite's head erased or. 3 : Keyt. 

s. chantry. 

Keyt, impaling Porter, without the canton. 

Window. 1 : " Royal arms, France turned upside down 
and fleurs de lys gone, quartering England." 2 : " Azure 
a cross flory between four martlets or," query one of the 
Edwards, or University College, Oxford. 3 : Keyt, with 
Ulster inescutcheon, impaling Coventry. 4: "Tudor royal 
arms crowned between two roses gules seeded or." 5 : W. end. 
Georgian royal arms. Bigland gives a coat which is sure 
to be there, though I did not read it: Keyt, impaling "Argent 
on three bars sable six cinquefoils of the field," Dayrell or 
Darrell. Gloucester Visitation says Thomas Keyt, of Great 
Wolverd, co. Warwick, married Mary, daughter of Walter 
Darrell, of Abingdon, Berks, and relict of John Morris, D.D. 

HIDCOTE HOUSE. 
OVER FRONT DOORWAY. 

Keyt, as before, impaling " Quarterly (argent and gules) 
with fret (or), over all on bend (sable), three escallops (of 
the first)," Spencer. Francis Keyt, second son of John 
Keyt and Jane Porter, married Alice, daughter of Sir William 
Spencer, of Erdington, Bart. (Gloucester Visitation). 



202 



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QUINTON CHURCH. 
S. AISLE. 

Tomb: brass shields. 1 : "(Argent) two bars (gules) 
fretty (or)." Clopton. 2: " Gules a fess between six pears 
pendant, 3, 2, 1 (or)." Besford. 3 : Clopton, impaling 
Besford. 4: "(Argent) two bars (gules) fretty (or), a 
canton ? of the second." Sir John Maclean says argent, 
but that would be false. Clopton, with a difference. This 
seems to be the only branch of Clopton which bore these 
arms; therefore the canton on the last shield would represent, 
I suppose, the same as the annulet on the effigy — a distant 
branch and a doubtful true blood. The second, Besford, 
with its alias Peresford (really Pierreford), about which 
Sir John Maclean [Transactions, xiii. 166) says that Johanna, 
second daughter and coheiress of Alexander Besford, married 
Sir William Clopton, and that she had a daughter and heiress, 
Johanna. This is proved by the Shropshire Visitation, p. 60, 
where John de Borough miles, Lord of Mowthwy, married 
" Jana filia et sola haer, Willi' Clopton de Clopton miles et 
de Radbrook in com. Gloucestrise " ; and in a note Dugdale 
states that Sir William had another daughter, named Agnes 
the wife of Thomas Herberd. If it was Agnes, it was really 
Thomas Throkmorton (see Gloucester Visitation, p. 162) who 
married Agnes, daughter and coheiress of . . . Besford; but 
the same Visitation (p. 86) says it was Margaret, and that she 
married John Dickleston, the Hugfords, or Hanfords, 
quartering both hers and the Dickleston coats through the 
marriage of the last's heiress with Hugford. I cannot make 
out that the Besfords continued any longer ; and as the 
Throkmortons quarter Besford as well, I think that Alexander 
Besford must have had three daughters, viz. Agnes, Johanna, 
and Margaret. 

e. end. 

Monument. Quarterly, 1 and 4, " Barry of six or and azure 
on a bend gules three roses argent seeded or." Lingen. 2, 
"Argent two bars gules fretty or." Clopton. 3, " Gules a bend 
? ermine." Walwyn. The only reference to the last I can 



Heraldry. 



203 



find is "Johannes Lingen miles = . . . fil . . . Walwyn " 
{Shropshire Visitation, p. 60) ; but Burke, in Commoners, iv. 267, 
says he married Eleanor, daughter and heiress of Thomas 
Milewater ; impaling " ? quarterly azure and purpure a cross 
engrailed or between four roses argent seeded of the third." 
Burton. Thomas Lingen, of Radbrook, ob. 1742, married 
Ann, daughter and heiress of Robert Burton, of Longner, 
co. Salop. This Thomas was the seventh or eighth in 
descent from Sir John. Lingen that married Isabella, the 
daughter of Sir John Borough and Johanna, or Jana, sole 
daughter and heiress of Sir William Clopton. 

Effigy. On corslet, " Two bars fretty and an annulet for 
difference. " Sir William Clopton. 

CHANCEL, S. SIDE. 

Flat stone. " (Argent) on a chief (sable) three martlets 
(Bigland, or) " for Wylde. The name Wilde occurred on 
monument close Dy, impaling " (Or) a lion rampant tail forked 
(gules) a chief (azure) " for Ashcombe. I cannot find the 
marriage. Crest : On esquire's helmet on wreath a lion 
passant (Bigland, statant) guardant ? resting dexter paw 
on an escutcheon argent. Wylde, Kempsey, Worcester. 

Royal arms on the inescutcheon of Hanover. Charle- 
magne's crown is painted as a castle or building with spire. 

MICKLETON CHURCH. 

Brass. " Gules on a chevron argent between three garbs 
or banded of the first (generally vert) as many escallops 
sable." Eden. 

n. AISLE. 

" Sable on a chevron between three towers four turretted 
argent a pair of compasses extended ( ? sable) of the first." 
Monument said Woodward, 1686, but really Company of 
Masons (Freemasons), granted 1473. 

Hatchments. " Gules an eagle displayed or membered 
and crowned argent, between eight crosses croslet of the 
second, "Graves, impaling "Argent a cross engrailed sable 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



between four pellets each charged with an arrow point down- 
wards of the first," Fletcher. Crest: Demi eagle erased or 
environed with a ducal coronet gules and holding in its beak 
a croslet fitchy of the last. Motto, " Superna quserite." 

On lozenge. Graves, impaling "Gules a bend ermine," 
Walwyn. Morgan Graves married Anne Walwyn, of Lang- 
worth. " Argent a bend countercompony or and sable 
between two lions' heads erased gules, on a chief azure three 
billets of the second and Ulster inescutcheon." Steele' 
Irish baronet ; also the same without Ulster inescutcheon. 
On knight's helmet on wreath a demi eagle displayed 
proper, ? with snake in its beak of the last. " Aquila non 
captat muscas." This is the Graves' motto, Steele's being 
"Absque labore nihil." John Maxwell Steele married, 1838, 
Elizabeth Ann Graves, eldest daughter of J. Graves, of 
Mickleton. 

Monument. Graves impaling Walwyn, as before, 1771. 
Quarterly, 1 and 4, Graves. 2 and 3, "Sable a chevron 
between three spear heads argent." Morgan. Richard 
Graves married Elizabeth, daughter and coheiress of 
Captain Thomas Morgan. 

Monument. On top, 1 and 6 : Graves. 2 : " Sable, 
Rudder and Bigland say vert two hounds, they say grey- 
hounds (more like lions), courant argent on a chief or three 
fleurs de lys gules." Menseir. Rudder's Monument says 
John Graves, of Heyton, Yorkshire, married daughter and 
heiress of Menseir. 3 : " Sable a fess indented (afterwards 
engrailed) argent between three dexter hands bendways or." 
Bates. Richard Graves married Eleanor, daughter and 
heiress of Thomas Bates, gent. 4 : " Azure a chevron 
ermine between three swans argent." Swan. Samuel Graves 
married Susan, daughter and coheiress of Captain Richard 
Swan. 5 : " Sable on a bend argent three ? coots or martlets 
(the lower shield were martlets) — Rudder says 'mullets' — 
of the field." Shilling, more probably intended for Danvers, 
which would be "Argent on a bend gules three martlets or," 
as Susan's mother was a Danvers, though not heiress ; but 



Heraldry. 



205 



her grandmother, Damaris, was the daughter and coheiress 
of Captain Andrew Shilling, a family or arms I cannot 
find. 

On dexter side of monument, small shields. 1 : Graves, 
without croslets. 2 : " Argent a cross engrailed gules voided 
of the field between four six-pointed mullets ? pierced of the 
second." Gurney. Richard Graves married Frances, 
eldest daughter of William Gourney, of Yardley, Herts. 
3 : Bates. 4 : Swann. 5 : Morgan, with the addition of 
a mullet in chief for difference. 

On sinister side. 1: Menseir. 2: "Sable really vert 
on a chevron between three bucks trippant or, as many 
cinquefoils gules." Robinson. Richard Graves married as 
his second wife Elizabeth, daughter of John Robinson, Esq. 

3 : " Ermine on a bend gules three martlets ? or." Danvers. 

4 : Shilling. 5 : " Argent on a pale gules three leopards, 
faces of the first." Brain. It is so given in Papworth, but 
evidently the shield showed that it had had a fess, so that 
this Brayne coat has been substituted for the usual one 
Captain Thomas Morgan married Elizabeth, daughter and 
coheiress of James Brayne, gent., whose daughter, Elizabeth, 
married Richard Graves. 

Monument. Quarterly, 1, Graves; 2, Mensier ; 3 
Swann ; 4, Shilling. Escutcheon of pretence. Quarterly, 
1 and 4, Morgan ; 2 and 3, Brayne. 

e. WINDOW. 

Quarterly, Graves and Swan. Crest : A greyhound 
passant. ? Mensier. Quarterly, Graves and Bates. 

Monuments. Quarterly, 1, Graves; 2, Mensier; 3, 
Bates ; 4, Swann ; 5, Shilling ; 6, Morgan impaling 
Fletcher, as before. Also the quarterly with an escutcheon 
of pretence. Or a lion rampant sable between three holly 
leaves vert. Sherman, 1815. 

Hatchments. 1 : Same as last. 2: Quartering Sherman. 
3 : Graves impaling Walwyn. 



206 



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S. WINDOW OF CHANCEL. 

1 : " Gules three demi lions rampant and a chief or." 
Fisher. 2 : " Argent on fess engrailed azure three crosses 
patty or." Query, possibly Paule. 3 : " Azure three eagles 
displayed 2 and 1 or." Query, possibly 'Crusily' omitted, 
when it would be Somerville. Robert de Somerville 
married Isabel, daughter and coheiress of Roger de Merley. 
4 : " Ermine five chevrons gules on a canton of the last a 
lion passant ? guardant or." Papworth says Orreby. 
Edmund Somerville was a coheir of John de Orreby. 5 : 
"Barry of ten argent and gules on a bordure azure eight 
martlets or." Merley. 6: " Vair a pale sable." Papworth 
says Gospatrick, possibly Gosworth, as Herbert Orreby 
married Lucy, daughter and heiress of . . . Gosworth. 
7 : " Gules three cushions 2 and 1 argent tasselled or." 
Greystock, Baron. William Greystock married Mary, 
eldest daughter and coheiress of Roger de Merley ; also John 
Greystock married Elizabeth, one of the daughters and co- 
heiress's of Robert Ferrers, of Wemme. 8 : " Barry of ten 
argent and gules a lion rampant sable." Stutville. Alice, 
daughter and coheiress of Roger Stutville, married Roger de 
Merley. 9 : " Argent three horseshoes' sable nailed of the 
first." Ferrers. See before. 10: "Quarterly gules and 
vairy vert and or a lion rampant argent." Peverell. 
William Ferrers, third Earl of Derby, is supposed to have 
married Margaret, daughter and heiress of William Peverell, 
of Nottingham. 11: "Argent a fess vair between three 
eagles displayed gules." Kynnersley. John Kinardesley 
married Johanna, sister and heiress of Thomas Ferrers, lord 
of Loxley. 12 : " Paly of six argent and gules a bend vairy 
of the first and sable, Rudder says vert and or." Papworth 
says Annesley. I cannot find any connection, neither can I 
see what all these quarterings lead to. Sir Edward Fisher, 
of Mickleton, married Mary (monument says Maria), 
daughter of Sir Thomas Challoner, knight (London Visitation) 
Crest : On nobility helmet a demi lion rampant guardant 
holding a shield . . . really charged with the No. 1 arms — 



Heraldry. 



207 



" Vigilet qui vincet " — the monument says of the Fishers of 
Fisherwick, Staffordshire. Camden (vol. ii. 514, 515) makes the 
Somervilles and Ferrers families live all round Fisherwick ; 
so it is possible that No. 2 was another coat of the Fishers. 

LONG MARSTON CHURCH. 

N. CHANCEL. 

" Sable three raised tombs 2 and 1 argent." Tomes 
(Fisher Tomes, 1879). Papworth says field "vert," but the 
bookplate with its crest, " A goat tfippant," in Misc. Gen. 
et Her. (New Series, iii. 273) says " sable," and the tombs 
are charged on the top with a " Cross croslet calvary sable," 
impaling " Quarterly azure, gules, vert, and purpure a fess 
or." Query. In the pedigree attached to the bookplate the 
Fisher Tomes born 1798, buried at Marston 1879, married 
Mary Anne, daughter of George Bennett, of Ullington, but I 
cannot find that any Bennett bore such a coat. 

PORCH. 

Flat stone. " Per chevron (or and azure) three mullets 
(counterchanged)." Day (Richard A. M., 1697). Crest : On 
esquire's helmet on wreath a dexter arm embowed, cuffed 
holding slipped branch of ? laurel bendways. This is a 
different crest from the usual ; but the stone was getting 
sadly defaced from its position, and deserves better care. 
Royal arms, ? George I. 

BUCKLAND CHURCH. 

WINDOWS. 

"Azure a sword in pale argent, hilt and pomel or, 
surmounted by two keys in saltire wards uppermost, the 
dexter of the third oppressing the sinister of the second." 
Ancient Gloucester Bishopric or Abbey. 

s. aisle. 

Tiles. "Fess between three crosses croslet, 3 and 3." 
Beauchamp. Rose seeded within wreath. Four hearts 
forming quatrefoil, each charged with cinquefoil. 



208 



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s. CHANCEL. 

Monument. Quarterly, 1 and 4, " Barry of ? ten or and 
sable." Thynne, alias Boteville. 2 and 3, " Argent, a lion 
rampant, tail nowed gules." Thynne. Hoare says of the 
last it was an "addition after the battle of Musselburgh." 
James Thynne, of Buckland, LL.D., and M.P. for Cirencester, 
died unmarried 1708-9.. " J'ai bonne cause." A slipped apple 
graft issuing from a tun all proper. Badges of William 
Grafton, Rector. 

WORCESTERSHIRE.— BROADWAY. 
THE PRIORY. 

Hatchments. 1 : Quarterly, 1 and 4, " Per pale gules 
and sable on a chevron engrailed, ?erminois between three 
swans' heads and necks erased ermine gorged, ? argent, as 
many fleurs de lys azure." Gist, of Wormington Grange, in 
Didbrook, Gloucestershire. 2, " Or three leaves in bend vert 
between two bendlets as chains, ? sable, as many chaplets 
of the second." Query. There is a similar coat in Buckland 
Abbas Church, Dorset, which is said to be Selleck, but more 
probably Piers. 3, "Per saltire argent, and or a cross, 
croslet azure, between two leopards' faces proper, and in fess 
as many roses gules." ? Placeway. Josiah Gist's bookplate 
bears this as an escutcheon of pretence. Impaling, quarterly, 
1 and 4, " Per bend or and vert, in chief a tree eradicated 
proper, in base a seahorse argent in waves of the third". 
Westenra. 2 and 3, " Argent three martlets, 2 and 1 gules 
within bordure or." Cairnes. Baron Rossmore married 
Elizabeth, daughter of John Murray, Esq., and coheiress 
of her mother, Mary, Dowager Lady Blayney, sole heiress of 
Sir Alexander Cairnes, Bart.; therefore 2 and 3 ought to have 
been a quarterly coat: 1 and 4, Murray; 2 and 3, 
Cairnes. Motto, " Benigno numine." 2: Quarterly, 1 and 
4, Gist, as before. 2 and 3, ? Selleck or Piers. On 
escutcheon of pretence, ? Placeway. 

ON HOUSE CLOSE TO OLD CHURCH. 

Quarterly, 1 and 4, " (Sable), a fess between three shel- 
drakes (argent)." Sheldon. Ralph Sheldon married 



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209 



daughter and heiress of ? Edward Rudings. 2, "(Argent), 
on a bend between two lions rampant (sable), a wyvern 
volant (of the first)." Rudings. 3, " (Or) a saltire vair." 
Wellington. William Sheldon married Mary, daughter and 
coheiress of William Willington. Crest : On esquire's helmet 
on wreath, defaced, a sheldrake. 

OLD CHURCH. 
S. TRANSEPT. E. WALL. 

"Sable a lion statant argent." Taylor, 1741. Graze- 
brook says, Crest : An ounce statant proper. 

CHANCEL. 

Hatchment. " Sable within orle of fleurs de lys or a lion 
rampant argent." Phillips (Burke), Phillipps (Grazebrook). 
Thomas Phillipps, of Broadway, was High Sheriff in 1801. 
Crest : On esquire's helmet on wreath a lion rampant proper. 

. SOUTH SIDE. 

Four shields on tomb as before. Phillipps. 

Brass. " Argent a lion rampant, sable ducally gorged 
and chained reflex over back or, within bordure wavy of the 
second in dexter chief, Ulster inescutcheon." Phillipps (Sir 
Thomas, Bart). Crest : On knight's helmet on wreath lion as 
in arms charged with bend ermine, holding short sword. 
Motto, " Deus, Rex, Patria." Born 1792, died 1872. There 
seems to be some doubt about his coat. Papworth gives it 
thus: "Sable a lion rampant, argent ducally crowned 
{. . . ? or), and holding in the dexter forepaw a sword 
erect proper, within an orle of fleurs de lys and a bordure 
wavy or (or of the third)." Phillipps. Middle Hill, co. 
Worcester. Baronetcy, 1st September, 1821. Grazebrook, 
1873, says, " Sable semee of fleurs de lys or, a lion rampant 
(? argent) holding a sword (? proper) within a bordure wavy 
of the second." Crest: A lion rampant sable, holding a 
sword proper. Burke in his Peerage and Baronetage, 1839, 
gives the blazon and also the reading as : " Sable a lion 
rampant argent within an orle of fleurs de lys or, in chief 



2IO 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



Ulster inescutcheon." Crest : A demi lion rampant argent, 
holding in the paws a fleur de lys or. Grazebrook says he 
was the son of Thomas, as on the hatchment ; so why there 
should be any difference from that, except the Ulster 
inescutcheon, it seems hard to say. "Argent six lions 
rampant, 3, 2, 1, sable," Savage, impaling, query defaced, 
but showing a chief, so possibly " Argent three bears' heads 
erased sable muzzled or, a chief azure," Barrow, or Berrow 
(Rudder). The Rev. Thomas Savage, of Broadway, married 
Eleanor, daughter and sole heiress of Thomas Barrow, of 
Field Court, Gloucester, oh. 1760. 

E. WALL. 

Brass. Quarterly, 1 and 4, " Gules on a bend or, three 
estoiles sable." Daston. Anthony Daston was High Sheriff 
1565, and died 1572. 2 and 3, " Or a fess wavy between six 
billets, 3 and 3, sable." Dumbleton. I cannot find this 
alliance, but the Dastons were of Dumbleton. Crest : Buck's 
or reindeer's head (argent) couped (gules) pierced through 
neck with arrow bendways, point dexterways or. 

Rubbing of brass. ? Two chevrons or chevronny, 
? impaling quarterly, 1 and 4, an estoile ; 2 and 3, annulet ? 
scarcely enough to identify. 

E. WINDOW. 

Gules three cups, ? covered, 2 and 1, or. Butler. 

W. WINDOW. 

" Azure a fess gules between (in base a pane fitted for a 
garb), really three garbs or." Sambach. One of the free- 
holders, Ralph Sheldon, divided the Broadway lands among. 
Symond's Diary, p. 14, has this also ; it proves to be a false 
coat which has been allowed. He also mentions besides, 
" Ermine two bends gules," which would be Ireton, as well 
as in the "North window cross yle." Quarterly, 1 and 4, 
" Sable a fess between three martlets, really sheldrakes, 
argent." Sheldon. 2 and 3, " Argent two chevrons sable." 
? Ashe. I cannot find the alliance. Impaling " Sable a bend 
between two dexter hands (and arms) couped at the wrist, 



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211 



really elbow, in bend argent." Brace. I cannot find this 
Sheldon-Brace marriage, but Brace was one of the free- 
holders also. There also seemed to be part of a shield, 
"Chequy or and sable," as well as a good merchant's mark, 
J. P., though perhaps reversed. 

MIDDLE HILL HOUSE. 
WINDOWS. 

" Sable a horse forcene argent." Query, the Cabells of 
Devon bore the horse bridled or, impaling Or a merchant's 
mark sable, which looked like C. G. 

Dimidiated shield. In chief, "Or an anchor proper 
between letters D. T. ? " ; in base, "Argent on water proper 
a ship with flags at peak and stern of the last." Crest : On 
? nobility helmet an anchor proper. Daniel Lutzgen. 



THE STORY OF THE TWO LANTONYS. 
By W. St. CLAIR BADDELEY. 

In the wake of mediaeval military conquest invariably followed 
ecclesiastical invasion, usually under the patronage of some 
great noble. In the track of the barons and knights, with sword 
and spear and flights of arrows, came, without fail, the priest 
and the monk ; and the castle-building often handed on its 
workmen to the rising abbey or priory. It would be 
difficult to find more ready or more conspicuous illustrations 
of this characteristic movement — so familiar to all students 
— than are to hand in Welsh border history. The fierce 
Robert de Belesme typifies the ruthless ravager, and 
William Fitz Osbern the more usual one ; while Walter 
de Laci, and particularly his gentler second son, Hugh de 
Laci, and Walter, the third son, Abbot of Gloucester, typify 
the wealthy religious patron and enthusiast. They are all 
equally Norman nobles and great landowners; but they 
represent the two different arms of mediaeval civilisation — 
the rnilitary and the religious. Sometimes it is a bishop 
who, in his own person, unites both, and goes into battle 
like a baron ; at others it is a prominent baron, who takes 
profound interest and action as a patron of spiritual things, 
and becomes the renowned protector and encourager of 
ecclesiastics. It is, in fact, the Age of the Crusades : the 
birth of militant monasticism ! 

It is chiefly, however, with their relation to the far- 
reaching foundations of the two Lantonys — one in the vale 
of Ewias, and the other here in Gloucester — that this paper 
will be concerned with the De Lacis ; and here it may be 
as well to remark that neither of the two Lantonys, in spite 
of the locality of Lantony Secunda, in any way owe their 
origin to the town of Gloucester as a parent. Their religious 
centre and diocesan mother was Hereford. The Order to 
which they pertained was not Benedictine, but Augustinian. 



The Story of the Two Lantonys. 213 

How it came about that Gloucester supplanted Hereford 
as their head-centre, and remained so until the Dissolution, 
will presently, I hope, be made evident. 

The period in which their combined history is contained 
just exceeds 425 years; and it commences in 1 103-4, a little 
before the time when King Henry I. wrote to Anselm 
(with whom he was gravely disputing over the Rights of 
Investiture) to the effect that he had decisively defeated 
his brother, Robert, Duke of Normandy, at Tinchebrai 
(September 28th) — in fact, when that great and faithful 
archbishop was at sore straits to defend the rights and 
liberties of the Church from the masterful, but reasonable, 
brother and successor of William Rufus, who desired to 
feudalise it. 

At any rate, at that date two individuals, apparently 
wearied of the burdens of Court and military life, agreed* 
with one mind and heart, to live together in God, at Lantony 
in the great secluded' vale of Ewias, among the Hatterel 
Hills, and in the immediate neighbourhood of a small shrine 
already dedicated to St. David. The names of these were : 
William, a knight attached to the De Lacis (if not a kinsman), 
who must have fought under, and perhaps may have suffered 
from the despotism of, William Rufus ; and the other was 
Ernisi, who had been a large landowner in Gloucestershire, 
Shropshire, and Worcester, but had lost his possessions 
and become chaplain to Matilda, the King's pious and 
charitable consort. If we may so far trust the 14th century 
Chronicler of the Priory (used by Dugdale), we must regard 
William, the knight, as the first-comer to the place. Having 
lost his way while out hunting, and, being fascinated by the 
sanctity of the retired and convenient spot, he became a 
hermit. That is all that is told us ; and we are not told his 
other name. Afterwards he was joined by Ernisi, a mani- 
festly important person, with unusual influence at Court — 
' vir iste Ernisius in Curia Henrici Regis primi, inter primos 
palatii, nominatissimus, Cappellanus Venerandae recordationis, 
Matildas Reginae,' — who seems gladly to have renounced the 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



burdens and perplexities of his favoured position in order to 
embrace the hermit-life. This would have meant doing 
as St. David is related to have done in the same spot — 
namely, 'feeding on leeks,' — had not Hugh de Laci, the 
then lord of Ewias, a favourite of both King and Queen, 
and, probably, the intimate friend of both William and 
Ernisi, come to their assistance with a noble scheme for 
constructing there a Priory of Austin Canons. The fame of 
the hermit-knight and Ernisi spread apace, and good Queen 
Matilda herself, a little later, paid them a visit, — attracted, 
it seems, by the peculiar sanctity of William. 

The reigning Pontiff, Paschal II. (1099-1118), and 
Gelasius II., his successor, distinguished themselves by 
enacting that henceforward all Canons were to affiliate them- 
selves exclusively to the Rule of St. Austin; hence that Order 
is found to have been the most popular during Henry's reign. 
The first house belonging to it in England had just been 
inaugurated at Colchester : then followed Holy Trinity, 
London. Hugh de Laci, the patron of the Priory of St. 
Peter at Hereford (which his father, Walter, had built and 
endowed), now perceived a favourable opportunity of proving 
his religious zeal, and (not without regret, we gather,) the 
two devoted hermits found growing up beside them a 
ccenobium, or cloister and church, and they knew the silent, 
gloomy valley invaded by architects, masons, and builders, 
and quarrymen with creaking waggons. Even after this 
Priory had arisen, and been taken possession of, the sense of 
unwelcome fame and public attraction did not leave the 
brethren. Their chronicler tells us that, for further endow- 
ment, King Henry offered them ' the whole country of 
Berkeley ' ; but the Canons prayed Heaven their house 
might not become opulent, and politely refused that 
rich possession, whose final destiny has proved to be in quite 
another direction. 1 

1 The churches of Berchalei-hernesse were, however, given by Robert 
Fitzharding to another Augustinian House, that of St. Augustine, Bristol, 
in 1154. 



The Story of the Two Lantonys. 215 

As Ernisi was already a man advanced in Holy Orders, 
he not unnaturally became nominated the first Prior. The 
first Canons regular were drawn from the before-named 
priories of Colchester, Holy Trinity, and St. Martin, London. 
No doubt they occupied a portion of their time in teaching 
the rule of the Order to novices who joined them from 
Hereford, Gloucester, and elsewhere. Under such powerful 
protection as that of Hugh de Laci and his wife, Adeliza, 
and of Walter Fitz Roger, Constable of Gloucester (who, 
a little later, himself retired from public life to this new 
cloister and took the black habit), it may be surmised that 
the Priory started in thoroughly favourable circumstances. 

But these circumstances were due only to internal 
conditions. It is difficult to imagine that De Laci and the 
rest forebore to entertain a certain amount of misgiving, 
inseparable, it would appear to us, as to the security of a 
monastery thus endowed with rich lands and revenues 
situated among the wild mountains of the ■ never-forgetful 
•and rightly-resentful Welsh. Such a community, in 
some respects, would have resembled a fortified island in 
a hostile environment. For the inmates were, for the 
most part, belonging to the race of hated Norman invaders 
-and their workmen were of the race of the only less-hated 
Saxons ; in fact, though they were religious settlers, — 
to whom on the one hand was due a certain spiritual respect, 
on the other their presence and their settlement was a sub- 
stantial token (like a banner planted in the ground) of the 
sure advance of the conqueror; for the prior of this monastery 
would in almost all respects presumably act as would a 
feudal Norman lord in respect of his vassals and neighbours. 
At any rate, it might be surmised that in the event of such an 
occurrence as a civil war in England (such as had been long 
threatening owing to the quarrel of Robert, Duke of 
Normandy, and his brother, King Henry, but now, owing 
to the Duke's defeat and capture, warded oft), the position of 
the monks of Lantony might become precarious in the 
extreme. That within five-and-twenty years of their founda- 

16 

Vol. XXV. 



216 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



tion their straits did become severe, will be shown. At 
present, no doubt they made haste to finish the conventual 
buildings and consolidate their tenure. 

The priory and church, which bore, as if a missionary 
venture, the dedication to St. John the Baptist, were con- 
secrated in 1 108, by Ramelin, Bishop of Hereford, and Urban, 
Bishop of Llandaff. And, thus the hermitage of a Norman 
knight evolutionised into a priory of Austin Canons. For their 
supplies, the mountain-stream, the Hodenay, the haunt 
of the dipper, which flowed purling a little below their 
dwelling-place, abounded with trout and other fish; 
and in the great forest that folded the flanks of the Black 
Mountains above them they could hunt the boar, the wolf, 
the deer, badger, and marten-cat ; while below these stretches 
of timber clearings were made in which they could rear their 
stunted cattle; and in the vale itself the Canons could both 
raise their corn and grind the grain in their own mills along the 
Hodenay. The wolf was an enemy, and so was the boar, 
while the foxes doubtless raided their geese ; but at all times, 
it is clear, they had most to fear from Cambrian man, 
who, like the beasts, went usually shod with darkness,, 
although occasionally he raised perilous quarrels at the 
hospitable board of the monastery itself. For the Canons 
could not prevent their guests quarrelling except by refusing 
to entertain them, and this they dared not. 

At any rate, we find that about 1134 the monks of Lantony 
became so constrained by the evil behaviour of their neigh- 
bours that they could neither procure food nor celebrate divine 
service. This must have proved not a little tantalising to 
the men, of whom Giraldus Cambrensis wrote, fifty years 
later (1188), that, sitting in their cloister and looking up, 
they could descry the deer in plenty browsing on the 
heights which bounded their horizon. 

No means are available for proving the date of the death 
of Ernisi, but we know for certain that he was succeeded 
as Prior, by Robert Betun. Much against his will, Betun 
was soon elevated in 1129 to the See of Hereford. Neither 



The Story of the Two Lantonys. 217 



is the decease recorded of the original hermit ' Sir William.' 
It is probable, however, that Betun had been elected Prior 
some years before he quitted Lantony, and that the choice of 
the Canons in electing him, had been guided by the desire of 
their first Head, whose sanctity had shed the light of 
spiritual fame on the community — ' Creber in oratione : 
strenuus in vigiliis : assiduus in remissis : in suscipiendiis 
hospitibus devotus : quod sibi docuit, operibus corroboravit.' 

Betun's reluctance to accept promotion must be partly 
attributed to his affection for his Convent, and perhaps to a 
brave desire to pilot it through evil times. But it must be 
admitted that as a Bishop of Hereford, his promotion pro- 
vided a powerful friend for it within convenient distance, 
one who would never be found wanting if called upon for 
aid. His advancement may have been due to the interest 
taken in him by Hugh de Laci, by Milo, the Constable of 
Gloucester, and by Pain Fitzjohn, (who had married the 
daughter of De Laci (circa) 1120-1), now High Sheriff of 
Shropshire, and enjoying the dower-lands of his wife, both 
in Gloucestershire and Herefordshire. Above all, the King 
and Queen favoured the Augustinians. 1 Nevertheless, a 
great crisis in the fortunes of Lantony was not long delayed 
This was not unconnected, probably, with the solicitude of 
the sonless monarch to secure his kingdom to his daughter, 
the Empress Maud, and the war to which it led. In 11 34, 
under the rule of Robert de Braci, the third Prior, the 
Welsh (' ob innatae feritatis improbitatem ') made life so 
intolerable to the Canons that most of them (though not 
all) fled to Hereford, and besought relief from the Bishop. 
There they continued to remain for nearly two years. Mean- 
while, Hugh de Laci (if alive) effected nothing for the 
fugitives : the Bishop, therefore, turned to Milo, the Constable 
of Gloucester, recalling to him the devotion of his father 
toward Lantony; and so effectually did he work upon him, 
that Milo (whose father iiad been buried with the Canons), 

1 Dunstaple, Cirencester, and Southwyke Priories were Henry's founda- 
tions, and he gave Carlisle a chapter of Augustinian Canons in 1133 



218 



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granted the Convent a piece of land, called the Hyde, or 
Castle-mead, close to the Castle of Gloucester, and just out- 
side the city, upon which to build another monastery. 
Having brought away considerable moneys with them, work 
was at once commenced there, and with marvellous celerity 
a convent arose on that site, the donations of the faithful 
being eagerly invited for its maintenance. The Canons 
even brought the bells, we are told, from Wales and hung 
them here. Meanwhile Robert de Braci, the third Prior, 
died, and was buried at Lantony in Wales ; and William 
of Wycombe, formerly Betun's chaplain, author of a life of 
that prelate and predecessor, became fourth Prior of 
Lantony Prima, and first Prior of Lantony Secunda, at 
Gloucester. 

In his priorate, in May, 1136, the new convent was here 
■dedicated by Robert Betun, Bishop of Hereford, and 
Symon, Bishop of Worcester, in honour of the Virgin 
and St. John the Baptist, in the presence of Milo, the 
Constable, and his eldest son, Roger, and his wife, Cecilia 
Fitzjohn, and (probably) of her parents, Pain Fitzjohn 
and Sibylla de Laci, and Walter de Laci, her uncle, then 
Abbot of St. Peter's, and others. Roger, Milo's son, having 
suffered from a malady (measles?) which the Canons had 
cured, his father presented them with a precious chalcedony. 

At this time Milo had espoused the cause of King Stephen, 
and, as Constable, he received his master at Gloucester on 
May 10th, 1138 (Flor. Wigorn) ; and the newest and most 
freshly-interesting edifice King Stephen saw from the castle 
was the fair Priory of Lantony Secunda, in the green mead 
below. 

This brings us to a peculiarly complicated period 
in the history of Lantony ; i.e., there was now a well- 
endowed Daughter established in an important city, while 
the denuded Mother-monastery was left starving in the wild 
wastes of Wales. It must be confessed that the responsi- 
bilities of the Priors would, instead of becoming lessened 
by this duplication of their property, be seriously increased ; 



The Story of the Two Lantonys. 219 



for they had now to govern and direct the destinies of two 
houses, instead of one only, and was not the less comfortable 
of these suffering also, in addition to its difficulties, under 
a sense of grievous wrong, inflicted upon it by its own 
children ? The Chronicler leaves us in no doubt that all the 
Canons did not forsake the Mother-convent. It is manifest 
that if the governance of even a very able Prior was thus 
fraught with special difficulties, that of an idle, feeble, 
or luxurious one would be fraught with something like 
absolute ruin. * 

The temptation held out to the Canons was doubtless in 
favour of living in the new monastery, at Gloucester ; but, 
in order to equalise matters, Clement, the third prior at 
Gloucester, is related to have left but thirteen out of 
twenty-one (?) Canons there, at one time, and to have com- 
pelled all of these in turn to reside in the vale of Ewias. It is 
probable that William of Wycombe, his predecessor, had 
done likewise. But here it becomes fitting to advert to a 
dangerous quarrel which now arose between the Bishop 
of Hereford and Milo, the Constable, his former close ally 
and friend, — in fact, between the two founders of Lantony 
Secunda. This resulted from the exigencies of the civil war 
raging between King Stephen and his cousin, the Empress, 
whose cause Milo had now in turn espoused, and from whose 
hands he had received the earldom of Hereford ; for Milo, 
being hard-pressed for money wherewith to pay his troops, 
levied new exactions on the Bishop's estates and diocesan 
possessions. Betun at once refused to meet the demand, 
claiming exemption, and requiring Milo to withdraw his claim. 
The earl reiterated his demand, but was met with the threat 
of excommunication. Inflamed to the utmost, he seized what- 
ever goods belonging to the Bishop his followers could lay 
hands upon, and laid waste his lands. Upon this the prelate 
solemnly assembled his clergy, and formally pronounced a 
terrific anathema, laying his Interdict upon the entire territory 
belonging to his enemy. Milo perished, unabsolved, by the 
arrow of one of his ov/n men, while hunting in the Forest 



220 



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of Dene, on December 24th of the same year, 1143, and was 
succeeded in his earldom by his son Roger. 

Now, it was unfortunate for William of Wycombe that, 
in addition to being unpopular with his Gloucester monks, 
on account of his austerity, his admiration for Bishop Betun, 
his spiritual patron, caused him to publish an unsparing 
account of the tyrannous doings of Earl Milo. The news of 
this presently reached his son, Earl Roger, — whether pur- 
posely conveyed to him at Painswick, where he was lord, by 
the canon of Lantony, who was Vicar there, or by some other 
manner, — and he thereupon swore a violent oath that he would 
not enter the Priory of Lantony, as its patron, while that 
Prior ruled it. The end of this was that the Prior quitted his 
place and office, and retired with one of his brethren ; and the 
sub-prior was elected by the Chapter in his stead. 

As William of Wycombe is stated, in the 14th century 
MS. History of Lantony, to have presided over the convent 
for many years anterior to this serious rupture with Earl 
Roger, we may take it this did not occur until circa 11 50. 
The unpleasant condition of the two Convents during these 
years of the anarchy of Stephen's reign must be imagined. 
Earl Roger, meanwhile, had built, or finished, three or four 
small castles, including those of Winchcombe, Painswick, and 
Haresheld, in Gloucestershire. In 1144 he had endeavoured 
to overawe the King's party at Winchcombe, and his castle 
surrendered to the besieging force. Meanwhile he fell out with 
Gilbert de Laci, the successor of Hugh in his Herefordshire 
Honour. When, presently, King Henry II. succeeded Stephen, 
a.d. 1 154, Roger made war on him, and made a treaty with 
William, son of Robert, Earl of Gloucester, of a hypocritical 
nature, directed especially to disinherit De Laci. King Henry 
put the earl down with a strong hand. Roger then retired to 
the cloister of St. Peter's, Gloucester, not to Lantony, and 
there died in 1155. The King cancelled his earldom, although 
he had left several brothers. These are reported to have been 
one more wicked than the other, which may have had not a 
little to do with the King's decision in the matter. 



The Story of the Two Lantonys. 



221 



Of Prior Clement, Giraldus, his contemporary, tells us 
that he liked Lantony in Wales as a place of study and 
prayer — " yet after the example of Eli, the priest, he 
neither reproved nor restrained his brethren from plunder 
and other offences," and died of a paralytic stroke. His 
successor was Roger de Norwich, " more of an enemy to 
this place than either of his predecessors, and openly carried 
off everything which they had left behind, wholly robbing 
the church of its books and ornaments and privileges." He 
was likewise afflicted with paralysis '' long before his death, 
and resigned his honours, and lingered out the remainder 
of his days in sickness." 3 

This Roger de Norwich, the sixth Prior, was ruling at 
Gloucester in 1181, as a contention between him and Roger 
FitzAian, concerning the Chapel of Harescombe, shows, 2 
and another earlier document shows him to have been prior 
in 1 1 78. In 1 192 Geoffrey de Henelawe was Prior. 

Meanwhile, however, a new and splendid patron had arisen 
in Hugh de Laci II., son of Gilbert de Laci, who lived 
to enjoy his father's estates and to add to them (1166 — 1185), 
as the King's Lieutenant in Ireland, territories in that 
country, including Dublin Castle and the greater part of 
Meath. This he held by the service of fifty knights' fees. 
As we find his donations, both in that country and in 
England, were directed to the enrichment of Lantony Prima, 
in Wales, as distinct from Secunda, it must be from his date 
that the fortunes of the parent foundation began to rearise. 
Sothat Hugh the second must be understood to have felt that 
the elder of the two convents owed its being to his immediate 
ancestor and had prior claims to his interest, whereas Lantony 
at Gloucester could not be regarded in that light, but rather 
as the religious stronghold of the descendants of Milo 
Fitz Walter, its chief patrons. For though Milo's sons 
had no issue by their marriages, his daughter, Margaret, 
had married Humphrey de Bohun III. (d. 1187), in whose 

1 Giraldus, Camb., p. 70. 
2 Trans. Brist. & Glos. Arch. Soc, vol. x., p 88. 



222 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



favour the Earldom of Hereford was revived. She became 
matron of Lantony at Gloucester, was buried therein, and 
her honours devolved on their son, Humphrey IV. 1 
. Nevertheless, it is not to Hugh de Laci II. (1165 ? — 1185), 
I think, that we can attribute the present magnificent remains 
of Lantony Prima, which still fascinate the wanderer, whether 
poet or archaeologist, in that grand vale of Ewias. Although 
these remains (consisting of two massive western towers, 
cellarium, nave, chancel-arch, choir, and south transept, 
together with portions of the main conventual adjuncts, the 
infirmary and chapel (now the parish church), and a gate- 
house), are undoubtedly of the Early English character, and 
are not all quite contemporaneous, still, they are none of them 
sufficiently early in that style to warrant their ascription to 
even the latter days of Henry II. Their features, such as 
the collared shafts in the angles of the piers of the nave, 
conventional foliage, the mixed round-headed and pointed 
arches, direct one rather to the turn of the century and 
onward, and we should feel safe only in ascribing the 
rebuilding of the monastery to the reign of King John. 

This coincides with the life and doings of Walter de 
Laci III. and Hugh III., his son, whom we find granting 
charters and many more lands to the ancestral convent. 
Walter married Mary, daughter of William de Breose, of 
Brecknock, and died in 1241. We therefore become, firsts 
aware of the tendency to a great revival of Lantony Prima ; 
next, we find ample evidence demonstrating a magnificent 
rebuilding and re-endowment of it ; and the Cottonian MS. 
tells us that in the time of the eighth Prior, i.e. Mathew (or 
perhaps at his accession in 1203), there really occurred a 
" Repartitio utriusque Llanthonias," or "Renaissance" of 
the elder Convent on a basis of complete independence of 
the daughter at Gloucester. 

This is a most critical point in the history of both 
Convents, and the student of Gloucestershire History, (if 
I may venture to judge by my own humble experience,) has 
1 Cf. Ashe's Collection, fol. 56. 




THE WEST FRONT OF OLD LANTONY 



The Story of the Two Lantonys. 223 

hitherto been obliged to suffer some inconvenience, if not 
confusion, in consequence of their apparent complication. 
If it should prove that any light has been shed on his path 
by this part of my paper, I trust he will take my assurance, 
as his fellow-student, that he will be able to find plenty of 
opportunities of vastly improving upon the quality of that 
light. Additional details will, I hope, be discovered which 
will tend to correct any " shallow spirit of judgment " I 
may have shown in the matter, and so narrow down with 
more exactitude the date of this great crisis ; for, to my 
thinking, there must have occurred some very serious business 
transaction, involving a multitude of individual interests,, 
in connection with this great repartition of the Convents. 
There must have been formidable debates and settlements 
as to which of the original " Donationes " of properties in 
various counties and county-towns to Lantony Prima, but 
which had until then been enjoyed by Lantony Secunda, should 
remain to the latter", or go to the former. For it has been 
made evident that Lantony at Gloucester must have im- 
poverished the decrepit Lantony in Wales, and rehabilitation 
could have been no easy matter. This is proved by documents 
in the " Registrum " at Cheltenham. Moreover, it is easy to 
shew that, having done so, she held hard and very effectually 
to her plunderings. Painswick is a case in point. Hugh 
de Laci I. had granted the Advowson of Painswick (or Wyke) 
to Lantony Prima. If we turn to the Registers of Worcester 
and to those of Lantony Secunda, we find that this advowson 
never went back to the Cambrian monastery, to which it 
had been given ; but remained, throughout just four hundred 
years, the appanage of this Lantony at Gloucester — in fact,, 
until the Dissolution. Again, the number of tenements in 
the town of Gloucester which, in the 13th century and 
onward, can be shown to have been the property of Lantony 
Prima, is proof that such a redivision of properties between 
the two Convents must in all probability have taken place. 

Another point, however, seems significant as to the date 
of the Repartition. In the catalogue of the priors of Lantony 



224 Transactions for the Year 1902. 

in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, and also in Willis, the respective 
accessions of the priors flow on without a hitch until Mathew, 
or, rather, until the preferment of Geoffrey de Henelawe to 
the See of St. David's, in 1203, when he was succeeded by 
Mathew. These writers take no note of the Repartition of 
the two Convents, and they consequently give but a single 
■file of Priors to Lantony generally. We are given no list of 
the Priors of Lantony Prima after that "repartition": and 
this forms a difficulty of itself; for how can we feel certain 
that the list supplied by Dugdale and Wharton from 14th 
century records is reliable, or that it is not a mixture made 
up of the two respective sets of 13th century Priors? That 
is what it probably is. 

That these lists are sadly imperfect must be admitted. 
The first instance of the imperfection of the list of Gloucester 
priors in Browne Willis (vol. 2, p. 86), occurs in the reign of 
King John, about the year 1203. For I find a " Charter, 
by Gilbert, the Prior, and the Convent of St. Mary 
of Lantony at Gloucester, to have a canon to officiate in 
their convent for the soul of their patron, Henry de Bohun, 
Earl of Hereford, and for the soul of Matilda, his wife, 
Humphrey, his father, Margery, his mother, the Earl Milo, 
Margaret de Bohun, and others." Gilbert does not appear 
in the list given. 

Henry de Bohun was created Earl of Hereford 1 by 
King John in 1200, on his giving up his claims to certain 
lands which had been given to Milo by his father-in-law, 
Bernard de Newmarch, at Newenham, Aure, Dymoke, and 
Cheltenham. He died in 1220. Now, as Geoffrey de Henelawe 
was raised from the Priorate of Lantony to the Bishopric of 
St. David's, in 1203, Gilbert must have succeeded him for a 
short time only: for in 1213 the prior's name was Mathew, 
who became Abbot of Bardney, co. Lincoln, in the following 
year; and in 1218 John de Norwich was prior, and King 
John had been dead two years. The rebuilding of Lantony 
Prima, as we now see it, must have taken place at this 

1 Close Roll. 



The Story of the Two Lantonys. 



225 



period ; yet Gilbert is not mentioned in either list of the 
Priors referred to. 

It is possible that Mathew, called eighth Prior in the 
MS. 1 used by Dugdale, may have been Prior of Lantony 
Prima. As yet it is not possible to determine. Anyhow, from 
this time until the reign of Edward IV., some 250 to 260 years, 
the two Lantonys were most assuredly independent; and 
whereas the De Bohuns continued to act as hereditary patrons 
to that at Gloucester, so did the De Lacis to that in Wales. 
Probably the richest period of both Convents included the 
reigns of Henry III., Edward I., and Edward II. In 
possessions and importance the Gloucester convent, in all 
probability, at all periods, surpassed its parent ; though it 
is impossible, owing to the fire which burned it to the ground, 
together with its tower of early bells, in 1301, under Prior 
Thomas, to state whether architecturally that of the city 
compared well with so stately and massive a pile as that 
we see in the green vale of Ewias. If we admit that the 
convent so destroyed in Gloucester was the Norman priory of 
1 136, it is not likely to have been so beautiful nor so large as 
its Early English namesake in Wales. It, However, housed 
forty Canons, and in time was destined, by curious fate, to 
once more govern the rehabilitated mother- House. 

Nothing is more striking in the life of a properly- 
constituted 13th century monastery than the boundlessness 
of its appetite, and the quarrels and lawsuits resulting there- 
from. Lantony at Gloucester, if remarkable, in its youthful 
years, for the successful aggression toward its mother-convent, 
actually supplanting her, is not less remarkable for the skilful 
and prosperous manner in which it swallowed up. Gloucester- 
shire parishes and manors, including fields, pastures, 
quarries,, woods, rivers, fisheries, mills, in and out of towns 
4 cum omnibus pertinentibus suis.' The list of its possessions 
is quite formidable. But let us glance at the second decadence 
of the parent House, for it would take up too much space 
here to catalogue them. 

Julius, D. x., Cotton. Lib. 



226 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



To Lantony Prima belong the following charters and 
confirmations : — 

Patent Roll - - - 12 Edward I., m. 
Patent Roll - - - 20 Edward I., m. 



Patent Roll - - - 2 Edward II., p. 2. 

Patent Roll - - - 3 Edward II. 

Patent Roll - - - 16 Edward II., p. 1, m. 23, 24. 

Also there is a charter of Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, 
reciting and confirming Walter de Laci III.'s Charter, "de 
valle in qua ecclesia de Lantonia sita est," a. 2 Edward III. 

I have found the name of one of the unknown priors who 
lived at the end of Edward's reign, from 1365 — 1376; but it 
cannot be said that the discovery throws a pleasant light on 
the conditions of the ill-fated original convent. As matter of 
fact, the moment in History was one of the worst for all its 
monastic establishments in our plague-stricken land. I find 
that Nicholas de Trinbeye resigns his office of prior in 1376 
(February), having had both his eyes torn out by John de 
Wellington, one of his canons, with whom were accomplices 
John Poding and Robert Bolter, likewise canons. They 
were presently excommunicated. Wellington was absolved 
and reinstated, in March, 139 J. (Cf. Papal Letters, iv. 223-355, 
Rolls Series.) 

From this time onward Lantony Prima continued to 
decline, until we meet with a peremptory charter of Edward 
IV. (10 May, 1481), stating that, owing to the evil conditions 
into which it has fallen, due to the squandering of its revenues 
by John Adam, the prior, and the five canons, — the Convent 
of Lantony Prima, in Wales, is to be handed over to 
Lantony at Gloucester. 

This occurred during the priorate at Gloucester of Henry 
Dean, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury. The maternal 
monastery, therefore, was, for the second time, made entirely 
subject to the daughter. It continued to have Priors, but 



Cart. 
Cart. 



12 Edward I., No. 38. 
18 Edward II., No. 11. 



The Story of the Two Lantonys. 



227 



they were all chosen by the Prior at Gloucester. William 
Ambrose was the last of them, and the declared value of the 
Lantony of the De Laci's in Wales at the Dissolution was 
19s. o£d., while that of its daughter at Gloucester was 
valued at ^748, whose Prior was granted a pension of £100 
a year. The surrender made was the first in this county, 
and took place May 10th, 1539. The site of it was presently 
granted to Arthur Porter, Esq. 

In much later days, the ruins of the grand old priory in 
Wales became the property of Walter,, Savage Landor, the 
poet; while the ruins of Lantony at Gloucester, after suffering 
severely from the Royalist and Parliamentary gunpowder 
during the siege, 1 in 1643-4, were wantonly cut through, 
church and all, by the Gloucester and Berkeley Canal (1816- 
1826) — the ruins of one convent realising, for a short time, a 
poet's dream ; the other ultimately the very different dreams 
of dock-companies ! And when the canal works made their 
way through the Priory-church, the tombs, effigies, and even 
the bones of Milo, the founder, of Roger, Earl of Hereford, 
and some ten generations of the De Bohuns, Constables of 
England, — were scattered helter-skelter to the winds and 
waters, so that not one now remains. 2 For, just as Tewkes- 
bury may be considered the Westminster Abbey of the 
De Clares and Despencers, so might Lantony at Gloucester 
be regarded as that of the De Bohuns and the earlier Lords 
of Brecon and Hereford. 

Sic transit Gloria Mundi ! 

1 Sir Robert Atkyns states that in his time the ruins of Lantony were 
•only "heaps of rubbish in the open air." (Cf. Trans. Brit. Archeol. Ass. 
for i846, p. 339.) 

2 Except Humphrey, 4th Earl, and Eleanor, his lady, who are said to 
have been removed to the Cathedral, where Mr. John Clarke says " they 
may yet be seen reposing under a canopied altar-tomb on the south side of 
the Nave." (Cf. A popular Account of the Interesting Priory of Llanthony, 
near Gloucester, 1853.) Some were recognised in 1852. 



228 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



LIST OF PRIORS AT BOTH CONVENTS. 
Ernisi, 1108. 

Robert de Betun, iii8(?) — 1131. 

Robert de Braci, 1131 — 1137 ; Lantony II. Founded. 

William de Wycombe, 1 137 (?) — 

Clement, 1 150 (?) — 

Roger de Norwich, 1 170 (?)— 1 191 . 

Geoffrey de Henelawe, 1191 — 1203. 

Gilbert ; Repartition of the Convents. 

Matthew, (?) — 1214. 

John, (?) — 1240. 

Godfrey, (?) — 1251. 

Everard, (?) 

Martin, (?) 

Roger Godestre, (?) — 1282. 
Walter, (?)— 1288. 
John de Chandos, 1289 — (?) 
Stephen, \ 

Peter, t Some of these probably belong to 
David, J Lantony Prima. 

Thomas de Gloucester (resigns), 1301 ; Lantony Secunda 

burned. 
John, (?)— -1315. 
Simon de Brockworth, (?) 
Edward St. John, (?) 
William de Tendebury, 1 1348. 
William Cheriton (living), 1358. 

Nicholas de Trinbey, 1364^ — 1375, at Lantony in Wales. 

1 A Papal Indult was granted to William de Tendebury, Prior of 
Lantony by Gloucester, on May 30th, 1348, to choose a Confessor who 
should give him plenary absolution at the hour of death. — Papal Letters 
(Rolls Series), iii. 307. 



The Story of the Two Lantonys. 



229 



John Wych, (?) 

Thomas de Elmham, (?) — 1415. 
John Gerland, (?) — 1428. 
John Heyward, (?) 

John Adam, at Lantony in Wales, 1476. 
Henry Dean, 1461 — 1494. [Builder of remaining Gate- 
way.] 

Edmund Forrest, (?) — 1513. 

William Ambrose, at Lantony in ^Vales. j 

Richard Hart, (?)— 1539. ) 



DEERHURST, PERSHORE, AND WESTMINSTER. 

By the Rev. C. S. TAYLOR, M.A., F.S.A., 
Vicar of Ban well. 

When we visited Deerhurst last summer we were taken first 
to the Old Minster, in which S. Alphege had worshipped, 
and where he ruled as Abbot, which is certainly one of the 
oldest churches in England. Then we visited a little chapel 
situated about eighty yards from the Minster burial-ground, 
which we were told was built by a certain Ealdorman Odda 
in memory of his brother Elfric, who died at Deerhurst in 
December, 1053, but who was buried at Pershore. The 
chapel was consecrated on April nth, 1056, being Thursday 
in Easter week. It is to be noted that the day usually given, 
April 1 2th, is wrong. It arises from reading the inscription 
in the Ashmolean Museum as if it were "II IDIBUS," 
whereas it is really " III (I)DIBUS," the initial letter of the 
word IDIBUS being included in the letter D. If the date 
intended had been April 12th the expression used would have 
been Pvidie Idus, or some contraction of that form. Odda died 
at Deerhurst on August 31st, 1056, and he, like Elfric, was 
buried at Pershore. We thus find a very close connection 
between Deerhurst and Pershore in the middle of the eleventh 
•century. A man in high position builds a chapel in memory 
of a brother who died at Deerhurst, and yet both the one who 
built the chapel and the one in whose memory it was built 
are within little more than three years buried at Pershore. 
Furthermore, if we asked to whom this little chapel now 
belonged we should be told that it was the property of the 
Dean and Chapter of Westminster ; and if our curiosity was 
aroused by the statement, and we desired to find out when 
S. Peter of Westminster acquired this property, we should 
discover that in the great Foundation Charter of Westminster 



Deerhurst, Pershore, and Westminster. 231 

Abbey, which was laid on the altar at the consecration of the 
Abbey on Innocents' Day, 1065, after the death of Queen 
Edith, who passed away on December 19th, 1075, Pershore 
with all that belonged to it, and Deerhurst with all that 
belonged to it, 1 should be among the ample endowments 
provided by the dying King. Thus a triad of very noble 
houses was connected with this little chapel in the reign of 
Edward the Confessor. Deerhurst Minster, even then a 
venerable fane, where Alphege, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
saint and martyr, had spent the early days of his monastic 
life, and who had won his martyr's crown only half a century 
before, looked down upon it ; while Pershore was one of the 
very earliest of the Huiccian religious houses, claiming to 
have been founded in 689 by Oswald, brother of Osric, the 
first Christian ruler of the Huiccians. But if the glories of 
these two houses lay in the past, those of the great house 
of S. Peter of Westminster lay in the future ; and by means 
of the Deerhurst and Pershore estates, which, as we shall see, 
were appropriated to Westminster, the life of those two old 
Huiccian Minsters has been carried on until now through 
a series of glories upon glories which can be equalled in the 
history of no churches in Western Christendom, except 
perhaps the Basilicas of S. John Lateran and S. Peter 
at Rome. 

We naturally turn to Domesday Survey to see whether 
the pages of the great record will throw any light upon the 
relation of the three houses one to another ; and being on 
the spot, we refer first to the entries concerning Deerhurst. 
There is no difficulty in finding Deerhurst Hundred ; 2 but 
then a very remarkable fact emerges, there are only two 
landowners in the Hundred — S. Peter of Westminster and 
S. Denys of Paris, to which church the ancient Minster at 
Deerhurst, with all that belonged to it, had been given by 
William the Conqueror. The possessions of the two houses 
may be summarised thus : — 

1 Dugdale, Men., i. 294 ; Thorpe, Dipl., 404. 
2 D B., f. 166. 

Vol. XXV. 



232 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



S. PETER OF WESTMINSTER. 



Deerhurst 

Elmstone Hardwick 
Bourton-on-the-Hill 

Todenham 

Sutton Brailes 
Sundry Tenants ... 





Modern 


Hidage. 


Acreage. 


5 •• 


• 2,930 


5 •• 


• 2,613 


8 .. 


. 2,960 


7 •• 


• 2,477 


5 


■ 1,135 


29 .. 


• 4^57 


59 


16,272 



Value, 
s. 



40 



40 



d. 



S. DENYS OF PARIS. 





Hidage. 


Modern 




H. 


V. 


Acreage. 


Uckington 


5 


0 . 


.. 880 


Staverton 


3 


0 . 


758 


Coin S. Denys 


5 


0 . 


.. 2,430 


Little Compton 


12 


0 . 


.. I,8oo 


Preston-on-Stour 


10 


0 . 


.. 1,990 


Welford 




0 . 


3,550 


Corse and The Haw 


2 


2 . 


.. 2,190 


Wolston 


5 


O . 


.. 787 


The Leigh 


1 


O . 


.. 1,720 


Deerhurst Walton 


1 


O . 




Kemerton 


0 


2 . 




In the above-mentioned lands 


4 


2 . 






64 


2 


16,105 



Value. 



30 



30 o o 

It will be noticed that the portions of the two churches 
are almost exactly the same. The acreage in the two cases 
coincides, though the hidage pertaining to S. Denys is 
slightly larger than that of S. Peter. That the value of the 
more highly rated property was less than that of the other 
may only be owing to the difficulty which a foreign house 
might naturally experience in obtaining the best return from 
its lands. We notice also that the Capital Manor of Deer- 
hurst had been separated from Deerhurst Minster and joined 
to the Westminster estate, so that the only Deerhurst property 
belonging to the Minster was the hamlet of Deerhurst Walton. 
This is important, because, as we shall find, the same thing 
had happened at Pershore. A layman might well covet a 
capital manor, and pass by the fabric of the church ; and. 



Deerhurst, Pershore, and Westminster. 233; 



from the fact that both Odda and Elfric died at Deerhurst 
we should gather that this was the chief residence of their 
family. We note, moreover, that the farmhouse of which 
Odda's chapel formed a part is known as Abbot's Court; that 
is to say, it is the Court House, or Manor House, of the 
Manor of Deerhurst. The site then on which Odda built his 
chapel was that of the Manor House of the ancient ecclesi- 
astical estate of Deerhurst ; and the question arises, How 
did he obtain the right to do this ? 

To obtain an answer to the question we turn to the 
records of the period to discover what we can find concerning 
the history of Deerhurst. We have already seen that in the 
Foundation Charter of Westminster. Abbey, bearing the date 
of Innocents' Day, 1065, Deerhurst, with all that belonged 
to it, was granted to the Abbey, subject to the life-interest of 
Queen Edith, who died on December 19th, 1075. 1 A writ is 
also extant, purporting to have been issued by King Edward 
to Archbishop Ealdfed of York (1061-1069), Bishop Wulstan 
of Worcester (1062-1095), Bishop Wulfwig of Dorchester 
(1053-1067), and the authorities of Worcestershire, Glouces- 
tershire, and Oxfordshire, certifying them that he gave to 
S. Peter and the brethren at Westminster the cotlifs or 
hamlets of Pershore and Deerhurst, with all their posses- 
sions. 2 Kemble accepts the writ as genuine; and though 
early Westminster documents are open to suspicion, it is 
difficult to see what purpose there could be in forging such 
a writ as this, when Domesday Book, only a quarter of a 
century later, gives evidence, which no man might oppose, 
that the Capital Manors of Deerhurst and Pershore, with 
many dependencies of each house, really did belong to 
Westminster Abbey. 

But the Church of Deerhurst is the subject of quite 
another grant during the lifetime of Queen Edith. The 
register of S. Denys at Paris contains a grant of William 
the Conqueror purporting to have been made at Winchester 

1 Dugdale, Mon., i. 294 ; Thorpe, Dipl., 404. 
2 Dugdale, Mow., i. 300 ; K. C. D., DCCGXXIX. ; Earle, Land Charters, 340. 



^34 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



on Easter Monday, April 13th, 1069. 1 The King grants to 
S. Denys the^Church of Deerhurst, in the county of Gloucester, 
with all that belongs to it, as his ancestor, King Edward, 
gave it to Baldwin for his own proper uses before he received 
from the King the Abbacy over which he now presides, 2 and 
as the Conqueror after he obtained the kingdom granted to 
him. The King also confirmed to S. Denys Teynton, in 
Oxfordshire, which the Confessor had granted to it. The 
charter is witnessed by a large number of high dignitaries in 
Church and State, is it naturally would be at such a time \ 
for King William usually spent the Easter Festival at 
Winchester, as he spent Pentecost at Westminster and 
Christmas at Gloucester. There seems to be no reason for 
doubting the genuineness of the charter. King William 
certainly did spend the Easter Festival of 1069 at Winchester, 3 
whither he had returned after recovering York from the. 
Northumbrians, who had rebelled against him ; on the other 
hand, as it speaks of "Willielmus rex its present form 
must be later, and probably considerably later, than the 
Conqueror's reign. 

Leofstan, the predecessor of Baldwin in the Abbacy of 
S. Edmunds, died, it is said, on August 1st, 1065 ; 4 Baldwin 
must therefore have been in possession of Deerhurst Church 
before that time, how long before there is no evidence to 
show. Mr. Freeman thought that he must have been 
appointed to the Abbacy of Bury S. Edmunds between 1062 
and 1066 : 6 the writ of his appointment, which is addressed 
to Bishop iEthelmaer and Earl Gyrth, must be later than 
1058, because Gyrth was not appointed to the Earldom till 
1057. 6 We may take it then that Baldwin obtained the 
Abbacy of Bury S. Edmunds after August 1st, 1065, and 
held Deerhurst with it till Easter, 1069, when Deerhurst was 
given to Baldwin's old house of S. Denys. We may be fairly 
sure, however, that Baldwin did not obtain possession of 



1 Dugdale, Mon , iv. 664. 2 Bury St. Edmunds. 

3 Ordericus Vitalis, 512 d ; Freeman, N . C, iv. 242. 
4 Dugdale, Mon., iii. 100. 5 N.C, ii. 602. 6 K. C. D., iv. 225. 



Deerhurst, Pershore, and Westminster. 235 

Deerhurst till after the expulsion of Earl Godwin and his 
sons in 105 1 : Mr. Freeman, indeed, speaks of Baldwin aa 
the one Norman or French prelate who was appointed to an 
English church during the later days of King Edward, while 
the influence of Harold was paramount. He seems to have 
owed his advancement to his skill in medicine. He had been 
a monk of S. Denys. It is clear then that during the early 
years of the Conqueror's reign, until the death of Queen 
Edith in December, 1075, one portion of the Deerhurst 
estates, that which pertained to the Capital Manor of Deer- 
hurst, belonged to the old Lady, with reversion to Westminster 
Abbey; while the other portion, that which was still attached 
to the Minster, about equal in area, but with a greater 
hidage, and therefore probably a higher potential value^ 
belonged first to Baldwin — possibly as Prior or Abbot of 
Deerhurst — and then to the Abbey of S. Denys at Paris. 

Unfortunately, there seems to be no extant record at all 
of the history of Deerhurst between the time when S. Alphege 
obtained the Abbacy of Bath after the consecration of ^Escwig 
to the See of Dorchester in 978 and December, 1053, when 
Elfric died there; for though Florence of Worcester places 
the meeting between Edmund Ironside and Cnut after the 
battle of Assandune in the autumn of 1016 at Deerhurst, he 
says nothing about the Minster in that connection. 1 What 
Florence says is this, that Edmund, with his companions, sat 
on the west bank of Severn at Deerhurst, while Cnut and 
his company were on the eastern side. It would seem that 
preliminaries were discussed in this fashion, and then the 
Kings were conveyed in boats 2 to an island called Olanege — 
apparently Alney Island, opposite to Gloucester — where a 
division of the realm was agreed upon. Cnut was to have 
W T essex, Essex, and East Anglia ; while Edmund was to 
retain his crown and rule what was left. It is important 
to note that Florence carefully distinguishes between the 
gathering at Deerhurst on each side of the intervening river 
and the meeting on the island after a journey in boats : any 
1 M. H. B., 593 a. 3 Trabariis. 



236 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



attempt to bring Olanege to Deerhurst is quite contrary 
to the tenor of the narrative. Moreover, with regard to 
S. Alphege, we must notice that it is more than probable 
that he was driven from Deerhurst in the persecution of the 
Benedictine monks which broke out under iElfhere, Ealdor- 
man of the Mercians, immediately after the death of King 
Edgar on July 8th, 975, and that he came out of retirement 
on his appointment to the Abbacy of Bath in 978. In that 
case the history of Deerhurst would be blank for seventy-eight 
years, for the first half of which period we know that confusion 
reigned in the Benedictine Monasteries of Mercia. 

We may sum up what is known of the history of 
Deerhurst in the tenth and eleventh centuries in this way. 
Florence of Worcester tells us that in 969 King Edgar 
commanded S. Dunstan of Canterbury, S. Oswald of Wor- 
cester, and S. Ethelwold of Winchester that after driving 
out the clerks they should place monks in the greater 
monasteries which were founded throughout Mercia. 1 
S. Alphege begins to sign as Abbot, no doubt of Deerhurst, 
in 970, but there is no signature of his on an undoubted 
document between 975, when the persecution under ^Elfhere 
broke out, and 978, when he became Abbot of Bath. In 
December, 1053, Elfric died at Deerhurst, and on April nth, 
1056, the Chapel of the Holy Trinity was consecrated. 
Probably soon after 1051 Baldwin, a monk of S. Denys, 
became possessed of Deerhurst Minster, which he held, first 
alone and afterwards together with S. Edmund's Minster, 
till April 13th, 1069, when the ancient Church of Deerhurst, 
with the estates which still belonged to it, were granted by 
the Conqueror to S. Denys. The Capital Manor of Deerhurst 
no doubt belonged to Odda in 1056, and on his death it 
probably passed to the King, who would seem to have 
granted it to Queen Edith, on whose death on December 
19th, 1075, it would have passed to Westminster Abbey in 
accordance with the Confessor's Foundation Charter of his 
Minster. 

* M. H. B., 577 b. 



Deerhurst, Pershore, and Westminster. 237 



We now pass to the consideration of the estates of 
Pershore Minster, and here we are much helped by a 
Charter of Confirmation which was granted by King Edgar 
to Foldbriht, the first Benedictine Abbot of Deerhurst, in 
972. 1 Though Kemble doubted the charter, later authorities 
have accepted it ; and considering the subsequent history of 
the Minster, it is not easy to fix upon any period when a 
fictitious document of the kind is likely to have been 
concocted, or when it could have been uttered with any 
possibility of success. Professor Earle comments upon it 
in these words: "Kemble stigmatised it, but Mr. Bond has 
passed it without remark; 2 and Mr. Macray, who kindly 
examined it at my request, saw nothing suspicious in the 
handwriting." 3 We may then fairly consider that the 
document is genuine, and feel that we are on safe ground in 
comparing it with the entries in the Domesday Record. 

The following table gives in the first column the estates 
mentioned as belonging to Pershore Minster in the charter 
of 972, and in the second column the owners of the same 
estates in Domesday Book ; the Domesday estates belonging 
to Westminster Abbey being printed in ordinary type, those 
still remaining to Pershore Minster being printed in italics, 
while those which had passed to other owners appear in 
bolder type: — 

CHARTER OF 972. 

Brihtulfingtune 
Cumbrincgtune 

Pedneshamme 

Eccyncgtune 

Byrlingahamme 
Deopanforda 
Strengesho 
Bettesforda 
Cromban ... 
Stoce 

1 K. C. D., DLXX. ; Cart. Sax., 1282 ; Earle, Land Charters, 441 
British Museum, Facsimiles, pt. iii., pi. 30. 

2 In the British Museum Facsimilts. 3 Land Charters. 441. 





DOMESDAY 


BOOK. 


Mansi. 




H. V 


X. 


Bricstelmestune 


X. . 


X. 


Cubrintune 
Cubritone 


xi. . 


V. 


Pendesham 


ii. 


xvi. 


Aichintune 


xvi. . 


x. 


Berlingeha 


iii. i. 


X. 
X. 
X. 


Depeforde 


x. . 


Beford ... .. 


x. . 


X. 


Stoche 


XV. . 



238 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



CHARTER OF 972. 




DOMESDAY 


BOOK. 


Pyritune 


X. 


Peritune ... . 


vi. 


Uuadbeorhan 


iiii. 


Wadberge ... 




Cuiincgtune 


iii. 


Ciuintone 




Broc(tune) 


iii. 


Broctune ... r . 




Piplincgtune 


X. 


Piplintune... 


.. viii. 


Snoddesbyri 


X. 


Snodesbyrie 


xi. 


Niuuantune 


vii. 


Newentune 


.. X. 


jQ,auDriniincgiune ... 


iiii. 


( Edbritone ... 
\ Edbretintune 




Uihtlafestune 


v. 






Flseferth 


v. 






Graftune 


v. 






Deormodesealdtune . 


v. 


Dormestun 


v. 


Husantreo 




Husentre ... 


vi. 


Meretune 






Broctune 


iii. 


Broctune 


.. 


Hleobyri 


ii. 






Langandune xxx. 


Longedune 


.. XXX. 


Poincguuic 


vii. 


Poiwic 


iii. 


Beornothesleahe ... 


iii. 






Actune 


iii. 


Aohetone ... . 


v. 


Suthstoce ' 




Havochesberie 


.. xvii. 


& Hilleahe 




Hildeslei ... . 


i. 


& Tresham 








& Cyllincgcotan 








& Ealdanbyri 


Aldeberie ... . 


v. 


& Dydimeretune 




Dedmertone 


iii. 


& Badimyncgtun ... 




M admin tune . 


iiii. 


& Uptun ... j 




Dirham ... 


vii. 


Deorham 


X. 


Dirham 


iii. 


Longanege 


V. 


Langenei ... 


v. 


Lidanege 


vi. 


Lindenee ... 


vi. 


Uuiggangeate 


vi. 






Beoleahe 


v. 


Beolege 


^ XXI. 


Gyrdleahe 


V. 


Gerlei 


Sture 


X. 


Sture 


XX. 


Bradanuuege 


XX. 


Bradeweia . . . 


... XXX. 


Coltune ... 


V. 






Uuiguuennan 


X. 






Hortun 


i* 







It is said in the Survey that the Church of S. Mary of 
Pershore held the Manor of Pershore with 26 hides paying 
geld, and that there pertained to it these Berewicks : 
Civintone, Edbritone, Wadberge, Broctune, Edbretintune, 



Deerhurst, Pershore, and Westminster. 239 

Wicha, Cubritone; also that the Church held in 1086 21 of 
the 26 hides. 1 But because the hidage of each estate is 
not mentioned, it has not been possible to record it in the 
Domesday column of the table. 

The mention of Horton in the Pershore Charter is inter- 
esting. This manor appears in the Survey as a possession 
of Robert de Todeni, with no trace of a Pershore connection, 
though it lies between Hawkesbury and Dyrham, which were 
both Pershore estates. It is rated at 10 hides, and it will be 
seen that while the Hawkesbury group of estates in the 
charter account for 40 mansi, in the Survey they are rated 
only at 30 hides. It seems likely therefore that the 10 hides 
of Horton ought really to be added to the latter sum to 
make up the number. 

It is quite clear that the estates containing 338-J hides 
mentioned in the Pershore Charter of 972 are the same with 
those found in the Survey under the heads of Westminster 
and Pershore, thus 

Westminster , 1 56.1 hides. 

Pershore 117 „ 

Other owners 36 ,, 

309 

In other words, that S. Mary of Pershore had been robbed 
for the benefit of S. Peter of Westminster, much as S. Mary 
had superseded S. Peter in the dedication of Worcester 
Cathedral, and as S. Peter of Bath had been deprived of 
Kelston for the benefit of S. Mary of Shaftesbury. 

This conclusion is confirmed by the entries in Domesday 
relating to the Worcestershire estates of the two houses. 
At the end of the list of Westminster estates it is said that 
"All these above-mentioned lands lay, and lie, in Pershore;" 2 
while a sentence at the end of the statement of the properties 
of Pershore is still more explicit : " The County says that 

1 D. B., f. 175. 

2 "Omnes hae supradictse terrae jacuerunt et jacent ad Persore." — - 
D. B. ( f. 175. 



240 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



the Church of Pershore ought to have Church-scot from all 
three hundred hides ; that is to say from every hide where 
a free-man dwells one load of grain at the Feast of S. Martin, 
and if he has more hides let them be free. And if that term 
be broken let him who has withheld the grain pay elevenfold, 
nevertheless he shall first pay what he owes. And the Abbot 
of Pershore has forfeiture from his own 100 hides, as he 
ought to have from his own land. From the other 200 hides 
the same Abbot has the load (of grain) and payment, and the 
Abbot of Westminster has forfeiture, because the land is his. 
And the Abbot of Evesham has his rights from his own land, 
and all others likewise from their lands." 1 The mention of 
Church-scot is interesting. It was a payment of grain at 
Martinmas, and was quite distinct from tithe. In the laws 
of Ine, c. 690, one who withholds Church-scot must forfeit 
60 shillings and render the Church-scot fourfold — a terrific 
penalty. The Pershore penalty rather runs on the lines of 
a law of Ethelred the Unready, a.d. 1014 : "And let Church- 
scot be paid by Martinmass ; and let him who does not pay it 
indemnify it with twelvefold, and cxx. shillings to the King." 2 
It is repeated in the so-called Laws of Henry I., a collection 
of Old English Statutes: "Whosoever shall withhold Church- 
scot, beyond the Feast of S. Martin, let him render it to the 
Bishop, and pay elevenfold, and to the King 1. shillings." * 

It is evident that the ancient Pershore estates in Wor- 
cestershire are regarded as containing 300 hides, that they 
have been systematically divided into two portions one 
twice as large as the other, that the larger portion has 
passed into the possession of Westminster Abbey, and that 
the ancient owner keeps only one-third of its former property. 
But still, the ancient Minster retains the right to the spiritual 
payment of Church-scot from the whole 300 hides, though 
forfeitures remain to it only from the land actually in its 
possession. We see then that the very same thing had 
happened at Pershore which there is good reason for 

1 D. B., f. 175 b. 3 Ancient Laws and Institutes of England, 146. 
3 A. L. and 225. 



Deerhurst, Pershore, and Westminster. 241 



thinking had happened at Deerhurst — that the ancient estates 
of the Church had been divided and a portion secularised, 
only that in the case of Deerhurst the division had been 
a more equal one. 

In tracing the history of Pershore we are able to obtain 
much more information than we could do in the case of 
Deerhurst. William of Malmesbury relates that in the 
Benedictine revival of the Mercian Monasteries under King 
Edgar the Monastery of Pershore was set up and completed 
by Egelward, Ealdorman of Dorset ; and he goes on to say 
that the greater part of its property was lost, part through 
avarice, part by neglect, but that the greater portion was 
conveyed to Westminster by Kings Edward and William. 1 
Abbot Foldbriht appears in 970, in 972 he obtained a great 
Charter of Confirmation from King Edgar, and he died at 
the Minster before the persecution of the monks which 
followed King Edgar's death. Though the Minster was 
evidently cruelly plundered by Ealdorman JEUhere, it does 
not seem that the church was suppressed; for Florence of 
Worcester relates 2 that when Leofsi, Bishop of Worcester, 
died on August 19th, 1033, he was succeeded by Brihteah, 
Abbot of Pershore, sister's son of Wulstan, Archbishop of 
York 1003-1023, and Bishop of Worcester 1003-1016. He 
was no doubt appointed to the Abbacy at some date during 
his uncle's Episcopate, but there does not seem to be any 
evidence to fix his accession more exactly, though as he only 
held the See for five years he was very probably an elderly 
man at the time of his appointment. iElfric also appears as 
an Abbot of Pershore in documents which were passed by 
Kemble at different dates between 1044 and 1052 : 3 so that 
it seems probable that Pershore Minster existed for at least 
the thirty-six years which elapsed between 1016 and 1052. 
And as Elfric, the brother of Odda, was buried there in 1053, 
and it may be taken as fairly certain that its existence was 

1 Gesta Pontificum, § 162 ; R. S., 298. 
2 Chron., 1033; M. H. B., 597 d. 
3 K. C. D., DCCLXXIL, DCCLXXVIL, DCCLXXVIII., DCCXCVII. 



242 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



continuous from that date onwards, we may say that if the 
life of the Minster was interrupted at all, the break can only 
be placed between 975 and 1016. 

We note that iElfric, Abbot of Pershore, disappears 
about 1052, and also that Elfric, brother of Odda, died at 
Deerhurst in December, 1053, an d was buried at Pershore, 
and pass on to consider what Leland has to tell us about 
Ealdorman Odda. He says that Odda succeeded by right of 
heirship to that most wicked Consul Delfer ; that Delfer 
arrogantly injured and plundered Pershore Minster, with 
many others, and that in consequence he came to a bad end,, 
being eaten of worms ; that Odda when he succeeded to his 
inheritance, and understood the strange evil which had 
happened to the plunderer, not only liberally restored to the 
Church of Pershore the land which that wicked one had 
stolen away, but made a vow of perpetual continence lest 
any heir of his should dispossess the Church of God ; that 
having become a monk at Deerhurst and died there, he was 
carried to Pershore and there buried. 1 Again, Leland says 
that King Edgar placed monks at Pershore, that Elfere stole 
their lands, and that "Comes " Odda, his son (films), restored 
them. 2 

This was no doubt the Pershore tradition, and like many 
other traditions, though the details are not strictly accurate, 
the substance is true. The wicked Delfer is, of course, 
iElfhere, Ealdorman of the Mercians, who during the eight 
years which elapsed between the death of King Edgar 
in 975 and his own death in 983 plundered the Benedictine 
Monasteries of Mercia and drove out the monks. His son 
iElfric, who succeeded him as Ealdorman, was banished in 
986, and we cannot trace him with any certainty after that 
date, for there was a perfect chaos of iElfrics ecclesiastical 
and secular at this period. 3 Still, though ^Elfric was thus 
a very common name, it is worth noting that a brother of 
Odda bore it. 

1 Dugdale, Mon., ii. 415; Leland, Collectan. y i. 284. 
* Dugdale, Mon., ii. 416; Leland, Itin., v. 1. 3 Freeman, N. C, i. 639. 



Deerhurst, Pershore, and Westminster. 243 

Though Leland calls Odda a son (films) of iElfhere, yet 
the long interval of time, seventy-three years, which elapsed 
between the deaths of the two men would seem to show that 
the younger must have been rather the grandson than the 
son of the elder. In this case Odda and his brother Elfric 
would have been the children of ^Elfric or of a brother of 
his ; it would have been a very natural thing to call the 
younger Elfric by the name of his father. We find also 
Edith, a sister of Odda, who had held in the days of the 
Confessor Ledene in Radelav Hundred, in Herefordshire. 1 
Her successor was Albertus Lothariensis, and as a Lotha- 
ringian was more likely to have prospered in the days of 
Edward than of William, we may assume that she, like her 
brothers, died before the Conquest. In a charter of 1048 
the name of Dodda, whom Mr. Freeman suspects to have 
been a kinsman, occurs with Odda : 2 we might find here some 
ground for the Oddo and Doddo of Tewkesbury mythology 
were it not that in K. C. D., MCCCXXXIV., of 1046, Odda 
and ^Elfric appear as brothers, and Dodda Cild is separated 
from them by Ordgar and his two brothers. 

We learn from the Confirmation Charter of 972 that at 
the time when it was granted lands of the Church of Pershore 
had been alienated, and were held by false title-deeds which 
purported to convey an hereditary right. Of course, when 
the monks were driven out these rights were very probably 
revived, and they may be represented in Domesday by the 
estates which were conveyed by the charter of 972, but 
which in 1086 belonged neither to Pershore nor to West- 
minster. But the tradition recorded by Leland was clearly 
that iElfhere took the lands of the monks, and that Odda 
inherited them by natural descent from him ; and knowing 
what we do of the conduct of yElfhere, there would be no 
difficulty in accepting the tradition as true. Further, if 
Elfric, who disappeared about 1052, were the first Abbot of 
Pershore mentioned after 975 we might naturally identify 
him with the brother of Odda who died in December, 1053, 
1 D. B , f. 186. 2 N. C, ii. 581 ; K. C. D., iv. 116. 



244. Transactions for the Year 1902. 

and think that yElfhere did really appropriate all the estates 
of the Church, as Earl Godwin secularised and took for 
himself the estates of Berkeley Minster half a century later, 
and that in process of time his grandson was provided for 
by restoring one-third of the estates to the Minster and 
making him Abbot. But the Abbacy of Brihteah, which 
preceded that of Elfric, and which, as we have seen, lasted 
probably for at least seventeen years, shows that this was 
not so, and that at any rate from the time of the accession 
of Cnut the Minster was endowed with a portion of its 
ancient lands. Still, in that case also, it would be quite in. 
accordance with the spirit of the times that Pershore Minster 
should be regarded as a family benefice, and that one of 
iElfhere's descendants should be made its Abbot. No other 
Abbot of Pershore appears during the reign of the Confessor, 
but it is said that Abbot Roger died in 1074, Abbot Eadmund 
on June 15th, 1085, and Abbot Thurstan in 1087. 1 We may 
very well think then that in 1053 tne greater part of the old 
estates of the Minster were held by grandsons of ^Elfhere, 
those which the Church had been allowed to retain by 
Abbot Elfric, and those which had been secularised by Odda; 
the former continuing as the endowment of the Minster till 
the dissolution of the House five centuries later, the latter 
passing on the death of Odda to the Confessor, being granted 
by him to the Lady Edith, and passing on her death to 
Westminster Abbey. 

But if this were all, it is not easy to see in what way 
Odda was a benefactor to the Church of Pershore ; and that 
he was regarded not simply as a local benefactor, but also 
as one who held a very high position among men of saintly 
character according to the ideas of the time, is quite clear. 
Florence, the monk of Worcester, in recording Odda's death 
and burial, describes him as "a lover of churches, a comforter 
of the poor, a defender of the widows and fatherless, a helper 
of the oppressed, a guardian of purity." 2 The manuscripts, 
of the Chronicle C and D, compiled probably at Abingdon 
1 Dugdale, Men., ii. 411. 9 M. H. B., 608 c. 



Deerhurst, Pershore, and Westminster. 245 



and Worcester, refer to his death in these words : "This year 
died Earl Odda, and his body lies at Pershore, and he was 
ordained a monk before his death ; " to which the Worcester 
copy adds : "A good man he was, and pure, and right noble." 
No doubt there is in these entries a trace of local Worcester 
enthusiasm for a diocesan hero of saintliness, but it will be 
worth while to enquire into the reasons for the high praise 
given by the Worcester Chronicler, who was a contemporary 
of Odda, and was most likely personally acquainted with 
him: "god man and claene and swithd aethele." 

The title " good " no doubt bears not only the meaning of 
rich in this world's goods, but also one who had so used the 
mammon of unrighteousness which he had inherited from 
^Elfhere as to be an inheritor of the true riches of the 
kingdom of heaven. With us the adjective good has almost 
emancipated itself from this secular meaning, though we still 
say that a man is good for such an amount, but in Old 
English it had very commonly the sense of rich. The epithet 
" clasne " — pure — answers to the " virginitatis custos" of the 
eulogium of Florence, and no doubt refers to the purity of 
his unmarried life. It will be remembered that Leland says, 
that Odda had dedicated himself by a vow of voluntary 
chastity, so that no heir of his should disinherit the churches 
which iElfhere had plundered. "iEthele" — noble — no doubt, 
in its double meaning towards God and towards the world. 
This was a very common thought with Bede, 1 and the words 
in which he describes S. Mellitus, who succeeded S. Augustine 
at Canterbury, might well have served the Worcester Chroni- 
cler for Odda : " Erat carnis origine nobilis, sed culmine 
mentis nobilior." 2 Odda was, as we have seen, most likely 
a descendant of ^Elfhere. Florence of Worcester, in noting 
■ M\i here's death, calls him " Regis Anglorum Eadgari propin- 
quus," 3 which Mr. Freeman takes to mean kindred by the 
mother's side : 4 Odda was therefore of noble birth, but far 

* Plummer, Bede, ii. 90. 
2 Bede, H. E., ii. 7. 3 M . H. B., 580 a. 

± N. C, i. 633. 



246 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



more noble would have seemed to the Worcester monks his 
voluntary chastity and his care for the churches of God. 

Yet, still we seem hardly to have reached the real reason 
for this monkish admiration of Odda. It seems fairly clear 
that he held almost to the time of his death half the estates 
of the Old Minster at Deerhurst and two-thirds of those of 
Pershore, and this conduct might seem to be hardly altogether 
admirable. It is likely that we must go back to the tradition 
recorded by Leland, that Odda on succeeding to the inheritance 
of JE\i here, bearing in mind the evil fate which had befallen 
that robber of churches, had dedicated himself to perpetual 
virginity, and the vow to effect its purpose must most likely 
have been made in early life. There is nothing to show 
precisely the age of Odda, except this, that Elfric, his 
brother, and probably a younger brother, died in 1053, he 
died in 1056, and his sister Edith died apparently towards 
the end of the Confessor's reign. It would seem that the 
two brothers and the sister lived out their allotted span, and 
passed away within a few years of each other. Supposing 
Odda to have lived out his seventy years, he would have 
been born about 986, and would have reached his twenty-first 
year in 1007. And if on entering on his inheritance he had 
restored a portion of the estates of both churches, and had 
retained for himself a life-interest only in the remainder, his 
chastity and his proposed restitution would have excited the 
enthusiastic admiration of any monk. 

The banishment of iElfric, son of iElfhere, would seem to 
have been perpetual, as allusion appears to be made to it in 
two Abingdon charters of the period. In one which is 
undated it is said that "^Elfric cognomento Puer " had taken 
by violence from a widow, Eadfled, three estates, Feornebeorh, 
Wilmaleahtun, and Cyrne, of which the first and last are 
probably Farnborough, near Wantage, and South Cerney. 1 
These estates King Ethelred restored to Abingdon Minster. 
By the other charter, which was granted in 999, King Ethelred 
^bestowed upon Abingdon Minster xv. cassates at Cyrne, 
1 K. C. D., MCCCXII. 



Deerhurst, Pershore, and Westminster. 247 

which "quidam Comes vocitamine iElfric " had stolen form 
a certain matron, Eatflaed. 1 South Cerney appears in 
Domesday as a manor of xiiii. hides and i. virgate, which 
was claimed by Abingdon Abbey, but which had been held 
for the last ten years of the Confessor's reign by Archbishop 
Stigand. In each charter mention is made of a council at 
Cyrneceastre, or Cirencester, at which this plundering iElfric 
was banished ; and as no mention is made of his return, it 
may probably be assumed that he had not come back by 999, 
sixteen years after his departure. His property would no 
doubt have been forfeited on his exile ; and assuming that 
Odda was his heir, it would have been restored to him when 
he came of age, most likely in the first decade of the eleventh 
century. But a man whose grandfather had been the greatest 
robber of churches in his time and who had been eaten of 
worms, and whose father had plundered churches in his turn 
and had been banished, might well take a serious view of his 
responsibilities when he entered on his ill-gotten inheritance; 
and under the circumstances the restitution of a part of the 
stolen lands to the Church, and a vow which would ensure 
the ultimate restitution of the remainder, would be very 
natural. 

But, as we have seen, the remainder did not return to 
the Minsters to which it had belonged, but it passed to the 
Lady Edith, and ultimately to Westminster Abbey ; and it 
will be needful to consider how this came to pass. Odda was 
admitted to the Religious life apparently under the name of 
Agelwin by Aldred, Bishop of Worcester, who in later days 
crowned both Harold and the Conqueror ; but this cannot 
have taken place till nearly the end of his life, for he was 
evidently not a monk when his brother Elfric died. With 
regard to the name Agelwine or iEthelwine, assumed by 
Odda when he became a monk apparently on his death-bed 
— " ante suum mortem monachizatus " are the words of 
Florence of Worcester — we may notice that the great friend 
•and patron of the monks after the death of King Edgar was 
1 K. C. D., DCCIII. 
18 

Vol. XXV. 



248 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



iEthelwine Ealdorman of the East-Angles, who on account 
of his good works was known as " Amicus Dei." As early 
as 969 with the help of S. Oswald he had founded a 
monastery at Ramsey, and on the death of Edgar he 
protected the monasteries in East Anglia from any such 
persecution as that which broke out under ^Elfhere in 
Mercia. He lived until 992, and supposing Odda to have 
been a child of /Elfric the son of ^Elfhere, ^Ethelwine would 
have been of the chief men in England during his early 
years. In any case Odda, in entering the Religious life,, 
might well have chosen the name of one who on account 
of his friendship for the monks was known as "the friend 
of God." 

We do not know the circumstances under which the Deer- 
hurst and Pershore estates of Odda passed into the possession 
of the Lady Edith, but she was not scrupulous in her dealings 
with the lands of the Church. When in 1046 her brother Swegen 
seduced Eadgifu, Abbess of Leominster, the highest lady in 
the land was not above profiting by the ruin which fell upon 
the House, though her mother Gytha had refused to eat the 
fruits of the lands of Berkeley Minster which Godwin, her 
husband, had secularised. 1 In Domesday it is said that 
Queen Edith had held Leominster ; and still in 1086 the 
Abbess held a little manor of only one hide at Fencote, and 
of the £110 which the noble estate of Leominster would 
have yielded if it had been unencumbered one-half was 
retained for the maintenance of the nuns. 2 We notice that,, 
as at Deerhurst, half the estates of the Church remained to 
it, and half were secularised. Other instances of strange 
dealings with Church lands on the part of the Lady are 
mentioned by Mr. Freeman. 3 Still, in the cases of Deerhurst 
and Pershore, her greediness was culpa ; it was far better 
that the lands should pass to S. Peter of Westminster than 
that they should fall into the hands of the spoilers some five 
centuries after Odda's death. It is in consequence of the 
avarice of the last of the Ladies of the English that Odda's 
1 D. B. ( f. 164. 2 D. B., f. 180. 8 N. C, ii. 46. 



Deerhurst, Pershore, and Westminster. 249 



lands are Church lands to-day, as he desired that they 
should be. 

The story which has been drawn out is a strange one, yet 
there is nothing in it which is contrary to the facts of the 
history of the period or the probabilities of that history ; in 
truth, the line of thought is altogether in accordance with 
the tendencies of the time. That lands which had been 
dedicated at Pershore in the seventh century by Oswald, and 
by Ethelric at Deerhurst in the ninth, which in the tenth had 
been made instrumental to the spread of Benedictinism, 
the great enlightening movement of the age, should have 
been secularised by one plunderer of churches and held by 
another, and then restored partly in fact and wholly in 
intention by the heir ; that afterwards the larger part of these 
estates should have been withheld by a woman's greediness, 
which in its turn became the means by which they escaped 
the wasteful plunderers of the Reformation, and are Church 
lands even until now — all this is certainly one of the 
strangest instances of the irony of history. The devotion 
of Oswald and Ethelric, the reforming zeal of S. Oswald, 
the high-handed robbery of ^Elf here and iElfric, the repentant 
piety of Odda, and the callous greediness of the Lady Edith, 
form the strangely-mingled line of good and evil by which 
its noble estates in Worcestershire and Gloucestershire have 
come down to Westminster Abbey. And the story serves to 
show how very much of human interest lies hid under what 
may seem to be only a mouldering mass of charters and 
chronicles. 

There is not very much to be said concerning the estates 
in the charter of 972, for which no definite Domesday 
equivalent can be found. They are as follows : — 

x. Mansi. 



Strengesho 
Cromban ... 
Uihtlafestune 
Fkeferth ... 
Graftune ... 
Hleobyri ... 



v. 
v. 
v. 
ii. 



250 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



Beornothesleahe iii. Mansi. 

Uuiggangeate vi. 

Coltune v. 

Uuigennan x. . ,, 

Of these Cromban is probably represented by Crube 1 in 
the Bishop's Hundred of Oswaldeslau, in Worcestershire, 
where Ordric held 1 hide and Siward held 5 hides; Graftune 
may be represented, at any rate in part, by Grastone, 2 rated 
at 3^ hides, which was a member of the King's great Manor of 
Bremesgraue; while there can be little doubt that Uuigennan 
is represented by Wicuene, 3 rated at 10 hides, now Child's 
Wickham in Gloucestershire. Wicuene had been held in 
King Edward's time by Balduin, no doubt Abbot Baldwin, 
who still held at the date of Domesday half a hide of land at 
Kemerton from Westminster Abbey. The remaining 36 hides 
may very likely to a great extent be included in the excess of 
the hidage attributed to Beolege, Gerlei, Sture, and Bradeweia 
over the number of mansi attributed to the corresponding 
estates in 972. There is little evidence to show when the 
Church lost these estates, but it is clear that Lydney did not 
become a possession of the Crown till the beginning of the 
Conqueror's reign. 4 



1 D. B., f. 173. 2 D. B., f. 172. 3 D. B., f. 168. ± d. B., f. 164. 



LIST OF MONUMENTAL EFFIGIES IN BRISTOL 
AND GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 



(Continued from page 781.) 
Edited by MARY ELLEN BAGNALL-OAKELEY. 



RURAL DEANERY OF CHELTENHAM. 

Deanery— CHELTENHAM. 

COWLEY— Church of St. Mary. 

Date of visit, &c. — M. M. G. April 25, igoi. 

1. (3) Ecclesiastic, (b) Priest in eucharistic vestments. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. Measurement from head to foot, 5 ft. 5 ins.; 
length of slab on which the effigy is resting, 6 ft. 4 ins. 

5. Priest in eucharistic vestments — amice, alb, stole, 
maniple, and chasuble. Amice, high like stiff collar to 
chasuble, showing the strings with which it was tied. Alb r 
full and falling to the feet, only the toe of the left foot 
showing ; the right foot, with part of the head of the lion 
on which the feet are resting, has been broken or cut off ; 
tight sleeves of alb show, and under, the short, tight cuff, 
fastened by three square buttons of the cassock. Stole 
and maniple are of the same width, rather broad ; bands 
about if ins. wide, the ends about 2J ins. Chasuble has 
two deep folds in front, and is rather short, the oval 
coming to a point ; measurement from bottom of alb to 
point of chasuble, 13^- ins. The effigy is much worn, so it 
is impossible to say if there were any embroidery on the 
vestments. 

6. Under head a rectangular cushion with tassels. 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



7. Under feet an animal, much dilapidated, mentioned 
by Atkyns as a " lion couchant." 

8. The effigy is lying on a stone slab under a pointed 
arch. On the chancel wall, near the head of the arch, is a 
small rectangular bracket with hole through it, probably for 
a light. 

9. No inscription ; name and date unknown. 

10. No remains of painting or gilding. 

11. The face of the effigy is much mutilated, the nose 
completely gone and chin broken ; the fingers broken off, only 
the thumbs remaining ; the right foot and part of the head 
of the lion gone. It appears as if a rectangular piece of stone 
had been cut out of the monument with rough tools. 

12. The effigy is in the north side of the chancel, lying 
east and west, with the hands resting on the breast as if 
raised in prayer. 

13. Described in Atkyns' History of Gloucestershire, p. 194; 
also in the Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Archaeological Society, vol. iv. and vol. xx. 

CUBBERLEY— Church of St. Giles. 
Date of visit, &c. — M. M. G. June, 1901. 

I. 

1. (2) Military. Knight in armour cross-legged. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. Knight measures from point of bascinet to 
point of solleret on right foot, 6 ft. 8 ins. 

5. An effigy of a man in armour of the extreme end of 
Edward II. He wears a high-pointed and ridged bascinet, 
to which a plain camail with a fringed lower edge is attached 
at the line of the nostrils by four sunk studs on either side of 
the face, and not hung on in the usual way, as in later years, 
by laces threaded through staples. The dexter shoulder is 
protected by four articulated plates, reinforced by large 
roundels filled in with rosettes, and the arms are encased 



Rural Deanery of Cheltenham. 253 



in plate. The elbows are similarly protected by coudes with 
single articulations, and reinforced with roundels containing 
roses. The forearms are protected in like manner by tubular 
double-hinged and strapped plates. The gauntlets have 
slightly peaked cuffs strapped over leather foundations, .the 
fingers and thumbs being defended by small articulated plates 
on leather, the whole forming a style of gauntlet of which we 
may in vain seek for an original example. A shield, now 
gone, has been suspended on the sinister arm : this appears, 
from certain iron stumps, to have been separately fixed on, 
and may have been of wood, covered with gesso, and painted 
with the wearer's arms. Over the body is worn a surcote 
representing some thin material, probably silk, reaching in 
front to the middle of the thighs, and then cut away until it 
falls in long folds nearly to the ankles behind. The opening 
thus formed in front discloses the lower edges of the following 
garments : — A haketon ornamented with rosettes, and a 
gambeson decorated in the same way and fringed ; below this 
again appears the pourpoint covering of the thighs. There 
is no hauberk visible, unless indeed the fringed garment 
below the haketon may be taken for it, which is improbable. 
The surcote is confined at the waist by a plain narrow 
cingulum, and transversely across the hip is the sword-belt, 
studded at intervals with great rosettes, and to it is attached, 
by a single locket close to the cross-piece, a long sword with a 
well-decorated scabbard. The knee-pieces are plain and 
fringed on the lower edges; the jambs and greaves of plain 
plate, thrice hinged and strapped ; and the feet, shod by four 
articulations, rest against a lion with a vast and flowing tail. 
The heels are armed with spurs of great elegance, with their 
rowels in rare preservation, with long leaf-shaped points. 
The right leg is crossed over the left — a conventional English 
attitude long after the Crusades, with which it has nothing 
to do. With regard to the character of this armour, it is 
clearly by the same sculptor as those at Leckhampton, and 
we have several others in the Western Counties from the 
same workshop. — A. H. 



254 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



6. Under head a square cushion placed diagonally, with 
tassel at top, supported by two angels. 

7. Under feet a lion couchant. 

8. The effigy is carved on a slab, which is now resting 
on "an altar-tomb, with a lady (No. II.) on same tomb. 
These two effigies 1 were formerly in the chancel, one on each 
side of the altar, and were moved to the south chapel, where 
they now lie east and west, by the rector, Rev. C. H.Wilson, 
in 1871, when he restored and partially rebuilt the church. 

9 and 10. No remains of painting or gilding ; no in- 
scription. 

11. The effigy is much worn, but not mutilated, except 
that the point of the left solleret is broken off, the arm of 
the angel on the right broken, and fingers of both angels. 
Features indistinguishable. 

12. Effigy, supposed to represent Sir Thomas de Berkeley. 

13. Engraved in Bigland. Mentioned by Atkyns, Rudge, 
Fosbroke, Rudder, and Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. iv. 

1 5. Atkyns : " There was a chantry in this church, founded 
by Thomas Berkeley in the year 1300, and was dedicated to 
the Virgin Mary." 

II. 

1. (6) Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size, 6 ft. 1 in. from head to bottom of robe. 

5. The lady wears a wimple with the hair in big rolls 
under it, giving a triangular appearance to the head ; the 
wimple is drawn tight round the chin, folded into four pleats; 
a hood is worn over the wimple, with veil hanging to the 
shoulders. A long gown falls in deep folds from the breast ; 
body close-fitting, with tight narrow sleeves fastened under 
the wrist ; over this another long gown with wide elbow- 

1 Atkyns, p. 197, says: "There are two statues in stone, lying cross- 
legged, at the upper end of the chancel." This was probably an error. — 
A.E.H. 



Rural Deanery of Cheltenham. 



255 



sleeves, which hang down in long points as far as the knee. 
Hands resting on breast as if raised in prayer. 

6. Under head two cushions — lower rectangular, upper 
square — set diagonally. 

7. An animal. Only the head and fore-feet seem to have 
been carved ; the rest of the block is left with marks of the 
cutting tool. 

8. Effigy carved on a slab, and placed on the altar-tomb 
beside Sir Thomas de Berkeley. 

9 and 10. No inscription or remains of painting or gilding. 

11. Whole effigy much worn. Top folds of gown, which 
are cut deep, broken off ; head of animal broken ; the features 
of lady worn almost smooth. 

12. Now in south chapel, formerly in chancel. 

13. Engraved in Bigland, i. 407. Mentioned by Rudge, 
Fosbroke, and Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. iv. 

The history of Sir John Berkeley, first Lord of Coberley, 
is given by Sir Henry Barkly in Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc. y 
vol. xvii. pp. 109-121. The name of his first wife, whom 
this effigy is supposed to represent, is not known. Sir John 
died about 1365, aged 76.— W. B. 

in. 

1. (6) Female. 

2. Diminutive recumbent effigy of female. 

3. Stone. 

4. 2 ft. 7£ ins. 

5. She wears a veil, and a long gown draping the feet, 
and is girded with a waist-belt ; a cuffed glove on the 
left hand, the other glove held in the right hand, 

6. Cushion. 

7. Lion. 

8. Lies on floor. 

9 and 10. No inscription or remains of painting or 
gilding. 

12. Now lies in the south chapel, alongside Sir Thomas 
de Berkeley's tomb. 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



13. Described in the Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. iv. 
p. 44. 

14. Fair preservation. 

15. This effigy is one of a very small class concerning 
which antiquaries have not quite made up their minds, the 
question being whether children or adults are intended to 
be represented. The details indicate a person of quality, 
probably a near relation of Thomas de Berkeley and his wife, 
near whose tomb it lies. — Ed. 

IV. 

1. (4) Civilian. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. He wears a tunic with close-buttoned sleeves to the 
wrists, a long gown falling in large folds to the feet, a super- 
tunic opening from the waist downwards, and a hood with 
loose careless folds. A young man is represented with 
regular features, a delicate mouth, and straight under-eyelids, 
that peculiar fashion of Edwardian sculptors. The youth 
wears a profusion of hair, cut square over the forehead, and 
standing out 4^ inches on either side of the face. Hands 
together in prayer. — A. H. 

6. Under head two cushions — lower rectangular, upper 
one square — placed diagonally. 

7. Animal under feet ; but the effigy is much hidden by 
the organ, and it is impossible to see the lower part clearly. 

8. This effigy lies east and west under a trefoiled arch 
in the south wall of south chapel. 

9 and 10. No inscription or remains of painting or gilding. 

11. Much worn. Face mutilated ; only part of the nose left. 

13. Rudge mentions "a female figure under arch in south 
wall" ; but says of this and other effigies in the church, " No 
account can be given of the persons they were intended 
for." Mentioned by Atkyns, " A large statue in a nich in 
the south aisle." 



Rural Deanery of Cheltenham. 



257 



1. (2) Knight in armour. 

2. A semi-effigy carved on a slab in bas-relief. 

3. Stone. 

4. Rather less than life-size. 

5. Head and arms of knight only encased in chain- 
armour. He holds a heart in his hands, with a heater-shaped 
shield behind hiding his body. 

8. This is an interesting memorial of heart-burial, 
probably of a Berkeley lord. It represents a half-figure 
of a knight in mail, holding a heart in front of a heater- 
shaped shield, the whole being set within a trefoiled arch 
under a plain gable, and apparently forming part of a 
credence. This has been removed from the north to the 
south side. — A. H. 

9 and 10. No inscription or remains of painting or gilding. 

12. Supposed to represent Sir Giles de Berkeley, whose 
heart was interred at this church and his body at Little 
Malvern. 

13. Described by Mr. Hartshorne in Trans. B. and G. 
Arch. Soc, vol. iv. p. 247. Engraved in Lyson's Gloucester- 
shire, plate i., and in Bigland's Gloucestershire Collections, vol. vi. 
P- 205. 

DOWDESWELL— Church of St. Michael. 
Date of visit, &c. — M. M. G. June, 1901. 

I. 

1. (4) Civilian. 

2. Bust. 

3. Marble. 

4. Life-size. Too high up on wall to measure. 

5. This effigy represents the bust of a man, wearing a 
frilled shirt open at the neck, falling over a waistcoat fastened 
by three buttons. A scarf is draped over the shoulders. 

8. The bust rests on a small pedestal, under which is 
a tablet bearing an inscription ; over it an arch supported by 
two Corinthian pillars ; on the top of the arch two winged, 



258 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



naked children ; between the children, over the top of th& 
arch, the arms of Rogers. 

Arms: "Arg. a mullet sa., on a chief gu. a fleur de lis. 
or." (Rogers of Dowdeswell). — F. W. 

Crest : A fleur de lis (or). 

Motto : " Vigila et ora." 

9. Inscription on tablet : — 

HIC PROPE IACET 
GULIELMUS ROGERS, 
ARMIGER, 

MAGISTRORUM CURIAE CANCELLARI^E, NUPER PRIMUS. 
OBIIT NONO DIE APRILIS, A.D. I734. 
^ETAT SUJE 76. 

CHRISTIANS RELIGIONIS VERITATEM FIRMITER CREDENS, 

OMNI SUPERSTITIONE 1 VEHEMENTER ABHORRENS, 

DEI UNITATEM RELIGIOSE COLENS, 

CHRISTI REDEMPTIONEM STRENUE EXPECTANS, 

JUSTUM ET HONESTUM UTILI ANTEFERENS. 

10. No painting or gilding. 

11. In very good condition, except that the fingers of both 
cherubs are broken off. 

12. On north wall of chancel. 

13. The first part of the inscription is given by Bigland 
in his Gloucestershire Collections, i. 485. 

A pedigree of Rogers of Dowdeswell, Haresfield, and 
Okie Clifford is given in the Heralds 1 Visitation of Gloucester- 
shire, 1682-3, edited by Fitzroy Fenwick, 1884, p. 145. 
William Rogers, son of Richard Rogers of Dowdeswell, is 
there described as of Lincoln's Inn, oct. circa 22 et ccel. 1682.. 
He died a bachelor. — W. B. 

LECKHAMPTON— Church of St. Peter. 

Date of visit, &c. — M. M. G. May and June, 1901.. 

1. (2) Military. Knight in armour. 

2. Recumbent, cross-legged effigy. 

3. Stone. 

1 Bigland and Rudder give "omnem superstitionem," but " omni, 
superstitione " is probably right. — W. B. 



Rural Deanery of Cheltenham. 259 



4. Life-size. From point of bascinet to toe of right foot, 
■6 ft. 4 ins. 

5. This effigy wears an elaborate costume of the early 
part of the reign of Edward III., with the very uncommon 
additions of mamellieres or chains from the breast to the 
sword-hilt and scabbard. The high, pointed bascinet and 
the fringed camail, hauberk, and genouilleres are remarkable; 
and it would appear that these fringed garments are rather 
peculiar to the Western Counties. The occurrence of the 
cross-legged attitude so long after the Crusades is a sufficient 
proof, if any were needed, that the position is a mere conven- 
tionality. There are no cross-legged effigies on the Continent. 1 
—A. H. 

Description of Costume : Mixture of chain and plate 
armour — bascinet, camail, brassarts and jambs, and long 
surcote. Bascinet very conical ; epaulieres and coudes with 
a double rose carved on them ; gauntlets with articulated 
fingers and short cuffs- coming over the armour, with tassels 
hanging from the point of each cuff. The hauberk is orna- 
mented with a fringe round the top and bottom, and the 
genouillieres are also fringed. The knight wears a long 
surcote, reaching nearly to the feet, cut away in front ; a 
long sword, and a heater-shaped shield. A broad belt 
goes over the right shoulder, supporting the shield ; the 
belt is ornamented with five-pointed stars enclosed in circles. 
To this belt is attached, on the left breast, a long chain, 
which falls across the sword-belt and appears to be 
attached to the scabbard of the sword. A similar 
chain is attached to the surcote on the right breast, and 
also falls below the sword-belt, and then crosses the one 
falling from the left breast and is attached to the hilt of the 
long sword. The sword-belt is ornamented with five- 
petalled roses in circles, and crosses ; it is attached to the 
scabbard by a large ring. On the right side there is 
something attached to the sword-belt, which looks like the 
handle of a dagger broken off. The sword scabbard, reaching 
1 Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, iv. 246. 



260 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



to the feet, is carved with a trefoil and two trefoil-headed 
arches. The large heater-shaped shield on the left arm 
partially conceals the hilt of the sword. The spurs have 
large rowels. The hands meet on the breast, and are raised 
as if in prayer ; the right leg is crossed over the left. 

6. Under head a square cushion, placed diagonally, 
with tassel on the top corner ; the cushion supported by 
two angels. 

7. Under feet a lion. 

8. Effigy on a plain stone slab, resting on another large 
stone slab raised about two feet from the ground, made to 
hold this effigy and that of a lady, the knight's wife. Shield 
so worn, no trace of coat of arms. 

9. No inscription. Sir R. Atkyns speaks of them as 
being "of the family of the Giffards." 

10. No remains of painting or gilding. 

11. In fairly good preservation. The nose broken, and 
tips of fingers broken off ; parts of the shield are roughly 
chipped off, as if to make room for the effigy of the lady 
lying alongside ; toes of both feet broken off ; angels support- 
ing cushion at head broken off as far as arms. 

12. Now lying east and west, against the south wall of 
the south aisle. Mr. Middleton says that the tomb was 
originally on the north side of an altar in the south aisle,, 
against the eastern nave respond. 

13. Illustrated and described by Albert Hartshorne in 
Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. iv. plate vi. ; also described 
shortly in the same volume by J. Henry Middleton, F.S.A. 
Mentioned by Atkyns, p. 278, and by Rudder, p. 522. 
Illustrated and elaborately coloured in Hefner's Trachten as 
" Ritter John Gifford." 

14. In fairly good preservation. No traces of painting 
now, but Mr. Middleton says : " Both figures (the knight and 
lady) have been decorated with painting." 

15. The Manor of Leckhampton was held in capite by the 
service of performing the office of steward at the great 
festivals of Christmas, Easter, and Whitsuntide. [Sir John 



Rural Deanery of Cheltenham. 261 

Gifford died, seized of the manor, 3rd Edward III. (1327).} 
—Ed. 

II. 

1. (6) Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. From top of head to bottom fold of robe,. 
5 ft. 10 ins. 

5. The lady wears a wimple, veil,, long robe and cloak. 
The folds of the wimple are fastened by two pins under the 
chin ; over it is a veil, also fastened by large pins at each 
side of the head. A frilled cap is worn between the wimple 
and veil. The robe is made tight in the body, long and full in 
the skirt, no fastening in front. The sleeves are tight, and 
fastened under the wrist ; I think laced, but the stone is 
worn so much that it is impossible to say ; the sleeves of an 
under-dress show. Over this robe is worn a cloak, which 
falls to the feet, and is fastened across the breast by a cord 
with hanging tassels. The feet are hidden by the folds of 
the robe, but the robe is carved so as to suggest the pointed 
toes of the feet, beneath the dress. 

6. Under the head two cushions, supported by angels. 
The lower cushion, square, evidently had tassels at each 
corner, but knocked off two corners ; upper cushion square,, 
placed diagonally, no tassels. 

7. Under feet a dog, with long, drooping ears. 

8. The effigy is on a stone slab separate from that of 
the knight, which it is laid alongside of. Both effigies are laid 
on a large stone slab, raised about 2 feet from the floor. 

9. No inscription. Said to be Lady GifFord, wife of 
Sir F. Gifford. 

10. No remains of painting or gilding. 

11. The face is slightly mutilated, the nose broken; 
both hands broken off to the wrist; the dog's, head broken 
off; heads of both angels supporting cushions broken off. 

12. Now lying in the south aisle of the church, against 



262 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



the south wall ; formerly on the north side of an altar in the 
south aisle, against the eastern nave respond. 

13. Illustrated and described by Albert Hartshorne in 
Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. iv. plate vi. p. 247. Men- 
tioned by Atkyns, p. 278, and by Rudder, p. 522. 

14. In good preservation, but no traces of the painting 
with which Mr. Middleton says the effigy was formerly 
decorated. 

III. 

1. (3) Ecclesiastic, (b) Priest in eucharistic vestments. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. From head to foot, 6 ft. 3^- ins. 

5. Priest in eucharistic vestments — amice, alb, chasuble. 
The effigy is much worn, and all sign of stole and maniple is 
worn away. The hands are raised, holding a chalice or heart. 
[Stole showed when my sketch was made.— Ed.] 

6. Under head a rectangular cushion. 

7. Under feet an animal, looks like a dog. 

8. The effigy is lying on a plain stone slab, raised about 
2 feet from the floor. 

9 and 10. No inscription or remains of painting or gilding. 

11. Very much worn; the stone, full of small holes, very 
weather- beaten ; head of animal at feet broken off. 

12. Now lying south and north under the west window 
in the north aisle of the church ; formerly in the churchyard. 

13. Illustrated and described by Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley in 
T rans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. ix., plate v. 

IV. 

There are four other effigies in Leckhampton churchyard, 
all very much worn. 

Two, life-size, under two yew-trees on the north side of 
the church. One — remarkably long, 6 ft. 10 ins. from head 
■to foot — so much worn that it is impossible to say what it 



Rural Deanery of Cheltenham. 



263 



lias represented. The other is shorter, and not quite so much 
worn : it appears to be a female figure in long flowing robe ; 
head resting on a rectangular cushion, feet on an animal ; 
length from head to bottom of robe, 5 ft. 7 ins. Both these 
effigies are on the ground. 

Two other effigies are on the ground in the west part of 
the churchyard. One has the head knocked off ; animal at 
feet ; very much worn, but I think it is a female figure with 
robe falling to the feet ; length from neck to bottom of dress, 
4 ft. 9 ins. The other effigy is much dilapidated, but I think 
it has been the full-length effigy of a man in a short tunic 
and tight hose. The effigy has been broken off just below 
the end of the coat ; and there are excrescences, evidently 
the legs clad in hose. The head rests on a rectangular 
cushion, with hair falling over and below the ears, finishing 
in a row of stiff curls at each side. Length of the effigy 
from top of head to bottom of broken bit of leg, 4 ft. 11 ins. 



WHITTINGTON— (Dedication of Church unknown). 

I. 

1. (2) Knight in armour. 

2. Recumbent effigy, with legs crossed. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. From head to foot, 6 ft. 7 ins. 

5. Wears surcote of great length, hauberk and quilted 
gambeson, and a peculiar protection or facing-piece over the 
brow and temple ; this protection is a little over an inch 
wide, and appears as if it had been made of plate. Sword 
of great length, cross-hilt and pommel ; the sheath of the 
misericorde shows beneath the shield; both hands grasp 
the sword, 

6. Under head two cushions, the upper square, set 
diagonally on the lower rectangular one. 

7. Under feet a lion couchant. 

8. No tomb or canopy. 

19 

"Vol. XXV. 



264 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



9. Upon a long shield are the arms of a member of the 
Crupes family: 1 "Argent vi. mascles de goules un label de 
azure." 2 It will be observed that fusils, and not mascles, are 
shown on the shield, which was doubtless a blunder on the 
part of a local sculptor. — A. H. 

The shield may have been painted; but Croupes of Dorset 
bore ''Argent six lozenges, 2, 1, 2, 1, gules a label of three 
points azure." — F. W. 

10. Has been painted, or gesso ornament. 

11. No remains of painting or gesso. Features much 
worn ; nose and both feet broken ; the lower part of left side 
of shield broken, and one fusil and lambrequin knocked off. 

12. Now on the floor, on a stone slab in the south aisle; 
formerly on the south side of chancel, under a square opening 
between transept and chancel. The effigy was removed to 
the south aisle in 1872, when the church was restored. 

13. Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. iv. p. 245, plate v. ; 
Atkyns, p. 428. 

15. Represents Richard de Crupes, died 1278. He pos- 
sessed the Manor of Whittington in the time of Henry III.. 
See Mr. A. Hartshorne in Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. iv. 

II. 

1. (2) Knight in armour. 

2. Recumbent effigy with legs crossed. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. From head to foot, 6 ft. 4^ ins. 

5. Wears surcote — a little shorter than No. I., and folded" 
in round pleats, whilst No. I. is folded flat — hauberk and 
gambeson, and, like the last, has an extra protection over the 
brow and temple. Sword similar; end of misericorde sheath 
just shows beneath the shield. 

6. Under head two cushions, lower rectangular, upper 
square, placed diagonally. 

1 Rudder, p. 816, says : "A large shield upon the left arm, bearing six 
lozenges or, 3, 2, 1." 

* Roll of arms, t. Edw. II. — A. H. ' - 



Rural Deanery of Cheltenham. 265 



7. Under feet a dog with long, hanging ears. (Atkyns 
says " a lion couchant.") 

8. No tomb or canopy; effigy lies on plain slab. 

9. Same shield as No. I. ; the six fusils and label intact, 
and the shield about 4 inches narrower. 

10. Has been decorated or gesso. 

11. Figure well preserved, but features only just dis- 
tinguishable; head of dog broken. 

12. In south aisle, on a stone slab on the floor; lay 
formerly under square opening between south transept 
(? aisle) and chancel ; removed to its present position in 
1872. 

13. Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. iv. p. 243; Atkyns, 
p. 428. 

14. Spur broken off, and head of dog ; no remains of 
painting or gesso. 

15. Son of the last, and also named Richard de Crupes ; 
died after 13 16. 

III. 

1. (6) Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. From head to foot, 5 ft. 6 ins. 

5. Wears long gown and wimple; hair done in tight rolls 
above the ears, in fashion that gives three-cornered appear- 
ance to head ; hands resting on breast, raised as if in prayer. 

6. Under head two cushions, set diagonally, with knobs 
at the corners. 

7. Nothing at feet. A portion of the slab under the left 
foot has been cut away in a manner that suggests that the 
end of the slab formerly rested against a pillar ; the stone 
below the right foot is rough and unfinished. 

8 and 9. Now lies on a slab on the floor of the south 
aisle of the church, and was there in 1868, when the Rev.: 
A. Lawrence received the living. (No sign of the altar-tomb; 
described, except that in the chancel under the south window/ 



266 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



let into the wall, is a slab which has every appearance of 
having formed the side of a tomb. On it there are three 
long heater-shaped shields under three trefoiled arches, the 
arms of the Crupes twice repeated, and a barry of six 
between.) 

10. No remains of painting or gesso. 

1 1 . Fingers and right foot broken ; crack from left shoulder 
through the arms to about the waist. 

12. In south aisle. 

13. Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. iv. p. 246. Atkyns, 
428, says : " In the north wall, in a nich, is a portraiture 

of a woman with the same coat of arms," no doubt the slab 
mentioned above. — A. E. H. 

14. Much worn; folds of dress chipped, and right foot 
broken off. 

15. Probably the wife of one of the Crupes. 

WITHINGTON— Church of St. Michael. 
Date of visit, &c. — M. M. G. July, 1901. 

I. AND II. 

1. (2) Knight (?) in armour and (6) Lady. 

2. Busts. 

3. Marble. 

4. Life-size. Too high on wall to measure. 

5. This monument represents the busts of a man in 
armour and lady. 

The man is bare-headed ; wears a breastplate, pauldrons 
of several plates and brassarts ; turned-down collar and cuffs 
of leather under-coat show over the armour ; a fringed scarf 
is taken over the right shoulder across the breast ; a mantle 
falling over the left shoulder and arm conceals the armour. 
The man's right hand rests on a book, left on an hour-glass. 

£The lady wears a dress high at the neck, with narrow 
lace collar and narrow lace down the front, a lace fichu 
folded over the shoulders, and deep lace cuffs. The hair is 
worn in a straight fringe, and curls to the neck. 



Rural Deanery of Cheltenham. 267 



8. Below the busts are the effigies in bas-relief of five 
sons and three daughters, kneeling facing each other, with a 
desk between — sons on right, daughters on left. The two 
elder sons are clad in armour similar to the father, with 
tassets of four plates ; the other three in long coats with 
turned-down collars, and mantles falling back from shoulders. 
The youngest has the left arm resting on a skull. 

Daughters : First has a veil over head, falling behind far 
below the knee ; long coat with deep-falling collar and cuffs 
edged with lace and full sleeves, worm over full skirt ; holds 
open book towards her brothers. Second daughter's veil 
much shorter ; bodice tight below the waist, full skirt attached, 
deep collar and wide sleeves ; right hand raised resting on 
breast, left holds a handkerchief. These two have the hair 
dressed similar to the mother. Third daughter wears a stiff 
cap, fitting close to the head, with a border ; dress similar 
to second daughter ; very little hair showing. 

The busts of the man and lady are placed in a deep 
recess in the south wall of church ; a round arch over 
each recess, over each arch the arms of the man and lady 
respectively ; between the arches the same arms impaled, 
with the respective crests. A Corinthian (?) pillar on each 
side of monument. 

Arms : " Or, a fesse between three wolves' heads couped 
sable," for Howe, impaling " Per pale sa. and gu., a cross 
botonny [Rudder says fitchy] between four fleurs de lis or,'* 
for Rich. 

9. Inscription on tablet given by Rudder, p. 840 : — 

Bridgett, one of the daughters of Tho: Rich of North 
Cerney in this County of Glouc. Esq: one of the Masters of 
the Highe Court of Chauncery, and Anne his wife one of the 
daugh rs and coheires of Thomas Bourchier of Barnesly in 
the said County Esq: the 23 July 1620 was married to John 
Howe of Little Compton in this parish Esq; nephewe and 
heire of Sir Richard Grobham of Create Wishford in J Coun. 
of Wiltes K* deceased: with whom shee lived a vertuous and 



268 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



lovinge wife 21 yeares and a xi moneths and had issue 9 
children (viz) first — 

Richard Grobham Howe, born y e 28 th of August 1621, 
who married Lucie one of the daughters of S r John 
S* John of Lyddiard Tregoze in the said county of 
Wiltes, K* and Barrt. 

2 ly John Grobham Howe, borne y e 25 th of January 
1624, who married Annabella, one of y e daughters and 
coheires of Emanuele late Earle of Sunderland. 

3 dly December ye 4 th 1626 Susanna was borne, who 
married John Ernie of Berry Towne in the said county 
of Wilts, Esqr. 

4 ly the third day of March 1629, Thomas Grobham 
Howe was borne. 

5 ly the 13 th day of June 1630, William Howe was 
borne, slayne at Limbrick in the kingdom of Ireland. 

6 ly the 4 th of March 1632, Anne Howe was borne, 
who dyed very younge and lyeth heere buryed. 

7 ly the 21 th day of December 1633, Elizabeth Howe 
was borne, nowe the wife of Thomas Chester of Aunls- 
bury in this county Esq 1- . 

8 ly the 22 nd of October 1635, George Howe was borne, 
who died young and lyeth buried at Wishford in y e vault. 

9 ly the 27 th of November 1637, Charles Howe was 
borne. 

And on the 15 th day of June 1642, Annoquse yEtatis 
Suae 46; left them to the protection of the Almighty and 
her own Mortality to this Earth, expectinge a joyfull 
Resurrection. 

10. The monument is painted black behind all the effigies; 
in several places there are remains of gilt lines on the marble 

11. No mutilations. 

12. The monument is placed on the south wall of the 
church, at the west end of the nave. 

13. Monument mentioned by Atkyns under head " Comp- 
ton Abdale," p. 191, " Sir John How was created baronet in 
September, Car. II., and lyes buried under an handsome 
monument in the church of Withington." 



Rural Deanery of Cheltenham. 



269 



14. Good condition. 

John Howe and his wife Bridget were the ancestors 
•of Lord Chedworth. (See Collins's Peerage, 1756, vol. v., 
pp. 401-408.). — W. B. 

III. 

1. (3) Ecclesiastic, (b) Priest in eucharistic vestments. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. From head to bottom of alb, 6 ft. 3 ins. 

5. Priest in eucharistic vestments — amice, alb, chasuble, 
stole and maniple. The effigy is much worn, but it is just 
possible to distinguish the various vestments. The stiff 
collar of the amice stands away from the neck, alb falls in 
folds over the feet ; the chasuble is much worn, but it seems 
to end in front about 10 inches from bottom of alb, and to 
fall to the feet behind ; there is a slight indication of the stole 
on the right side, but none on left ; by scraping away the moss 
with which the effigy is overgrown, I was able to clearly 
distinguish the maniple with its broad fringed ends. 

6. Under head a rectangular cushion. 

7. Under feet an animal, much defaced, but seems to be 
a dog. 

8. On a plain slab, lying on the ground. 

9 and 10. No inscription or remains of painting or gilding. 

11. The whole emgy is much worn and weather-beaten, 
overgrown with moss ; the face quite flat ; stiff collar of 
amice broken away, only a little of it left sufficient to show 
what it is. 

12. Lies in the churchyard on the ground, east and west, 
against south wall of chancel. 

13. Atkyns says : " On the south side outside the chancel is 
the portraiture of a woman carved in stone, lying at length, 
with a dog at her feet." This is the position now occupied 
by the efBgy just described, and there is no other now 
in the churchyard. 



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[There is no doubt this is the effigy described by Atkyns 
as that of a female — an error he has made in several cases. — 
Ed.] 

RURAL DEANERY OF CIRENCESTER. 

Reported by Mrs. C. Bowly. 
CIRENCESTER, CHURCH OE ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 

I. ■ ' 

SIR WILLIAM MASTER, KNT., DIED l66l. 

1. (4) Civilian. 

2. Recumbent effigy, resting on left arm. 

3. Marble, white. 

4. Life-size. 

5. Low-necked under-garment ; bare neck and one arm ; 
long, loose over-garment. Holds book in right hand. 

6. Lying on a mattress. 

8. On a raised tomb with panels in front. 

9. See Bigland, p. 365, and Rudder, p. 364. 

11. Nose partly gone. 

12. South wall, St. Mary's Chapel. 

13. Bigland and Rudder as above. 

14. Condition good. 

15. Sir William Master was distinguished for his loyalty 
to Charles I., who rested at his house on two occasions. 

II. and III. 

HUMFRY BRIDGES AND WIFE ELIZABETH. 

1. (4) and (6) Civilian and lady. 

2. Recumbent effigies on slab. 
3> Painted freestone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. Man, habit of a lawyer. Gown of striped material 
edged with fur ; small frills round hands, and ruff round 
neck ; full breeches, tied with bow at knee ; stockings, and 



Rural Deanery of Cirencester. 



low, thick shoes with bows. The wife has high hat with 
ribbon round; tight cap under, no hair to be seen; bows 
down the front of bodice ; ruff. 

6. Large square cushions for heads to rest on. 

8. Canopy and raised tomb, with eight daughters and one 
son on panels below. 

9. Bigland, p. 364; Rudder, p. 364. 

"He dyed the 17 th of April, 1598. She dyed the 6 of 
July, 1620." 

" He gave 40/- yearly for ever to the poore of this towne. 
She gave 6 habitations for 6 poore widdowes with 6/- weekly 
for ever." 

In miniature at bottom are figures of eight daughters and 
one son. 

A young man kneels at head, " Humfrid 8 Fil. fin de Medio 
Templo obyt 2 Decemb. 1610." Over a like figure kneeling 
at the feet, " Anthon Fil jun de Medio Templo. obyt 2 Aug. 
1617." 

10. Painted natural colour. 

11. Good condition. 

12. St. Mary's Chapel, north-east corner. 

13. Bigland and Rudder as above. 

14. Good condition. 

IV. and V. 

GEORGE MONOX AND WIFE MARIA, DIED 1638. 

1. (4) and (6) Civilian and lady. 

2. Kneeling figures, with hands joined together over 
altar (?). Raised-tomb with canopy. 

3. Marble. 

4. Life-size. 

5. (iv.) Full gown with short sleeves, waistcoat and out- 
side of sleeve embroidered ; small ruffles to wrists, with plain 
turned-back cuffs ; long waistcoat, with tags round waist ; 
ruffs at neck, (v.) Lady's veil with lace at edge ; ruff at 
neck and plain, full cuffs (muslin) turned back at wrist. 



272 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



6. Cushions to kneel on. Two daughters kneeling over 
tomb below. 

8. Arms of Monox and Perry : " Argent on a chevron 
sable between three oak-leaves vert as many bezants, on a 
chief gules a dove" (Sir J. Maclean, "seamew") "between 
two anchors erect or" (Monox), impaling "Argent on a bend 
sable three pears or, in sinister chief a quatrefoil ..." 
(Perry). On top shield probably with Monox alone, helmet 
and crest. — F. W. See Bigland, p. 368 ; Rudder, p. 363. 

12. St. John's Chapel, south-west corner; removed from 
opposite corner. 

13. Bigland, p. 368; Rudder, p. 363. 

14. Condition good. 

15. "From a certain ease in the attitude and draperies, 
joined to somewhat of frippery and affectation, the sculptor 
was probably of the school of Bernini." — History of Cirencester, 
Benham, 1842. 

IV. 

1. (3&) Ecclesiastical. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Slate. 

4. Full size. 

5. Priest in eucharistic vestments. 

6. Broken away. 

7. Bird with curious tail, one foot in mouth. 

8. On plain slab. 

9 and 10. No inscription, painting or arms. 

11. The hands only just show where they were; some 
object between them. 

12. In window between St. Mary's and St. Catherine's 
Chapels. 

13. Not illustrated or mentioned in County Histories. 

14. Bad condition ; head gone. Much worn on top. 

V. 

1. (4) Civilian. 

2. Recumbent effigy of layman; probably top of tomb. 



Rural Deanery of Stapleton. 



273 



3. Stone. 

4. Life-size (small man). 

5. A long garment with large arm-holes, showing sleeves 
of under-gown, and entirely covering the figure, even the 
feet ; a purse at the side. Probably a merchant. 

6. Two pillows under the head. 

7. The feet rest against a bracket. 

11. Very much worn; effect of beard given by dark stain 
in stone. Probably been in the air and weathered at some 
time. * 

12. North side of the Chapel of St. Nicholas and 
St. Catherine. 

13. Not illustrated or described. 

14. Condition, worn ; no nose, face rubbed down, hand 
gone. Evidently an old man: neck thin and skinny; head 
bald, with a little hair on side. 

15. "The recumbent figure has always been said to be 
that of Richard Osmund (died 1517), being so mentioned in 
1678 in Antony a' Wood's Itinerary." — Fuller, Cir. Ch. 

RURAL DEANERY OF STAPLETON. 
Reported by F. F. Tuckett, Esq. 
ALMONDSBURY, ST. MARY THE VIRGIN. 
I. and II. 

1. (2) Military, (6) Lady, on one slab. 

2. Recumbent effigies. 

3. Stone. 

4. On a slab recline the life-sized effigies (length, 
5 ft. 11 ins. and 5 ft. 10 ins. respectively) of Edward Veele, 
Esq., obiit 1577, and his wife Katherine, obiit 1575. 

5. The male figure is bare-headed, and wears enormous 
pauldrons, brassarts of several pieces, breastplate, a divided 
skirt of mail over trunk hose, jambs, genouilleres, broad 
sollerets, and spurs. The lady wears the head-dress known 
as a Paris head, stomacher and small ruff, full padded 



274 



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sleeves, a sash round waist with short ends, and very 
full skirt. 

6. His head rests on a calf, and hers on a cushion with 
tassels supported by a wheatsheaf, crests of the Veele family. 

8. In the south aisle is the fine Elizabethan tomb (length, 
9 ft. 1 in.; breadth, 5 ft. 5 ins.; height, 3 ft. 11 ins.) with stone 
canopy supported by six fluted Ionic columns and two 
pilasters about 5 feet high. Elaborate cornice mouldings 
support in turn a pediment with a large central panel bearing 
arms, coroneted and helmeted, with a crest, above which is a 
death's head finished with a cross. 

In the three panels below the slab are the figures of 
one male and four females, adult children of Edward and 
Katherine Veele, with initials. Their names are — Edward ; 
Margaret, wife of Anthony Bradston ; Elizabeth, wife of 
Thomas Pym ; Agnes, wife of Thomas Elkington ; and 
Susan, wife of John Large. 

These Veeles were a branch of the Tortworth family, 
and their pedigree is given in the Heralds' Visitation of Glou- 
cestershire, 1623, p. 172. Katherine Veele was the daughter 
of John Holloway. 

The Veele arms as given in the Visitation are: Quarterly 
of six — 1 and 6, "Argent on a bend sable three calves passant 
or" (Veele); 2, "Quarterly or and gules, in the first quarter 
a lion passant guardant azure" (Masey) ; 3, "Sable a lion 
rampant doubly queued or " (Kingston) ; 4, " Gules two bars 
and in chief a lion passant or, an annulet for difference " 
(Vyel) ; 5, "Argent a fesse raguly gules between three 
annulets sable " (Torrington). 

Crest : A garb or enfiled with a ducal coronet gules. 

Motto : " Face aut Face." 

Edward Veele was lord of the Manor of Over, in this 
parish. 

On the east and west ends of the base supporting the 
slab with the effigies are two panels between Ionic pilasters, 
each bearing a coat of arms. 

Veele shield: — Quarterings : 1, "(Argent) on a bend 



Rural Deanery of Stapleton. 



275 



(sable) three calves passant (or)" (Veele) ; 2, "(Or) a chief 
(azure) and label of five points .(? argent) " (Le Sore) ; 
3, " (Gules) a chevron between ten crosses patty, 4, 2, 1, 2, 1 
(argent)" (Berkeley); 4, "Quarterly (or and gules), in first 
quarter a lion ? passant guardant (azure) " (Massy) ; 5, " . . . 
three lozenges, 2 and 1 ..." (query); 6, "(Sable) a lion 
rampant doubly queued (or) " (Kingston) ; 7, " (Or) a lion 
rampant (sable) crowned (gules) " (Clevedon) ; 8, " (Argent) 
a fess raguly (gules) between three roundles, each charged 
with one of the same," really "three, annulets (sable)" 
(Vyell) ; 9, " (Gules) two bars and in chief a lion passant 
(or), an annulet for difference" (Torrington). — F. W. 

9. Against the wall, on a tablet beneath the canopy, is 
the following inscription in capital letters : — 

HERE LYETH THE BODIES OF 
EDWARD VEELE ESQVIER, WHO 
WAS BVRIED THE 9 OF SEP. 1577. 
AND OF KATHERINE HYS WIFE 
WHO DEPARTED THIS LYFE 
THE 7 OF NOVEM.:. 1575 ■:• 
MAK'APIOI '01 NEKFOI. AnO. 14. 
QVIS VIR ITA VIVAT VT NON 
VIDEAT MORTEM. PSAL. 89. 
ALL FLESH YS GRASS. ESA. 40. 

13. Atkyns (2nd edition), p. no; Rudder, pp. 224-5. 

III. 

Near to the Veele tomb, on the floor, is a slab bearing an 
-effigy in low relief almost obliterated, and with an inscription 
which it is difficult, if not impossible, to decipher. It has 
been supposed to represent a former Vicar. 

IV. 

In a corresponding position in the north aisle is another 
similar and equally effaced effigy, without inscription. As 
to one of these (the second is not referred to) Atkyns says : 
44 The figure is supposed to be an abbot of St. Austin's." 



276 



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The other has, at any rate locally, the credit of representing 
"Alcmond, father of King Egbert," from whom the name 
Almondsbury (Alcmondsbury) is said to be derived. 

[Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley thinks that these two monuments 
have had a cross of some kind, and a human head or device 
in the centre of it.] 

MANGOTSFIELD, CHURCH OF ST. JAMES. 

1. (2) Military, and (6) Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigies. 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 

5. In a paper on "The Effigies of Mangotsfield, Glou- 
cestershire," by Lieut. -Col. J. R. Bramble, F.S.A., V.-P., in 
the Proceedings of the Clifton Antiquarian Club, 1898, part xi., 
vol. iv., part 2, p. 154, occurs the following description of 
these mutilated effigies, together with an illustration of 
the male figure ; and six small photographs of different 
portions of the fragments thereof will be found in the History 
of Mangotsfield and Downend, by the Rev. A. Emlyn Jones : — 

" These effigies, evidently a pair, are somewhat coarsely 
executed in oolite, or Bath stone. The male effigy is in 
armour, but all the figure below the middle of the hips, as 
well as the whole of the right arm and the left arm from 
above the elbow, are missing. The armour is that of the 
third quarter of the fifteenth century. The head is covered 
with a pointed bascinet, with wreath ; the throat and upper 
part of the breast are covered with a gorget of overlapping 
plates ; there is a breastplate with a taput or strengthening 
plate pointed upwards, a square (or shield-shaped) pollette 
protecting the armpits. Below the waist there is a skirt of 
taces, seven in number, attached to the lower of which are 
two small tuilles only slightly rounded on the lower side : 
they are of an early type. 

"The sword-belt is worn transversely across the hips, 
and is richly ornamented. Round the bascinet is a fillet of 



Rural Deanery of Stapleton. 



277 



squares, each charged with a four-leaved flower, and round 
the neck is a collar of S S. 

" There are two special details in the armour : (1) A late 
instance of a transverse sword-belt occurring with a style of 
arms usually associated with a diagonal belt ; (2) An early 
instance of tuilles attached to a skirt of taces. 

" Apart from historical evidence, I should have been 
inclined to date the armour 1455-60. I am informed, how- 
ever, that there was formerly attached to the monument a 
coat of arms bearing Blount quartering Seymour, and that 
Edmund Blount, who married Margaret Seymour and first 
brought the Seymour wings into the family, died in 1468. 
The next in the pedigree, Simon Blount, who died 1477, is 
decidedly later than the armour represented, and was a 
much younger man (25). It is, I think, a fair assumption 
that the effigy represents Edmund Blount, whose age at 
death was 62. In saying this, I have not overlooked the 
fact that he should have impaled and not quartered the 
Seymour arms." 

The female effigy is habited in a long, full gown belted 
under the breasts, and without cloak or robe over. The 
headdress is horned or mitred, with short veil resting on 
a pillow. The dress may well be 1460-70. The details of 
ornament correspond with those of the male effigy. 

6. The knight's head rests on a tilting helmet surmounted 
with a crest — a sea-lion, the crest of the Blounts. 

A note by the Editor of the Proceedings, A. E. Hudd, Esq., 
gives an account of the notorious " Shipway frauds," by 
H. Davies, which have added a special and sensational 
interest to these effigies, 
11. Mutilated. 

13. In the Proceeedings of the Clifton Antiquarian Cliib. See 
above. 

15. Rudder, p. 537, says that there are two effigies in 
stone at full length, and well preserved, and supposed to be 
designed for some of the family of the Blounts. 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



WESTBURY-ON-TRYM HOLY TRINITY. 
I. 

1. Ecclesiastical, (cadaver). 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. About life-size. 

8. Under an arch opening from the chancel into the 
south aisle, and beneath a modern canopy-tomb (length, 
7 ft. logins.; breadth, 2 ft. n£ ins.; height of table from 
base, 3 ft.) erected in 1853 by Oriel College, Oxford, lies the 
effigy (cadaver), without arms or original inscription, of 
Dr. John Carpenter, Bishop of Worcester, obiit 1476. Round 
the slab forming the top of the canopy is the following 
inscription : — 

" Subtus olim sepultus est Dominus Johannes Carpenter 
sanctae Theologiae Professor Academiae Oxoniensis quondam 
Chancellarius Collegii Orielensis Prepositus Vigorniae et 
hujus Ecclesiae XXXIII. Episcopus qui obiit A.D. 1476. 
Pietatis ergo poni curaverunt Prepositus et Scholares Oriel- 
enses A.D. 1853." 

Shields, east end: 1. "(Argent) ten roundles (? torteaux) 
in pile " Bishopric of Worcester. 2. " Paly of six (argent 
and gules) on a chevron (azure) ensigned with a mitre and 
labels, three crosses croslet (or) " Carpenter. West end : 
3. Carpenter, as before. 4. " (Gules) three lions passant 
guardant in pale (or) within bordure engrailed (argent) " 
Oriel College, Oxford.— F. W. 

11, 12. See above. 

13. See Atkyns (2nd edition), p. 422; Rudder, p. 803; 
and Pryce, " Canynges Family." 

15. Dr. John Carpenter, " Bishop of Worcester and 
Westbury," died near Worcester and was buried at Westbury 
College, of which his friend William Canynge was Dean. 
His body was carried in procession all the way from 
Worcester, and placed in a vault, which now forms an appendage 



Rural Deanery of Westbury-on-Trym. 



279 



to the stoke-hole of the church. Upon the walls are still to be traced 
some of the very interesting contemporary mural paintings 
which illustrated the event. These were copied many years 
ago by the late Mr. Geo. Pryce, F.S.A., and are shown in his 
book on the " Canynges Family," and also by the late Mr. 
Savage, of Springside, one of whose tracings is preserved in 
the vestry.— A. E. H. 

II. 

1. Military. Knight in armour. 

2. Recumbent effigy. • 

3. Stone. 

4. Life-size. 5 feet 11 inches long. 

5. This fine effigy represents Sir Richard Hill, of 
Redland Court, obiit 1627. He is bare-headed, and has a long 
moustache and beard. His hands also are bare, and rest, the 
left on his sword and the right on a cushion. The shoulders 
are protected by large pauldrons. 1 The sword has a cross-hilt, 
not the modern guard ; the breastplate is long-waisted, and 
projects at the lower end. Over the trunk-hose are tassets, 
square at lower ends, beneath which may be seen the 
escaloped border of the lining. The legs are protected by 
steel armour, with numerous overlapping plates above and 
below the knee, and on the feet are broad sollerets. The 
style of the effigy is somewhat earlier than the date — 1627 — 
and it may have been carved during the knight's lifetime. 

8. On a bracket to the right of this tomb are Sir Richard's 
mantled crest — -a demi lion rampant — and his arms: 
Quarterly, 1 and 4, "Gules a saltire vaire between four 
mullets argent." A knight's (visor affrontee open) funeral 
helmet hangs beneath. 

Quarterly, 1 and 4, " Gules a saltire vair between four 
mullets or" (Hill); 2, "Gules a lion rampant or debruised 
by a bend ermine" (Fitchett) ; 3, "? Azure," really "Sable 

1 The hook and staple which fasten the pauldron on the left shoulder 
are curious, and show one of the means by which the heavy pieces are 
secured — Ed. . .. . . • >;.,; 

20 

Vol. XXV 



'280 • Transactions for the Year 1902. 



a bend or between six roundles, 3 and 3, each charged with 
four of the same," really "fountains proper" (Stourton). 
Crest : Demi talbot ducally gorged. 

9. The inscription is as follows : — 

HERE UNDER LYETH THE BODIE INTERRED OF 
SIR RICHARD HILL, 
OF REDLAND COURT, IN THIS PARISH, KNIGHT, 
WHO DECEASED THE 29TH D A.Y OF MAY, 
IN YE YEARE OF OUR LORD GOD 1627, 
AGED 70 YEARS. 

10. The effigy and tomb are elaborately coloured, 
apparently the original painting, which is in good condition 
and of great interest. — A. E. H. 

12. In an arched recess at the east end of the south aisle 
lying on his side and resting on his right arm. 

The monument formerly stood on the north side of the 
north aisle, and was removed in 1866. 

III. 

1. (6) Lady. 

2. Kneeling figure. 

3. Stone. 

4. About life-size. 

5. She wears the Paris head-dress, with a close-fitting cap 
and a large ruff, beneath which is a partlet or high collar, and 
on the full sleeves are epaulets. She has a long-bodied 
stomacher, peaked at the waist, and a full padded skirt. 

8. This is a daubed shield, so that it is uncertain whether 
it is intended for a quarterly or impaled one : " ? Argent a 
cock gules, in chief ? argent a ? martlet between two ? bars 
sable," impaling " In base ? argent a bend sable," and " In 
chief two cocks in bend gules." 

The Large coat is "Argent a bend azure between three, 
[may be six] mullets gules;" and Cocke, Hants, is "Argent 
a bend wavy sable between three cocks gules." — F. W. 

12. To the left of Sir Richard Hill's tomb, within an 



Rural Deanery of Winterbourne. 



281 



arched canopy attached to the wall, is the kneeling figure 
of a lady in the dress of the latter part of the sixteenth 
century. 

9. The inscription is almost illegible, but, on the ex- 
cellent authority of the late Mr. H. Ormerod, of Westbury,, 
is stated to have been as follows : — 

TO the eternal memory of his deare mother, 
M. ROSE LARGE, 
WIDDOW, DAUGHTER TO WILLIAM COCK, OF HAMPSHIRE, GENT.,. 
WHO, HAVING LIVED VIRTUOUSLY 80 YEARS, 
DEPARTED MOST HOLY TO GOD, AUGUST 29TH, l6lO. 

13. This monument is not mentioned by Atkyns or 
Rudder. 

15. The Large family resided at Stoke, and intermarried 
with the Veeles of Over. Mr. Large's arms are on a shield- 
above the tomb. 

A statue in stone in south aisle for Dr. Haines, Dean of 
the College, mentioned by Atkyns, has disappeared. — Ed. 

REDLAND, CHAPEL OF EASE TO WESTBURY-ON-TRYM. 
Rudder, p. 803 : — 

In niches in the west wall are the marble busts of John 
Cossins, obiit 1759, the founder (executed 1734 by Rys- 
brack), and of Martha, his wife, obiit 1762. 

There are also two other busts on brackets, one on each 
side of the vestibule or narthex, said to represent members 
of the Cossins family. 

A mural tablet to the right of the entrance records the 
deaths of various members of the family, and has five shields 
of arms, Cossins, Inny's, Marissal, etc. See Rudder. — A. E. H. 

WINTERBOURNE, ST. MICHAEL'S. 
Reported by F. F. Tuckett, Esq. 
I. and II. 

1. (2) and. (6). Military. Knight in armour, and Lady.. 

2. Recumbent effigies. 



282 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



3. Stone. 

4. Size, 6 ft. 11 ins. 

5. Wears pointed bascinet and camail, surcote cut away 
in front and showing hauberk. Lies cross-legged, with 
clasped hands. On his left is a sword and remnant of a 
shield. The lady wears a sideless cote, vest and wimple. 

6. The knight's head rests on a tilting helmet, with crest, 
a boar's head couped and ducally gorged, flanked by two 
angels. The head of the lady rests on two cushions set 
diagonally, and flanked by angels. 

7. His feet rest on a lion couchant, hers on a dog. 

12. At the east end of the Manor Chapel. 

13. See Atkyns, 2nd edition, p. 443, and Rudder, p. 835. 
15. These effigies are believed to represent Sir Thomas 

de Bradston, or Bradeston (in the parish of Berkeley), Baron 
by writ 16 Edward III. (1342), obiit 1360, and Agnes his 
wife, obiit 1370. The arms are not discernible. 

(For many interesting details of the life of Sir Thomas 
de Bradstone see Smith's Lives of the Berkeley s, vol. i., 
pp. 282-6. 

III. and IV. 

1. (2) and (6). Military. Knight in armour, and Lady. 

2. Recumbent effigies. 

3. Stone. 

4. The knight, 6 ft. 7 ins. ; the lady, 5 ft. 10 ins. 

5. Costume, etc. The knight's figure is on the right, 
his legs and feet in plate-armour (not crossed). He wears 
a bascinet and camail and jupon, with dagger suspended by 
a jewelled belt on his right side, a sword on the left. Spurs 
attached by straps, rowels gone. Thighs protected by a 
curious variety of studded armour. The lady's effigy is 
clothed in sideless cote and a mantle fastened across the 
chest with a chain, from which hangs a jewelled pendant. 
There is also a small chain and pendant round her neck. 
Her head-dress is reticulated, with veil. 

6. His head rests on a tilting helmet, with a boar's head 



Rural Deanery of Winterbourne. 



283 



gorged with a fillet or rope-like circlet. Her head rests on 
cushions set diagonally, supported by two angels. 
7. The feet rest on a shapeless block of stone. 

12. At the entrance of the Manor Chapel. 

13. Neither of these figures is referred to by Atkyns 
or Rudder. 

14. Fair condition. 

15. They probably represent Sir Edward de Bradston, 
the collateral heir (Lord in 7 Richard II.) in 1374, and his 
wife, the dates of whose deaths seem to be unknown. 

V. 

1. (6) Lady. Lies on the floor, to the north of No. I., 
in chapel. 

Much worn, and offering no means of identification. 
She wears a wimple and long, loose dress, with long sleeves 
showing the tight sleeves of an under-dress. 

This figure may .perhaps represent Blanche, widow of 
Robert de Bradston, and daughter-in-law of Lord Bradston, 
who died 1392. 1 

VI. 

1. (2) Military. Knight in armour. 

2. Recumbent effigy. 

3. Stone. 

4. 6 ft. 11 ins. long. 

5. He wears a pointed bascinet and camail, and a 
surcote which has been restored out of all knowledge, and 
a skirt of mail. 

6. Head rests, according to Rudder, on a ram. 

7. His crossed feet rest on a lion couchant. 

8. Rests under a recessed and cusped canopy. 

11. Restored out of possible explanation. 

12. In the north wall of the aisle, just outside the Manor 
Chapel ; not in its original position. Before the restoration 
of the Manor Chapel this effigy lay, according to E. 

1 I should think it earlier.— M. E. B.-O. 



284 Transactions for the Year 1902. 

Crossman, Esq., M.D., partly inside the church and partly 
within the belfry. 

13. Rudder says that this effigy is supposed to be for 
Tukeram, the proprietor of Stourdon (Sturden, Stourton, 
or Stockden). The present Rector of Winterbourne, the Rev. 
A. T. S. Goodrick, however, who has consulted the Bishop 
of the Diocese, states that according to constant local 
tradition this effigy is certainly that of Hugo de Sturden, 
commonly called " Hickon Sturn." 

15. The tradition at Winterbourne in connection with 
** Hickory Stern " is, that he ran away with one of the 
Dennis ladies of Syston, and is the hero of the glee, " Oh, 
who will o'er the Downs so free ? " 



THE ARRANGEMENT OF THE CHANCEL AT 
DEERHURST. ; 

A Paper Read at Deerhurst Church by R. H. MURRAY. 

Your Secretary has asked me to make a few remarks about 
the uncommon arrangement which you see before you, that 
is to say the communicants' seats round three sides of the 
•chancel. Comparatively few churchpeople of the present 
day appear to have any idea that such arrangements existed 
to a considerable extent during the first fifty years after the 
Reformation, and fewer still to know that instances remain 
at the present day. 

The first question which naturally arises is, When did the 
church of Deerhurst adopt this arrangement ? Bloxam, at 
page 174 of his third vol. of Gothic .Architecture, mentions 
this church (amongst others) as having this arrangement. 

Writing in 1834, he speaks of his visit here as having 
" taken place many years before," and says, " The com- 
munion table consists of a frame with moulded pillar legs, 
somewhat bulging, and a frieze fluted or ornamented like the 
panel-work at the back of the seats. The slab, or table 
properly so called, is loose ; it is not placed north and south, 
but stands, with the ends facing east and west, in the middle 
•of chancel," and he estimates the date of these chance, 
fittings, with others, as about the middle of the seventeenth 
century. I think I shall be able to prove that it was 
probably nearer the beginning of the seventeenth century 
•than the middle (as estimated by Mr. Bloxam), that is to say 
between 1590 and 1605. The Deerhurst Churchwardens' 
Accounts only commence in 1605, unfortunately; but as 
there is no reference in them to this arrangement having 
been made, it is only reasonable to conclude that it was prior 
to 1606. 



286 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



Having shown, as I think, that it was before 1606, I must 
warn you against concluding, on the other hand, that it was. 
in 1604 because this date stands on the piece of framing 
before you. 

. This piece of framing formed originally the support to the 
canopy of a former pulpit (portions of which are now in the 
tower), which was doubtless supplied to satisfy the Canon of 
1603, made with the authority of King James I., ordering all 
churches not having a proper pulpit to be furnished with 
one. 

May I digress for a moment just to say that there are 
many dated pulpits still in existence. I have photographs of 
pulpits dated 1603, 1607, 1610 and 161 1, of several between 
1620 and 1635, a l° n g list of others which I have not 
seen. 

To resume, I now refer to a statement of the Rev. J. 
Butterworth, late vicar of this church, which relates to the 
question of the date. In his work on Deerhurst, page 70, he 
says: "In 1616 Laud, afterwards Archbishop, at that time 
Dean of Gloucester, against the remonstrance of the Bishop 
(Miles Smith), called for his learning ' the Walking 
Library,' insisted on removing the Holy Table in his 
Cathedral from a central position to the east wall. Could 
Laud have heard of the neighbouring church of Deerhurst, 
and at the same time -have kept back the expression of his 
dissatisfaction, had its chancel assumed already at that day 
its present form ? " 

My answer to this is that Laud would, as Dean of 
Gloucester, have no power over the vicar and churchwardens 
of Deerhurst, nor over those of any other church in the 
diocese, to prevent them making any lawful arrangements 
they pleased in their churches, nor even the right to express 
dissatisfaction thereat. 

This, therefore, neither upholds Bloxam's estimate, nor 
tells against my own, that it is nearer the very early part of 
the seventeenth or later part of the sixteenth century. 

I will go on now to give you a list of other churches 



Arrangement of Chancel at Deerhurst. 287 



which have or; had a similar arrangement of which I have 
heard or read, and in some instances seen : — . . i 

1. Wiggenhall, St. Mary (Norfolk). This was destroyed 
in 1862, a clergyman who was born in the parish, and 
Bloxam page 77, being my authority. 

2. Shillingford (Berks). See Swainson's Rubrical Ques- 
tion, page 24. 

3. Wormegay (Berks). See Swainson's Rubrical Question, 
page 24. 

4. Shrivenham (Berks). Mentioned by several authors. 

5. Wimbourne Minster, 1610. I have not found any 
example of a later ascertained date than 4 and 5. 

6. Shotswell (Warwickshire), j 

7. Brill (Buckinghamshire). [ - 

8. Waltham (Leicestershire). \ See Bloxam, page 174. 

9. Dartmouth (Devon). 

- 10. Langley, 1601 (Salop). ) i 

11. Over Whiche-ndon (Aylesbury). See Mrs. Dent's 
work on Studley Castle. Z r > 

t 12. St. Michael's (Coventry), prior to 161 1. See Sharp's 
County Antiquities, page 18. — ■ _ ----- 

13. Mellwydd (Montgomeryshire). Mentioned by Dean 
Howson and several authorities. Laud failed to get this 
removed when Archbishop. 

14. Puddleton (near Dorchester). An artist friend has 
described it to me. 

15. Hayles (near Wynchcombe). . l . 

16. Wynchcombe. .; i 
Doubtless there are many others existing of which L have 

not heard. 

As a somewhat further corroboration, I do not say proof, 
of my opinion that the date of the Deerhurst arrangement 
was probably nearer the very early part of the seventeenth 
century, notice the very early date of many of these examples, 
viz. Langley, 1601; Hayles, about 1600; Wynchcombe, pro- 
bably only a little later; Wimbourne, 1610 (I have found none 
later); lastly, St. Michael's, Coventry, prior to 161 1. Notice 



288 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



also that the references to these chancel arrangements in the 
Churchwardens' Accounts which I am about to give you are 
generally of the same or even of an earlier date. In Water- 
low's Churchwardens' Accounts for St. Michael's, Cornhill, 
London, page 3, year 1554, I find this item: — "Paid for 
taking down the new Pews that stood in the Chancel, the 
backs towards the Altar, ij s ij d ." In those of St. Michael's, 
Worcester, 1592, I find: — " Item, Timber boards and Planks 
to make 3 Seats in the Quire v x d " — like these we see 
before us. Again: — "Nails and Hinges xx d ob, Labour 
iij s ij d , 6 Turned Bosses vi d ." You see similar bosses 
before you — two on the north, two on the east, two on the 
south. In the reign of Edward VI., in 1553, the Church- 
wardens' Accounts of Ludlow 1 show an item for making the 
" Kneeling place about the Lord's Table." The Table itself 
was formed of five boards, which cost 3s. gd. ; sawing 
the frame, 4s. yd. ; making the Table, 4s. yd. ; nails, id. 
These would no doubt be the dowels to hold the top 
together. 

Again, in the Churchwardens' Accounts of St. Matthew's, 
in the City of London, 1548, we read : — " Paid for ix benches 
to knylle upon in the pews xij s ." " Paid for a form for the 
Table iij 3 ." 

In the Churchwardens' Accounts of North Elmham, page 

"Item, for the setting of a long form standing in the 
chancel for to sit down upon in the time of the com- 
munion ij d . 

" Item, for ye mynstryng Table in ye Quire iiij s viij d . 

" Item, to Mr. Purdey for boards for that mynstryng Table 
ij s , and for stools for the said Table xxj d ." 

In Melton Mowbray Churchwardens' Accounts we find: — 
" Paid for the 6 Seats for the Communion Table." 

Leaving the Churchwardens' Accounts, we notice that in 
1 591 the Commissary of the Archdeacon of Sussex required 
one William Peacock to make a Public Confession " when 
1 Camden Society, vol. 102, page 46 



Arrangement of Chancel at Deerhurst. 289 

the whole company of communicants are gathered together 
in the Quire." 1 

In 1627 the churchwardens of Thoydon Garnon were 
<l presented for having their chancel unseated." 2 

In the Churchwardens' Accounts of Bewdley, 1603, is the 
item : — " For mendinge the Bench in the Chancel j d ." 3 

As further evidence that Bloxam's estimate of date was 
not right, I may remind you that the custom of placing the 
Lord's Table under the east wall and fixing rails round three 
sides came into existence about 1630 through the influence of 
Archbishop Laud, who got a Canon incorporated in the 
Canons of 1640 to that effect, which Canon he enforced in all 
places where he possibly could so so, though these Canons 
are not, and probably never were, legally binding either on 
the clergy or the laity. 

We all know that during the reign of Charles I. there was 
a great cleavage in the Church. The Puritan party had for 
a few years previously retained their Lord's Tables either in 
the centre of the chancel or in the body of the church, 
where it had been a custom in Queen Elizabeth's reign to 
bring them for use only at the celebration of the Lord's 
Supper. Neglect to replace them at the east end, as was 
customary in her reign, gave Laud his excuse for fencing 
them under the east wall. 

Bishop Williams of Lincoln, the strong opponent of Arch- 
bishop Laud, supported the Vicar of Lyddington in resisting 
the order. Having received private information that he him- 
self would be cited before the Star Chamber, he and the vicar 
conceived the idea of carrying out the letter of the order, but 
not the spirit, by fencing the Table on four sides instead of three. 

My photograph of this, which some of you have seen, 
shows this as it was at Lyddington in 1635. 

Another photograph shows a similar arrangement as it is 
at Branscombe, near Seaton, East Devon. I also have a 
photograph of a painting by Blandford Fletcher, Esq., called 

1 Hale's Precedents, page 206. 2 Ibid., page 55. 

3 History of Bewdley, Appendix, page 18, 



^9° Transactions for the Year 1902. 



''Communion Sunday," showing Branscombe Church as it is 
used to-day. This picture was in the Royal Academy in the 
year in which it was painted, three years ago. In the 
History of Pews, page 64, an unknown author copies from 
Communion Comeliness accounts of the following four churches 
as having had double rows of rails on four sides : — 
Westbury-on-Trym, near Bristol. \ 

St. Peter's, in Bristol. I Certainl y not 50 now -- 

All Saints', in Bristol. J C ' S * T * 

Milverton, Somerset. 

Other instances were numerous, particularly in the City of 
London, one being St. Martin's Ongar, Cannon Street (see 
Rings Pamphletts, vol. iii., page 167 — this refers to the year 
1637). Other instances are Oxford (see Dean Howson, Before 
the Table, page 43), and Ermington (see Bloxam, page 177). 

There is a case at Beckington, in Somerset, mentioned by 
the Camden Society, particulars of which I have not looked 
into. Please remember I am referring to rails on four sides, 
not on three. 

, The Rev. Noble Jackson, of Studley, mentions in Notes 
and Queries another case of rails on four sides, that is to say 
at Leonard Stanley, in Gloucestershire. Though I have 
received a photograph of the church in its present condition, 
I cannot decide what was the original position without 
a personal examination. 

Although Archbishop Laud tried to enforce a rigid 
uniformity, doubtless he had reasons which made him 
content to accept a reasonable conformity, 
jr. There was another custom in the Church which must 
have commenced very early after the Reformation, that of 
sitting at the Table. 

Neither Bloxham nor any other writer whom I have 
met with has ever referred to " Drawing Tables," 
i.e. Tables which extend. I have, however, found them 
in ten churches, extending through nine counties, ranging 
from North Devon on the West to Middlesex on the 
East, Whitby on the North to Canterbury on the South, 



Arrangement of Chancel at Deerhurst. 291 



I may be wrong, but what other reason could there be for 
such extending Tables than to accommodate a great number 
at the same time when necessary ? Non-communicants were' 
not allowed in the church during the time of Communion. 
They also satisfy the requirements of the 82nd Canon, 
which required that the arrangements should be such 
that " the Communicants may more conveniently and in more 
numbers communicate with the said minister." 1 Might not 
this have been one reason for the custom of sitting round the 
Table in Queen Elizabeth's time? It may not have been 
general ; I do not think it was. 

There is also evidence of the custom of standing at the 
Lord's Table. The first instance of which I have information 
is that of St. Michael's, Coventry, in 161 1. This was adopted 
by the Puritan party in the Church of England, many of 
whom afterwards became Nonconformists. It was also 
adopted by Baxter at Kidderminster, though he seems to 
have attached little importance to it, and offered a separate 
service to a certain Squire Clare and his family, at 1 which 
they might receive kneeling. 

It is only fair to Archbishop Laud to state that he 
consented to waive his preference for kneeling at the rails 
if the Communicants would but kneel in the chancel. 2 

Bishop Montague, in Heylin's Cypvianus Angliais, page 
336, ordered that at the words spoken fiom the Communion 
Table, "Draw near," etc., all intending to communicate 
should go into the chancel, as they do in the parish church 
at Leeds at the present day. Again (page 366), it states that 
in a synod held October, 1639, he published the following 
directions : " That the Communicants, being entered, shall 
be disposed of orderly in their several ranks, leaving sufficient 
room for the Priest or Minister to go between them; by whom 
they were to be communicated one rank after another, until 
they had all of them received." 3 

1 82nd Canon. 

2 "Chancels shall remain," page 11, Perry's History of the Church of 
England. < ' 3 " Chancels shall remain," page 12. 



292 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



If time allowed, I might speak of administration in pews, 
and also double and triple rows of communicants in the 
chancel, as mentioned in Udall's Communion Comeliness (a very 
scarce pamphlet). The custom of administering in pews 
appears to have been principally in the reign of Charles I., 
and only in large cities. 1 I feel no hesitation in saying that 
nearly every church in the land which had not seats round 
three sides of the chancel, or a single or double row of 
rails with kneelers, had the Table fenced on three sides, as 
ordered by an injunction of Archbishop Laud about 1630. 
Some of these were removed during the Commonwealth, but 
replaced at or after the Restoration, when the custom arose 
of putting the rails across the chancel. 

Many of you will doubtless remember that in your youth 
the majority of churches still had the rails on the north, west 
and south sides of the Lord's Table, but these are now rare. 

Amongst the hundreds of churches I have visited in the 
kingdom I have met with a large number of Laudian rails 
across the chancel that once went round three sides. To see 
that these had originally been so placed is to a practical man 
a matter of no difficulty whatever. 

Now what is the conclusion to be arrived at from a con- 
sideration of these facts, except that the portion of the 
arrangement which we see before us, which is old, was the 
work of churchpeople between 1580 and 1606, who very 
earnestly desired, as Archbishop Benson in the Lincoln 
judgment said, 2 "that the Communion might be celebrated 
as near, as much among, and as familiarly with the congre- 
gation as possible" ? Now seeing that from the second year 
of Edward VI. throughout his reign and that of Queen 
Elizabeth Churchwardens' Accounts nearly always refer to the 
cost of seats, benches or forms at the same time as the 
Lord's Table, we must conclude that the Reformers pur- 
posed the congregation to communicate in the chancel except 
at "great feasts of receiving," when the Table would be 
brought into the body of the church. 

1 See History of Peivs. 2 Macmillan's Report, page 27. 



Arrangement of Chancel at Deerhurst. 293, 

1 would like just to refer to Bloxam's note on the Lord's 
Table at Deerhurst. He speaks of the somewhat " bulging 
legs." They are now one thickness all down, and bear 
evidence of not being the original ones, for, having round 
holes and mortice holes, they appear to have been made out 
of bed-posts. This must have been soon after Bloxam saw 
the Table. Doubtless they were worm-eaten as some parts 
are now. I believe the " mensa," or top, and the frame to be 
that supplied at or soon after the accession of Elizabeth. 
The rails against which I stand show evidence of having 
been a portion of the rood-loft. 



THE GRAVE OF BISHOP CARPENTER. 



The two letters printed below, for which the best thanks 
of the Society are due to the writers, make it quite clear 
that the remains of Bishop Carpenter are not now, and were 
not in 1852, in their original resting-place in the chancel of 
the church of Westbury-on-Trym. There appears to be no 
evidence at all to show at what time, or from what cause, 
they disappeared. It is impossible to place the letters on 
record without an expression of deep regret that the restorers 
of 1852 should have chosen a site "under the Altar" for a 
jhot-air chamber. 

" Westbury-on-Trym cum Redland Vicarage, 

" Redland Green, Bristol, 

" 14th May, 1902. 

" Dear Mr. Taylor, 

"BISHOP CARPENTER'S TOMB. 

" I made a sectional cutting this afternoon, but about 
three inches below the present surface we came upon a large 
projecting foundation stone, which proved the burial could 
not have been below that level, and so the writer in the 
Saturday Review (April 5th, 1879) proves to be correct when 
he writes ' his grave is empty, having been despoiled some 
years ago.' 

" With kind regards, believe me to be, 

" Very truly yours, 

" H. J. WlLKINS." 



The Grave of Bishop Carpenter. 



295 



" Frewin Hall, Oxford, 

" 16th November, 1902. 

Dear Sir, 

" WESTBURY-ON-TRYM. 
"BISHOP CARPENTER'S TOMB. 

" The Provost of Oriel has asked me to reply to your 
enquiries relating to the tomb of our great benefactor, Bishop 
Carpenter. 

" I have referred to the papers in the possession of 
Oriel which bear on the subject. The first is a letter from 
Mr. Cartwright, the Incumbent of Westbury, written to the 
Provost in November, 1852. He there states that 'in course 
of excavating under the Altar for the formation of a hot-air 
chamber a chapel or sepulchre was discovered, and on the 
south side a deep arched recess, evidently once having contained 
a body,' &c, and he" goes on to describe the remains of 
painting on the sides of the recess, discovered after removing 
whitewash. 

" It is, I think, clear from this letter, as well as from many 
like expressions in the later correspondence, that the remains 
of the Bishop were at that time no longer in their original 
resting-place, and probably no longer in existence. I believe 
the inscription on the tomb in the church, as finally settled 
by the College in 1853, runs, ' Subtus olim S.E., &c,' showing 
the belief then to have been that the grave was empty. 

" If I can give you any further information, I hope you 
will not hesitate to apply to me again. The name of Bishop 
Carpenter is deservedly held in honour in our Society. 

" I remain, 

" Yours sincerely, 

" Charles L. Shadwell, 
"Late Fellow of Oriel. • 

"The Rev. C. S. Taylor." 



"Vol. XXV. 



21 



polices of f ttblitate. 



THE HISTORY OF THE SOCIETY OF MERCHANT 
VENTURERS OF THE CITY OF BRISTOL, with some 
Account of the Anterior Merchants' Guilds. By John Latimer. 
Bristol : J. W. Arrowsmith. 1903. 

Mr. Latimer has continued the excellent work which has placed him 
among the first of our local chroniclers by giving to the world a trust- 
worthy and most careful account of the last of the many ancient trade 
guilds of Bristol. It may be said at once that he has laid before the city 
a good work well done, and it is pleasing to be able to add that he has 
received cordial assistance not only from the officers of the Society, without 
whose approval of course the task could not have been undertaken, but 
also from the authorities of the city, whose assistance, in view of the close 
connection between the borough and the Society in early days, was hardly 
less essential. The book contains an introductory chapter on the Guild 
Merchant and its developments, then others on the incorporation of the 
Society and its charters and ordinances, the history of the Society in the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the work of the Society as Mr. 
Colston's almoner with regard to his School and Almshouse, and finally 
its work as one of the most broad-minded and capable of the educational 
authorities of the city. The introductory chapter certainly seems to 
understate the amount of evidence for the existence of trade guilds and 
corporations in England before the Norman Conquest. The document 
" De Institutis Lundoniae " of the reign of Ethelred the Unready, provides 
for watching some of the gates, for tolls to be taken from ships from 
different foreign countries, and for different kinds of goods. The 
portreeve, propositus and catchpoll are mentioned, and the document 
certainly implies the existence of an organised trading community. 1 
Furthermore, a charter granted by Henry II. to the city of Lincoln in 
February, 1155, 2 contains the following passage : — " Et omnes homines qui 
infra quatuor divisas civitatis manent et mercatum deducunt, sint ad gildas 
et consuetudines et assissas civitatis sicut melius fuerunt tempore Edwardi 
Willelmi et Henrici regum Angliae." 3 This certainly implies that the men 
of Lincoln were worthy of their guilds, customs, and assizes in the days 

1 Ancient Laivs and Institutes of England, 127. Schmid, Gesetzc der A ngclsaclisen, 218. 
^Eyton, Itinerary of King Henry II., 6. 
SFoedera, i. 40. Stubbs, Select Charters, 166. 



Notices of Publications. 



297 



of the Confessor as they had been after the Conquest. Indeed, considering 
the frequency of guilds and brotherhoods before the Conquest, the English 
would have been dull indeed if they had not applied the principle to their 
crafts and trades, at any rate in the towns. On page 2 a passage occurs 
which is likely to prove, a perennial fount of error if ever a class of 
writers should arise in Bristol who do not verify their references : — " That 
important privileges had been conceded to the borough by the Conqueror 
himself seems probable from an entry in Domesday Book relating to the 
town of Rhuddlan, which is stated to have been granted the laws and 
customs of Hereford and Bristol (Dom. B., i. 269)." On turning to the 
passage in Domesday it is found to read thus: — " Ipsis burgensibus 
annuerunt leges et consuetudines quae sunt in Hereford & in bretuill." 
That is to say that Earl Hugh of Chester and the Marquess Robert had 
granted to the eighteen burgesses of their new borough of Rhuddlan the 
customs of Hereford and Breteuil, that they should pay twelvepence 
annually for all forfeitures except homicide, theft, and premeditated house- 
breaking. 1 We naturally turn to the customs of Hereford, which are very 
fully stated in the Survey, and we find that though the English burgesses 
kept their old customs, the foreign burgesses (Francigeni) paid twelve 
pence annually for all forfeitures except breach of the peace, house- 
breaking, and highway robbery. 2 Thus the custom of Rhuddlan was 
clearly similar to that of Hereford, but we have still to account for the 
mention of Breteuil. This was a small town on the Iton, a tributary of 
the Eure, where Duke William had built a border castle in 1054 to hold 
the King of France in check, which castle was placed in charge of William 
FitzOsbern, who became Earl of Hereford in 1069, and who held it till 
his death in 1071. We now see how Earl William brought these customs 
from the border fortress of Breteuil to the border fortress at Hereford, 
and how Earl Hugh adopted them at his border fortress at Rhuddlan, and 
that it was from the Norman Iton and not from the Bristol Avon that they 
came to the Vale of Clwyd. It has seemed better to state this matter fully, 
because the mistake is one which may cause a good deal of trouble in the 
future. Mr. Latimer notes that a royal writ for a supply of wine was 
directed by King John to Roger Cordwaner, Mayor of Bristol, on 
August 21st, 1216, this gives an earlier mayor than any mentioned in 
the Kalendars ; also that the Close Rolls for 1217 contain a mandate from 
Henry III. to the bailiffs of Bristol ordering them to distrain on those 
who did not wish to be of the Guild Merchant, showing that a guild 
merchant then existed in the borough. When it is said that " Citizenship, 
.originally based on burgage tenure, was gradually transformed into a 
personal privilege, being obtained by birth, apprenticeship, or marriage,. 

1 " Homicidium & furtum & Heinfar prascogitata." 

2 " Pacem infractam & heinfaram & forestellum." 



298 Transactions for the Year 1902. 

and occasionally by purchase or gift, freemen thus becoming the successors 
of the ancient guild fraternity," the custom of the Merchant Venturers' 
Society bears emphatic witness against the writer. A man does not become 
a freeman by entering the Society, but he cannot enter the Society unless 
he is already a freeman. Again, the present writer is a freeman of Bristol 
because he is the son of a freeman born in the ancient borough. It is not 
enough that a man should be the son of a freeman, he must be a native of 
the ancient soil. Clearly this is a matter of birthright, not of any status 
acquired at a later period : a man becomes a member of a trade guild, but 
he is free of the borough from his birth. The " burgenses " of Bristol 
appear in Domesday Book, and a burgess who votes on his freedom by 
birth at a parliamentary election is voting on a more ancient status than 
any member of either House of Parliament except the Bishops. The 
position stated in the quotation above may very likely be true of some 
other boroughs; it is not true of Bristol. The germ of the present Society 
is found in a Fellowship of Merchants, which was formed at a meeting of 
the Common Council in 1467 for the regulation of the trade of the borough, 
to which Fellowship the Chapel of Spicer's Hall was assigned as a place of 
meeting ; but as that proved to be too small, the site of the present 
Merchants' Hall and Almshouse was granted to the Fellowship in 1496. 
The Society was not, however, incorporated till December 18th, 1552, when 
it received a charter from Edward VI., and it received a grant of its 
present arms and crest in 1569. The later history of the Society is very 
ably and carefully traced by Mr. Latimer. The story of its experiences 
under the Stewart dynasty gives cause for wonder that such a person as a 
Royalist existed during the time of the Civil Wars ; and after reading the 
record of the dulness, incompetency, and sloth which marked the manage- 
ment of the trade of the city during the period of Whig domination in 
the eighteenth century, the wonder is, not that Bristol was overtaken by 
Liverpool and other rivals, but that it kept even the amount of trade which 
still remained to it. The natural advantages of the port must indeed be 
great. It must be confessed, however, that the very unpleasant story which 
is unfolded with regard to the docks during the last half of the nineteenth 
century shows that the men of that period (excepting a very few who, 
unhappily for themselves, lived before their time) were not more enlightened 
than their predecessors of a century before. The last part of the book deals 
with the work of the Society as the trustee of Mr. Colston's bounty, and as 
providing from its own funds for the carrying on of most excellent 
educational work. Mr. Latimer does full justice to the stern and 
successful resistance which was offered by the Society side by side with 
the Charity Trustees to the proposal of the Charity Commissioners to 
divert the benefits of the great foundation schools of the city from the 
poor to children of other classes. 



Notices of Publications. 



299 



Though the latter part of the book deals with a period which does not 
naturally fall within the range of an archaeological society, it has seemed 
best to follow the story to the end, as it shows how the Society, has retained 
the vigour of its early days, and has shown itself fully able to adapt itself 
to new circumstances as they arose from time to time. There are two 
points with regard to which information might naturally have been looked 
for. The Society now is a Tory one ; not many generations ago it was 
quite as predominantly Whig. When, and under what circumstances, did 
the change take place ? Of course, a similar change from Whiggism to 
Toryism took place in the Corporation in the first forty years of the nine- 
teenth century ; but that might be regarded " as the natural result of the 
spread of enlightenment, completed by the action of the Municipal Reform 
Act in converting a close Corporation into a popularly elected body. The 
Society, however, has always been a close Corporation, and it would be 
interesting to know the circumstances which led to so complete a change 
of political feeling. Again, many people will think that the Society would 
have been well advised if Mr. Latimer had been permitted to give a fuller 
account of its income and expenditure, both with regard to its trust funds 
and its own purposes. No one supposes that there is anything to conceal, 
but there is no doubt that in popular opinion its income is exaggerated — 
Omne ignotum pro magnifico — and a natural opportunity of setting things right 
has been missed. The book is provided with a sufficient index, and forms 
a very valuable addition to the works on the history of the city. 



PLEAS OF THE CROWN FOR THE HUNDRED OF SWINES- 
HEAD AND THE TOWNSHIP OF BRISTOL, taken at Bristol— 
in the fifth year of King Henry the Third, a.d. 122 i. By Edward 
James Watson, F.R.Hist.S., F.R.S.L. Bristol: W. C. Hemmons. 
1902. 

The subject of this book is not a new one, for in 1884 Professor F. W. 
Maitland published the Latin text of the Pleas of the Crown for the 
County of Gloucester (which of course at that time included Bristol) 
in 122 1, with a very valuable Introduction and series of notes. Mr. 
Watson's book includes only the returns for the Borough of Bristol 
and the small Hundred of Swineshead adjoining, which lay in the County 
of Gloucester ; he gives, however, a translation of the Latin text and 
a short glossary. Professor Maitland considered a translation not neces- 
sary, on the ground that the Latin, provided you read the sense and do 
not trouble too much about the exact meaning of the words, is easy, 
and the technical terms are as intelligible in Latin as in English. This is, 
of course, true, but still there are those to whom the translation will be 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



helpful. The glossary is very short, and folk who need a translation 
for the Latin will not find in it all that they look for; such words as 
manupastum, referring to the household of a landowner, those who are fed 
by his hand, should have been included. About two-thirds of the book 
are occupied by a very careful Introduction to the texts which follow, 
and it is to Mr. Watson's credit that he has made full use of the Intro- 
duction to Professor Maitland's book already mentioned. But there is 
very much more than that ; there are very full references, not only to 
the publications of the Rolls Series, but also to such works as Mr. Chadwyck 
Healey's Somerset Pleas, which have been published since 1884, and which 
afford many helpful illustrations. It is singular, however, that Mr. Watson 
does not seem to be aware of the existence of the very valuable paper 
by the Rev. E. A. Fuller on the " Pleas of the Crown at Bristol in 1287," 
contained in Volume XXII. of the Transactions of this Society ; he could 
have obtained from Mr. Fuller's work much which would have helped 
him. The Introduction gives an account of the Borough of Bristol so 
far as local government was concerned, of the Constables of the Castle, 
of the Justices who heard the pleas, of the method of enquiry, and of the 
results to those who were convicted, and to the borough and manors 
concerned. The Borough of Bristol lay entirely on the north of the river, 
to the south lay the Borough of Redcliff containing the two parishes of 
St. Thomas the Martyr and St. Mary Redcliff, and also the separate 
jurisdiction of Temple Fee; this southern district was in Somerset, but the 
men of Redcliff petitioned that their presentments might be received with 
those of the men of Bristol, and the men of the Temple Fee were fined 
because they did not also appear. Only one offence, however, was 
presented from Redcliff, and that had occurred more than ten years before. 
It might seem that the burgesses were suppressing faults, but that the 
justices were not so easily deceived ; on this very circuit the jurors of 
Blidsloe Hundred had presented at first only a single case of homicide 
where the slayer had fled, but on being sent back to reconsider themselves 
hey brought a list of no fewer than fourteen presentments. Their 
neighbours in Botloe Hundred also were fined for suppressing five articles, 
it may be therefore fairly assumed that the men of Redcliff gave gocd 
reason for the belief that they were quite unexpectedly virtuous. It is to 
be noted that Temple Fee long survived the fall of the Templars, and did 
not, in fact, cease to exist till 1543 ; the Vestry of St. Thomas the Martyr 
still pays a small sum yearly to the Corporation for free suit to Tempi 
Fee. The waste land within the borough belonged to the burgesses, 
but when Mr. Watson says "that it is doubtful if the burgensic com- 
munity derived any pecuniary advantage from the banks, void grounds 
and spaces," it is by no means clear that he is right. In 1287 it was 
presented that several persons had made encroachments in various places, 



Notices of Publications. 301 

and the Sheriff was ordered to cause to be thrown down and amended 
at the cost of the raisers anything that the jurors condemned. Then 
came William, Vicar of St. Augustine-the-Less, who had been fined 
13s. 4d. for encroaching on the King's Highway by a wall 20 feet in length 
and 14 in breadth, and prayed that his wall might stand. With the 
consent of the jurors this was permitted, on condition that it should be 
rented at 6d. to the ferm of the borough. The quays which had been 
built and were allowed in 1221 were very probably attached to riverside 
houses. It is not easy to say why the presentments from Swineshead 
Hundred were taken at Bristol, though it woujd no doubt be true to say 
that the convenience of the jurors was not consulted in the matter. The 
manors immediately concerned were Barton, Winterbourne, Dedingtone 
and Bitton. Dedingtone was probably Doynton, which appears in 
Domesday as a possession of the Bishop of Coutances, and which after- 
wards formed part of the Honour of Gloucester ; Barton, Winterbourne 
and Bitton were in 1086 part of the estates of the Grown. Swineshead 
itself lay in Bitton. The lordship of the hundred would then in 1086 have 
pertained to the Crown as did that of Barton, and it is likely that it 
was because the lordship was still in the Crown in 122 1 that at the 
request of the Constable" of the Castle, the local representative of the 
King, the presentments from the Hundred of Swineshead as well as 
those from the borough were taken at Bristol. With regard to Robert 
de Lexington, who was one of the King's justices in 1221, it might have 
been added that he afterwards had a local connection with Bristol, as 
he held the Prebend of Bedminster and Redcliff in Salisbury Cathedral 
from 1228 till about 1240. It seems to be the case, as Mr. Watson says, 
that in 1221 the outlaw could choose his port of departure from the 
kingdom, for John the miller, who had slain a certain Henry, chose (elegit) 
the port of Dover (plea 330 in Gloucestershire) ; but in 1287 coroners were 
fined at Bristol for assigning to criminals the ports of Lyme and 
Portsmouth, because the port of departure was then Dover only. 

It will be interesting to compare the pleas before the justices at Bristol 
in 1 22 1 and 1284. It does not appear that there was any great difference 
in the intervals that had elapsed since the last eyre ; in 1221 there was 
a cause which must date from before 1207, and in 1287 a case of death is 
considered which occurred eighteen years before. In 1221 there were 
eighteen pleas from Bristol, and in 1287 there were as many as eighty-one ; 
but Bristol at the later date included also Redcliff and Temple, so that the 
comparison is not quite a fair one. Still, allowing for the four years of the 
longer interval, we should hardly expect the tale of crime and accident to 
be four times as long. Eleven cases involving slaying were presented 
in 1221, and twenty-six in 1287; no very great proportionate difference 
perhaps. Twenty-six robberies were presented in 1287, and none in 1221 ; 



302 Transactions for the Year 1902. 

it is not easy to account for their absence from the roll as they were 
presented in Gloucestershire. Two charges of rape were presented in 
1221, but in neither case was the accused person suspected ; there were 
none in 1287. At the later date there were some crimes which do not 
appear in 1221. A man convicted of clipping money was sentenced to be 
drawn asunder, and because the constable and bailiffs hung him they were 
fined. There was also one case of suspected suicide — a woman whose 
body was found in the river ; but suicide was evidently rare, only one case 
occurs in the Gloucestershire Roll for 1221, that of William Pigot, who 
hung himself in Compden Hundred. It is presented in 1221 that the wife 
of Richard le Noreis le Sermuner or Sermocinarius killed the wife of Elias 
the Forester. Mr. Watson translates the word in italics as Preacher, and 
that is the dictionary meaning of the word ; but it is difficult to conceive of 
a married preacher at that period, and it is more likely that Richard 
was a summoner or sumner. A roll of pleas of the Crown is a highly 
technical document, and Mr. Watson has done good work in issuing an 
edition of a portion of a very important eyre in such a form that it can be 
readily understood with regard to the purpose, the method and the contents 
of the record. He has given a very good introduction to a somewhat 
difficult subject. Professor Maitland notes that he could not find 
Aggemede Hundred. It was afterwards included in the Hundred of 
Grurnbold's Ash, and the Manor of Acton mentioned in Plea 111 of the 
Gloucestershire Eyre of 122 1 must have been either Iron Acton or 
Acton Turville. 



LANDBOC SIVE REGISTRUM Monasterii Beatse Marias Virginis 
et Sancti Cenhelmi de Wincelcumba. Edente David Royce, M.A. 
Volumen Secundum. Exonise : Will. Pollard et Soc. MDCCCCIII. 

The chartularies of the great religious houses of Gloucestershire are being 
gradually brought to light. Those of Tewkesbury and S. Peter's at 
Gloucester have been published in the Rolls Series, an early document of 
the Cistercian House of S. Mary, Kingswood, was published in Volume 
XXII. of the Transactions of this Society, and now the whole of the 
chartulary of Winchcombe has been given to the world, while the 
researches of the Rev. E. A. Fuller have thrown a very full light on 
the history of the Abbey of Cirencester. No county in England possessed 
so many great houses of which the history has been so fully brought to 
light, and the fact is an incentive to future effort, for the important houses 
of Bristol, Hayles, S. Oswald at Gloucester and the twin Lantonys still 
call for patient workers and careful recorders. To the present writer the 
call to review this book is like a request to sketch the character of the 



Notices of Publications. 



companion of an old friend. Time after time when he visited the retired 
vicarage at Nether Swell for school work on autumn or winter evenings, 
he found Mr. Royce engaged on his old task, and Mrs. Royce, whose 
generosity has given the book to us, interested in it. They have both 
passed away before the completion of his work. And yet so far as the 
transcription and annotation of the ancient documents are concerned, it 
is not thought that this fact need be put forward as a claim to disarm 
criticism. Mr. Royce was very fully qualified for the task of reading and 
interpreting the documents which he undertook to edit ; so far as the text 
of the Landboc is concerned, the reader may rest assured that he has 
before him an accurate edition of the Latin texf.' ' No doubt, however, the 
case is not quite the same with regard to the Introduction. Mr. Royce 
was not a rapid worker ; he kept his work long in hand in hope that he 
might make it as complete as possible, and death prevented the fulfilment 
of his hope. The Introduction then must be accepted as being something 
less than Mr. Royce had intended to make it ; it is hoped that not many 
actual mistakes of fact will be found, but no doubt if time had been granted 
to him, such points as the translations of the prayers quoted would have 
been revised, and the present roughnesses would have been smoothed down. 
The Introduction is an outline rather than a completed work ; accurate, it 
is hoped, as far as it goes, but not altogether what its author meant it to 
be. The Introduction consists of three parts — "The Monastery," "The 
Landboc," and "The Library of the Monastery"; of these the two last 
contain most original matter. The list of charters, the text of the Landboc, 
with its summary and notes, and the copious and well-arranged index 
were passed through the press by Mr. Royce himself, and bear the impress 
of his careful hand. The. printers have done their work well, and the 
two volumes will take a worthy place among the Record Series of the 
country. 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTIONS TO THE ROLLS SERIES. By 
William Stubbs.D.D. Collected and edited by Arthur Hassall, M. A. 
London: Longmans, Green, & Co. 1902. 

This is a selection of the Introductions to the various volumes of the Rolls 
Series, which were edited from time to time by the late Bishop of Oxford. 
The editor says in his preface that "probably no historian has ever lived 
who did more for the study of English history than Bishop Stubbs." 
And those of us who have made our first acquaintance with constitutional 
history in his little book of Select Charters, and have followed him through 
the three volumes of his monumental work on The Constitutional History of 
England, or who have worked at early English history under his guidance 



304 Transactions for the Year 1902. 



in the two volumes of Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents which he edited, 
and in the marvellous series of articles in the Dictionaries of Christian 
Antiquities and Biography which he wrote, will not be disposed to find fault 
with Mr. Hassall's estimate. The good bishop's style was indeed a weighty 
one, but his information was full and accurate, and his conclusions were 
sure. When he said that there was not sufficient evidence to justify a 
certain judgment, one was sure that it was not simply that the writer was 
unaware of the existence of such evidence, but that such evidence simply 
did not exist in an accessible form. And one chief element in his greatness 
lay in this fact: one could feel that what he did not know about the subject 
which he took in hand was not within the range of present knowledge. 

The Introductions included in this volume extend from the time of 
S. Dunstan to that of Edward II.; and the editor has done excellent work 
in publishing them, for the volumes of the Rolls Series, though they may 
be found in many public libraries, are beyond the reach of most people. 
This is the case more particularly perhaps with regard to the Introduction 
to the Memorials of S. Dunstan. It is not too much to say that Dr. Stubbs 
revealed to the English people the real greatness of the Saxon Archbishop. 
He had been known as the subject of foolish stories and absurd legends, 
and as a persecutor of blameless clerks ; he stands before us as the first 
great statesman prelate of the English Church, a learned prelate, a wise 
counsellor, and one who did excellent work in introducing the fresh life 
of Benedictine monasticism into the slothful corruption of the English 
cloisters. With the marriages of the secular clergy outside the minsters 
S. Dunstan certainly did not interfere, though no doubt he shared the 
feeling which prevailed among the better ecclesiastics of the time in favour 
of discouraging the marriage of the clergy. The Introduction to the 
writings of Ralph de Diceto, who became Archdeacon of Middlesex in 
1 152, and was Dean of S. Paul's from 1181 at least till 1199, gives one of the 
best accounts available of the duties and services, the dignity and wealth, the 
quarrels and jealousies of the members of a great mediaeval secular Chapter. 
Of the Introductions which follow, the largest space — no fewer than 136 
pages — is occupied by selections from those to the volumes of the Chronicle 
of Roger of Howden : and this choice is justified, for some of the most 
valuable portions .of the bishop's work occur in this part of the volume ; 
for instance, the summary of the foreign policy of England from page 181 
onwards. The Introduction to the " Chronicle of the Reigns of Henry II. 
and Richard II." contains an admirable account of the way in which the 
former King developed the machinery of government in Church and State, 
as the Introduction to Volume I. of the Memorials of Richard I tells the 
story of his Crusades, and that to Volume II., which contains letters of 
the Prior and Convent of Christ Church, Canterbury, traces the history of 
Monasticism in England. The volume containing the Historical Collections 



Notices of Publications. 



of Walter of Coventry gives occasion for an estimate of the reign of King 
John, of which some of the earlier words strike the keynote: "John has 
neither grace nor splendour, strength nor patriotism;" and one of the 
closing sentences marks the writer's judgment: "For John, even in the 
abject humiliation of his end, we have no word of pity as we have had 
none of sympathy. He has deserved none." The volume closes with 
selections from the Introductions to the two volumes of Chronicles of the 
Reigns of Edward I. and Edward II. The editor draws attention to the 
value of the volume as a contribution to the period of the history of the 
Angevin Kings. It is that, and it is very much more than that : it is more 
than that because, though the Introductions deal with a special period, 
the principles which are unfolded and the judgments which are expressed 
apply to other periods of history as well ; and the selections form an 
admirable commentary on the chapters of the Constitutional History which 
cover the period dealt with. There is a satisfactory index, and the volume 
is one which all students of English history will be glad to have within 
their reach ; it is a storehouse of information and sound judgment concern- 
ing the period with which it deals. 



THE LIFE AND TIMES OF ALFRED THE GREAT, being the 
Ford Lectures for 1901. By Charles Plummer, M.A. Oxford: 
Clarendon Press. 1902. 

As we look back on the quantity of writing which was called forth by 
King Alfred's Millenary, three books stand out from the rest as containing 
elements of real value : the volume of Essays edited by Mr. Booker, 
Professor Earle's book on the Alfred Jewel, and Mr. Plummer's Ford 
Lectures. Of these the first contains among much which is really good 
much also which is of very little worth, and not a little which is 
misleading ; though we may not agree with all that Professor Earle wrote 
about the Jewel, he gave an interesting account of the Jewel itself and of 
the theories concerning its nature ; while Mr. Plummer's book gives in a 
short space the best summary of the great king's life and work that has 
yet appeared in English. Though the form of the book, that of six 
lectures, is not the best possible for giving a connected idea of the whole 
of what the king was and did, it is a very good form for giving an intro- 
duction to the subject in its various aspects. Two of the lectures deal 
with the sources of the king's history, while the others deal with his early 
life, his wars, his civil administration, and his literary work. With regard 
to the vexed question of the genuineness of the work attributed to Asser, 
Mr. Plummer is clear that the author was a.Celt from South Wales. And 
he is also clear that the book existed in some form before the death of King 



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Edgar in 975, during whose reign the body of S. Neot was translated from 
Cornwall to Huntingdonshire, because the book states as a present fact 
that the body of the saint reposes (pausat) in the Cornish shrine, 1 which 
would not be the case after 975. There is therefore good reason for 
thinking that the book contains genuine matter, and, as Mr. Plummer says, 
the question really is this— whether the work is a genuine one which has 
been largely interpolated, or a spurious one embodying many genuine 
elements. In his account of the campaigns of the king, Mr. Plummer 
places Buttingtun on the Severn, where the Danes were starved out in 894, 
at Buttington in Shropshire. The great objection to a site so far inland is 
that it deprives the co-operation of King Alfred and the English fleet of all 
usefulness. But this co-operation is plainly implied by the words of the 
chronicle: — " When they had sat there many weeks on both sides of the 
river, and the king was westward in Devon against the fleet, then were 
they distressed with hunger," which would seem to mean that the North- 
men looked for assistance from their fleet, which could not be brought to 
them because King Alfred was holding their ships in check far away on 
the coast of Devon. If, however, we suppose that the Northmen went up- 
the Valley of the Thames and down the Stroud Valley, which would be a 
very natural course, then up the Severn Valley till they could cross the 
river — with perhaps an unsuccessful dash at Gloucester by the way — then 
along the Severn till they came to Buttington Tump, and settled down in 
the entrenchments on each side of the Wye to wait for their fleet, we have 
a position which satisfies all the conditions of the narrative in a way which 
the Shropshire Buttington, absolutely inaccessible to aid from a fleet, does 
not satisfy them. Again, it is not easy to see why Mr. Plummer speaks of 
the two reasons which Asser gives for the prevailing dislike to the religious 
life— the too great riches of the English and the ravages of the Northmen 
— as contradictory. Rather they were two independent, but— in the king's 
later years— contemporaneous, states of mind. The love of the religious 
life had died out before the destruction of the monasteries. In his preface 
to the Pastoral Care, the king says he remembered how the minsters 
stood before the burnings and harryings full of treasures and books, and 
also of God's servants who, however, were ignorant and could not under- 
stand the books.. Learning and love of the religious life were extinct 
before the minsters were ravaged. It is likely enough that the king could 
have obtained plenty of ignorant inmates for his minsters, but he wanted 
scholars, and with very few exceptions they did not exist in England. 
Gloucestershire supplies an example of this distaste for the religious life 
in the time of King Alfred. Milred, Bishop of Worcester (743-775), had 
granted land at Sodbury to Eanbald on condition that it should always be 
held by one of his family in Holy Orders : if none such could be found it 
1 M.H.B. 484, D. 



Notices of Publications. 



should revert to the cathedral. Eanbald granted the land to Eastmund, 
hut after his death his family kept the land. Bishop Heahbert (822-848) 
protested, and so did Bishop Alchun (848-872), so also did Werferth, who 
succeeded; but they could not obtain justice till Alderman Ethelred held 
a gemot at Saltwich in 888. The family of Eanbald did not resist the 
claim, but the answer of each of them was that he would rather forego 
the land than take Holy Orders No doubt they were sufficiently well 
off to do without the land, and the matter was compromised by a money 
payment. 1 Here is a case where for fully half a century the holders of 
church land had refused to take Holy Orders. Except in the matter of 
Buttington, already mentioned, the book touches but little on the history 
of this district. The index is full and well arranged, and is a very real 
help to the understanding of the book. 



SCENES OF RURAL LIFE IN HAMPSHIRE, among the Manors 
of Bramshott. By W. W. Capes, Rector of Bramshott. London : 
Macmillan & Co. 1 901. 

Canon Capes was formerly Reader of Ancient History in the University 
of Oxford, and he has also written the volume in the new History of the 
English Church which extends over the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries ; 
he is therefore in every way qualified to write the history of the parish of 
which he is Rector, and it may be said at once that he has produced a 
very useful book, for well-wrought-out local histories of this kind are most 
valuable in affording material to those who may be engaged in researches 
of wider scope, and also in affording illustrations- of the condition of things 
in other parishes. Bramshott lies near the point of meeting of Hants, 
Surrey, and Sussex, and was probably happy in having no history whose 
record has come down to us in early days. It first appears in Domesday 
as Brenbresete, but Canon Capes has recorded no fewer than sixty-one 
other forms of the name, with the not unnatural result that he is unable 
to suggest any satisfactory derivation or meaning for it ; all that he is sure 
about is that Canon Isaac Taylor was wrong in his suggestion that the last 
syllable represents holt, a wood. Truly the investigation of place-names 
is like ploughing the sand or threshing chaff. The present parish, however, 
contains no fewer than five separate Domesday manors under five different 
lords ; but Canon Capes cannot suggest any certain answer to two of the 
most perplexing questions which arise out of our early Church history — How 
were manors collected into parishes? and, — At what time was this done? 
With regard to the last question, the work must have been accomplished 
before the Taxation of Pope Nicholas in 1291, but there is nothing to 
1 K. C. D., cccxxvii., C. S., 582. Thorpe, Dipl., 166. 



308 



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show whether it was completed two centuries earlier. With regard to the 
former point, Canon Capes refers to the action of the Council of Toulouse 
in 845, which empowered bishops to determine parochial boundaries; but 
he does not mention any similar legislation in England, though he thinks 
that at some time and in some way the formation of parishes must have 
been the work of Church authority. A Rector of Bramshott appears in 
1225, and the list is probably almost complete from 1309 ; the parish 
seems to have been happy in its clergy, for the worst that is recorded 
against any of them is that the Archdeacon was once bidden to find out 
why one of them was non-resident. The advowson remained with the lords 
of the manor till 1686, when it was bought by Queen's College, Oxford, 
for ^525 ; it seems a good bargain for them, for the tithe is commuted at 
^785, and there are forty acres of glebe, but the College did not present 
till 1702. Canon Capes seems to think that the nominees of the College 
proved to be worthy rectors. There are good chapters on Manorial 
Usages and Royal Forests, and the gradual change from the old system of 
labour services is well traced out. The reasons for the enclosure of the 
common lands are well stated, and so are the disastrous results of the 
system to the poor, the pasturage of whose animals was taken away. 
The enclosures enriched a few and impoverished very many, and the poor 
people of England have never since been so well off as they were in the 
fifteenth century. The changes of religion passed lightly over Bramshott ; 
there were no large monasteries in the neighbourhood, there seem also to 
have been no guilds or chantries, so that the poor were not plundered in 
the time of Edward VI., and Robert Valoen held the Rectory from 1534 
to 1549. The chapter on the Poor Laws is well worth careful reading, and 
is all the more valuable because the story is told with definite instances 
taken from the history of the parish. The effect of these laws certainly 
was that a man who received help from the parish was better off and could 
more readily obtain work than one who was independent, and the fact that 
a higher rate of relief was given for illegitimate children than for those born 
in wedlock was a direct encouragement to immorality. There can be no 
doubt that the low moral state of so many country parishes is an abiding 
result of these evil laws. It was, however, of course to the interest of the 
overseers that children should be born in wedlock, and accounts are given 
showing that a pauper's marriage, no doubt under pressing circumstances, 
cost £6 16s. 2d. The licence and fees cost £3 18s. ; but the fact that the 
clergyman was not at home led to a further expenditure of £1 19s. 4d. on 
"keeping the male pauper in Hall," "paid for dinner the day he was 
married, ' ' and 1 ' expenses at the Swan Inn . 1 ' The ring cost 8s. This was at 
Compton. In 1833 the poor rate was 14s. 6d. in the pound. Soon afterwards, 
however, things began to mend. In 1848 enclosures began on a large, 
scale, and brought much land under cultivation or rendered it available for 



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309 



building. And though the railway for a time impoverished the posting 
houses, their prosperity has been partly restored by summer visitors. In 
1867 the church was rebuilt, and in 1871 schools were provided, so that 
the book ends— as all books should end — happily. There is a good map 
showing the boundaries of the different manors, but — a sad blot on what 
might be an useful book — there is no sort of index. 



THE ENGLISH CHURCH IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY, 
FROM THE ACCESSION OF HENRY VIII. TO THE DEATH 
OF MARY. By James Gairdner, C.B. London : Macmillans. 1902. 

This volume is one of the series on English Church History which was 
commenced under the Editorship of the late Dean of Winchester, and it 
is the volume which deals with the subject on which differences of opinion 
are most likely to arise, and which will perhaps to some extent, on account 
of that very reason, prove to many people the most interesting of all. 
Under these circumstances the late Dean acted wisely in entrusting the 
volume to a layman, and he was fortunate in being able to secure the 
services of that one among laymen who, on account of his work among 
the public records of the period, is of all men the best living authority on 
the subject. It is a book which will repay thoughtful study, and though 
the facts brought to light, the judgments formed, and the conclusions 
arrived at are far different from popular ideas concerning the Reformation 
period, no unbiassed reader will deny either the learning or the fairness 
or the sound judgment of the writer. We must remember that during the 
process of the Reformation three separate things were done, either of 
which might have taken place without the other two: (1) the destruction of 
the usurped Roman supremacy ; (2) the dissolution of the religious 
houses; (3) the alterations in the outward form of religion. With regard 
to the first, the axe had been lying at the root of the tree ever since the 
Statute of Prczmunire had been passed in 1393; but between Edward III. 
and Henry VIII. there had never been a strong king in a strong position, 
and indeed nothing had happened to make so great a change necessary or 
advisable. The desire of Henry for a remarriage proved to be dignus 
vindice nodus, and the avenger cut the knot which the avarice and duplicity 
and lust of power of the Papal Court had woven so tightly that it could 
not be unravelled. The squalid story of the marriage of the unhappy 
Katharine and of her husband's unprincipled efforts for a separation is 
told in all its nakedness with a brevity and fulness which compel convic- 
tion. But the fault really lay behind Henry in the papal system itself. 
If Julius II. had not given a brief acknowledging the consummation of the 
marriage with Prince Arthur and permitting the Princess to marry her 



3io Transactions for the Year 1902. 

husband's brother the difficulty could never have arisen ; and if a quarter 
of a century later Clement VII. had not paltered with the question, letting 
I dare not wait upon I would, the matter might have been regarded as 
closed. But Henry felt, as most men in those days felt, that anything was 
possible at Rome, and he had no doubt that if it had not been that the 
pope was in the power of the emperor he would have obtained what he 
wanted without difficulty. Furthermore, there can be little doubt that 
Henry was right in this conviction. On the one side we see Queen 
Katharine, Bishop Fisher, and Sir Thomas More, on the other side Henry 
VIII., Anne Boleyn, and Thomas Cromwell, and there is no doubt on 
which side truth and righteousness lay ; but the papal policy had created 
an impossible situation, and Henry VIII. was not the worst offender. 
Dr. Gairdner draws out very well the process by which the English 
Church was freed from dependence on Rome, and placed under the 
authority of the king. Step by step along the path of a plan evidently 
carefully thought out beforehand the work was done. By an audacious 
perversion of justice clergy and laity alike were indicted under the Statute 
of Prcemunire, the penalty of which was outlawry, for having consented to 
the Legatine Commission of Wolsey, which His Majesty himself had 
recognised. The laity were pardoned, the clergy were heavily fined, and 
compelled to recognise the king as supreme head of the Church on earth, 
and they were forbidden to pass canons without the king's consent. 
Appeals to the Court of Rome, and the payment of Annates and Peter's 
Pence were forbidden, the papal authority was abolished, and the 
supremacy of the king over the Church, with power to visit ecclesias- 
tically, was asserted. Yet, with the exception of the king's title, the 
Church was not placed more directly under royal authority than it had 
been in the time of William the Conqueror, with whom Hildebrand had 
lived on excellent terms. A chapter, illustrated by an useful map and 
lists of religious houses, deals with the suppression of the monasteries ; 
and another deals with the King's declining years, when, distrusted abroad 
and detested at home, with his treasury bankrupt in spite of debasement 
of the coinage and illegal taxation, the ruler of a realm which he had 
beggared and dishonoured, he went down to his grave. But worse was to 
follow. The reign of Edward VI. divides itself into two parts, the 
supremacy of the Duke of Somerset and that of the Duke of Northumber- 
land, the latter reaching a lower depth of degradation than even the later 
years of Henry VIII. The changes in the form of religion went on apace ; 
but under the Duke of Somerset, while there was much wanton destruction 
of holy things, the first English Prayer Book was a fair representation of 
Catholic teaching in the English Church, as it stood forth purged from 
Medisevalism ; under the Duke of Northumberland foreign Protestantism 
gained overwhelming power, and the second English Prayer Book marked 



Notices of Publications. 



a lowest point from which each succeeding revision has been a recovery. At 

the time of the death of Edward VI. Protestantism was utterly discredited, 

Queen Mary was placed on the throne by the power of the Eastern 

Counties where reformed opinions were strongest, the foreign Protestamts 

fled to their own places, and England was glad at their departing. At the 

accession of Queen Mary the English Church stood at the dividing of the 

ways. Protestantism was gone for the time. Should she be as she had 

been in the early days of Henry VIII. — the old religion with the pope, 

or as in his later years — the old religion without the pope ? The 

■constitutional prelates, with Bishop Gardiner at their head, earnestly 

pressed the Queen to make an English marriage and follow the lines of 

the old Church of England before the papal supremacy sprang up. But 

it is little wonder, remembering the treatment which she and her 

mother had endured, that Queen Mary preferred a Spanish match. 

From that there followed alienation from her people, the foreign wars 

and the loss of Calais, and, worse than all, the savage executions 

which burned a hatred of Rome into the heart of the nation which 

has not died away ; so that by the end of her reign Romanism was 

hated as intensely as Protestantism had been hated at the beginning. It 

is certainly strange that in the two succeeding reigns Romanism and 

Protestantism should each 'have presented its worst side to the English 

people. Dr. Gairdner tells the whole sordid history of the English 

Reformation clearly and dispassionately, with a full grasp of facts and an 

exercise of calm judgment in dealing with them ; and if as we read we 

think that the story is not the one which we have been accustomed to hear, 

we cannot help feeling that it is written by a master-hand and that it bears 

all the marks of truth. As we scan page after page and find ourselves 

plunged into ever lower and lower depths of degradation and infamy, we 

cannot help recalling the lines which lamented the irreverence and foulness 

of an earlier age : — 

" Damnosa quid non imminuit dies? 
Aetas parentum peior avis tulit 
Nos nequiores, mox daturos 
Progeniem vitiosiorem." 1 

It may be that we blame the men of the Reformation, but the men of the 
Reformation were the children of the Mediaeval Church. The Reformation 
was indeed the parent of modern Protestantism, it was also the natural 
outcome of the corruptions of Mediae valism. There had' been a golden 
age in Western Christendom in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, but 
the precious metal had become dross, and the men of the Reformation 
were products of the dross. It is not fair therefore to blame them alone 
for the iniquities which they perpetrated, they did but inherit the tendencies 

l Horace, lib. iii., carmen vi., ad finem. 



Vol. XXV. 



22 



312 



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of the age before them ; rather we should blame the system of the 
.Mediaeval Papacy, the corruptions . of which made the Reformation 
necessary, and at the same time trained its children, who grew up into, 
the men of the Reformation, to be what they were. 



HISTORY OF THE CHURCH OF ST. MARY AT PAINSWICK. 
By St. Clair Baddeley. Exeter : Pollard & Co. 1902. 

It would be well if books of the type of this one were more common, and 
there is no reason why they should not be much more common than they 
are if only folk would take the trouble to compile them. The task would 
not be a difficult one now that access to public records is so easy. Mr.. 
Baddeley begins with the entry concerning the Manor of Wiche in 
Domesday, and the presbyter who is mentioned as resident upon it. The 
entry suggests questions which are difficult to answer, for while the 
existing parish contains only 3,614 acres, the Domesday entry accounts 
for 20,760, of which 6,360 were arable land and 14,400 wood; while the 
modern parishes included in the Domesday Hundred of Bisley contain 
only 18,320 acres. The manor must therefore have included extensive 
areas of woodland at a distance, but there is nothing to show where 
they lay. Mr. Baddeley is only writing the history of the Church, so 
it is not fair to ask for information concerning secular matters, but it 
would have been interesting to know whether he has any suggestions to 
offer on the subject. There were tithes at Wiche before 1086, for William 
the Conqueror confirmed a gift by Walter de Laci, who died on March 
27th, 1085, of two portions of the tithes there to the Church of S. Peter 
at Hereford, which Walter was then building; and a payment was made 
to the Church of S Guthlac at Hereford from the tithes till that house 
was dissolved. In 1108 Hugh de Laci, son of Walter, founded the 
Monastery of Lantony in Wales, and then or afterwards gave the Church 
of Wiche as part of the endowment. The first Prior was Ernesi, perhaps, 
the same Ernesi who had owned Wiche in the days of the Confessor ; if 
so, the connection was accidental, for his other possessions in the county 
were not connected at all with Lantony. One of the early puzzles of 
Gloucestershire history has been to account for the way in which the 
estates of the de Lacis passed to Cecilia, daughter of Pain Fitz John, who 
married Roger Fitz Milo, the Constable. Mr. Baddeley quotes from the 
Lantony Register a charter of confirmation, by which, about 1151-1155,, 
the Countess Cecilia confirmed to the Canons of Lantony the Church of 
Wiche which had been granted to them by her grandfather Hugh. 
This must have been her maternal grandfather, Hugh de Laci, and 
her mother, Sybilla, must have been his daughter. All of us who are 



Notices of Publications. 



313- 



interested in the early history of the shire are much indebted to Mr. 
Baddeley for this discovery. It would seem then that though Wiche 
was called Painswick after Pain Fitz John, it belonged to him only 
by the right of his wife. There is nothing to show when the vicarage of 
Painswick was ordained, but this must have occurred before 1291, for the 
vicar had then a definite stipend of £7 annually, apart from the £21 3s. ^d. 
belonging to Lantony, and the admission of John Bucke to the vicarage 
on March 12th, 1402, does not imply that the vicarage was then newly 
instituted, but only that he was admitted to his benefice, as his pre- 
decessors in the vicarage had been admitted for at least two hundred years. 
It would be interesting to know whether the Geoffrey Lutterworth who 
was instituted to the vicarage in 1384, but who soon exchanged to 
S. Owen's, Gloucester, was in any way connected with John W i cliff ; 
it is certain that there was a steady drift of the Reformer's followers to 
this district towards the end of his life. On the dissolution of Lantony 
Priory in 1537, the advowson of Painswick was granted to Lord Seymour 
of Sudeley, but his head only stood on his shoulders for two years more, 
and in 1549 the advowson passed to the Crown, in which it remained till 
in. 1596 Queen Elizabeth granted it to Sir Christopher Hatton. At some 
time during the first twenty years of the seventeenth century it was sold 
by Sir Henry Winston to trustees, for the benefit of the inhabitants of the 
parish, being " the chiefest and descreetest of the parishioners ;" but as 
it proved to be impossible to make invidious distinctions, the benefice when 
it became vacant was filled by popular election. This system continued till 
the advowson was sold in 1839, though no doubt the original intention had 
been to place the presentation in the hands of a few people for the benefit 
of the Puritan party. It is not easy to understand what is meant 
by saying that the advowson is now in the hands of the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners. It is to be noted that though Painswick Church was 
originally given to Old Lantony, after the partition of the properties it was 
certainly held by Lantony near Gloucester. Mr. Baddeley also traces the 
descent of the secular manors in Painswick, which were held by a 
succession of noble families, among others by the Talbots and Greys, 
Lords Lisle, also by some who were not noble, as by Thomas Cromwell, 
and Sir William and Antony Kingston. The book is styled a history of 
the Church of Painswick, and it gives an admirable account of the 
endowment of the Church, but it is certainly a pity that there is not 
a definite and consecutive account of the fabric of the Church. Apart 
from a page at the close of the Preface, there are only incidental notices 
of the fabric scattered about in different parts of the text. The account of 
the endowment is so good that the absence of an equally good account of 
the fabric is all the more felt. There is a series of well-executed pictures 
of the Church, of the Court House, and of different portions of it, also of 



314 Transactions for the Year 1902. 

Castle Hale and other objects of interest; there is also a sufficient Index. 
The book is one which is of more than mere local interest, not only as 
affording an example of a complete and well-arranged collection of local 
records, but also because it is full of information which is likely to be 
helpful elsewhere. With regard to the Suffragan Bishop Nicholas who 
consecrated the altar slab of the Lodge Chapel, Bishop Stubbs mentions 
-a Nicolas Bishop of Christopolis who served as Suffragan of Wells 1385- 
1403, and who had his commission renewed on November 30th, 1403 ; of 
Sarum, February rst, 1395 till 1406; of Llandaff in 1382 .* Mr. Baddeley's 
opinion, therefore, that the character of the writing of the inscription on the 
slab points to a date late in the fourteenth century is quite correct, for 
Bishop Stubbs mentions no other English Suffragan named Nicolas. 



ANCHORESSES OF THE WEST. By Francesca M. Steele 
(Darley Dale). London : Sands & Co. 1903. 

This book is issued with the imprimatur of several officials of the Roman 
Communion, and also of Cardinal Vaughan, and it seems to be a careful 
and accurate compilation of facts bearing on the state of life of an 
Anchoress. It consists of chapters on Anchorites and Hermits, on 
different aspects of the life of Anchoresses, and on the ceremony of 
enclosing Anchorites. Then there are chapters on Anchoresses of 
different countries ; and the book closes with lists of English Recluses, 
and of Recluses' cells in England, followed by the Latin text of the 
Office for enclosing Anchorites from Bishop Lacy's Pontifical, and the 
Rule for Carmelite Hermits taken from a fifteenth-century English 
document at Lambeth. An Anchoress, at any rate in later days, was 
confined to a cell for the term of her life, which cell adjoined a church 
so that she might see the altar, or at any rate was hard by it ; the cell 
might be a room in a house, but if so it must be completely shut off. She 
took as a rule three vows, those of chastity and obedience, and that of 
constancy of abode instead of poverty. Her dress and her food, her 
company and her conversation were strictly under rule; she was, in fact, 
much more completely cut off from human companionship than a nun. 
It is difficult for us to conceive what could be the usefulness or the 
attraction of such a manner of life ; but that it did serve an useful purpose 
we may be sure, for it continued to be in operation until the Reformation. 
The author of the A ncren Riwle gives the following reasons for the life of a 
recluse : — (1) Security ; (2) Virginity ; (3) To obtain heaven ; (4) It is a proof 
of nobleness and liberality ; (5) Noblemen and women give large alms, we 
have left all and followed the Lord ; (6) To be in fellowship with the Lord ; 

3 Re^istrum Sacrum Anglicanum, 198. 



Notices of Publications. 315 

(7) To behold more clearly God's countenance ; (8) That their prayers may 
be more fervent. Whatever we may think of the latter reasons, the two* 
first in an age of violence and coarseness may well have led women to 
prefer the life of a recluse to others which might be forced upon them ; 
though it is evident that the cell of a recluse was no fool's paradise, yet 
even from a worldly point of view it may not seldom have been the lesser 
of two evils. Faults of recluses were ill -temper, pride, eating too much or 
too little, idle listening or talking, sitting too long at her window. She 
was to protect herself from evil discourse ; if anyone presumed to offend 
in this way, she was to shut her window directly, and say so that he might 
hear, " The wicked have told me foolish tales." t A recluse might have one 
or two maids to minister to her wants, who were somewhat in the position 
of lay-sisters in a community, for they received no wages, but only food 
and clothing, and lived a restricted life. No domestic pet was allowed 
except a cat. The Service of Inclusion was a very solemn one. After 
Litany and Mass in the church, the bishop or his deputy went with the 
intending recluse to the cell, and there, after the Administration of the 
Sacrament of Extreme Unction, the recluse lay down in a sepulchre, and 
the Bishop cast a little dust upon her, and began the Anthem, " From the 
earth wast thou formed"; then the entrance was walled up, and the 
recluse was dead to the world. The table of English recluses gives for 
Gloucestershire: — a priest in S. Nicholas Church, Gloucester, in 1502,. 
mentioned in Lord Scrope's will ; Theocus at Tewkesbury ; a cell in 
Avening Church with a squint towards the altar ; Dame Jean Clopton of 
Quinton ; a cell with an altar over the nave of Daglingworth Church ; 
a priest in the fifth century on Anchorite Hill in Cromhall. Under 
Somerset is entered : — Lucy de Newchirche, enclosed on Brandon (Hill), 
Bristol, in 1251. We may doubt the existence of Theocus, and also 
whether the cells in Avening and Daglingworth Churches were really 
Anchorholds, but clearly there were more abodes of recluses in Bristol 
and Gloucestershire than these. There was certainly one on S. Michael's 
Hill, Bristol, for in 1237 the burgesses of Bristol and the recluse who had 
been enclosed there were compelled to obtain the pardon of the Convent 
of Tewkesbury for enclosing her without proper authority. 1 Perhaps 
someone of our members might be inclined to take the matter up. It 
would be necessary to distinguish between recluses, who were enclosed, 
and hermits, who, though they lived a solitary life, were not. Ernesi and 
de Laci at Old Lantony were hermits. Bridges and gates of towns were 
favourite spots for the abodes of hermits. There is an index of recluses, 
but not of subjects. 

1 Annates de Theokesberie, 106. 



3 i6 



Transactions for the Year 1902. 



A HISTORY OF ENGLISH. CHURCH ARCHITECTURE PRIOR 
TO THE SEPARATION OF ENGLAND FROM THE ROMAN 
OBEDIENCE, By G. G. Scott, M.A., F.S.A. London: B. T. 
Batsford. 1 901. 

This very helpful book was issued privately by Mr. Scott about twenty 
years ago, and the present issue is that of the surplus stock. The book is, 
in fact, very much more than a history of English Church Architecture. 
It must be remembered that when the English became Christians they 
had no native ecclesiastical stone architecture at all ; their worship had; 
been an open-air worship of the heavenly bodies or of natural objects, 
and their buildings were of wood. An assembly within a hallowed stone 
building for worship was a new thing to them, and they naturally adopted 
the forms of building which were familiar to the missionaries who brought 
the Gospel to them. Therefore it is that a large portion of 1he earlier part 
of the book is concerned with times before the conversion of the English, 
before even the English came to this island at all, and with the architec- 
ture of distant lands. The enquiry is a necessary one, and it is carried 
•out in a very interesting way. The architectural portion of the book falls 
into five main divisions: — (1) Previous to the conversion of the English; 
(2) From thence to the Roman Conquest; (3) The Roman Period ; (4) The 
pointed style 10 the commencement of the Fourteenth Century; (5) From 
the Fourteenth Century to the close of the Mediaeval Period. Mr. Scott 
points out that from the beginning of English church history there have 
been two main types of ground-plan of English churches, the one with 
square-ended chancels, and the other with a chancel terminating in 
an apse. The latter is simply the Basilican type characteristic of the 
Continent, common alike to the Eastern and Western Churches. Such 
a church was the ancient Basilica at Deerhurst, very probably built by 
Ethelric after his visit to Rome in 800. And such a church now is 
Tewkesbury Abbey, which is truly a Basilica, though Gothic in its out- 
ward forms. But after the Norman Conquest the apse became very rare 
in England, being superseded by the square-ended chancel. Mr. Scott is 
clear that this latter type was introduced into England by the Celtic 
missionaries. These square-ended churches are found in Ireland and 
also in England, as in Cornwall and at Ebb's Nook in Northumber- 
land. Probably the best example now existing in England is the Saxon 
chapel at Bradford-on-Avon. Odda's chapel at Deerhurst, built just 
before the Norman Conquest — or rather while the Norman Conquest was 
in progress — possesses characteristics of both styles. The Basilican type 
of church has a lofty chancel — or triumphal — arch and an apsidal chancel. 
The first type has a low chancel arch and a square chancel. At first 
sight Odda's chapel seems to be Irish, a building much resembling 



Notices of Publications. 



S. Aldhelm's Chapel at Brad ford-on- Avon ; but its relatively lofty chancel 
arch shows its Basilican affinities. It is, in fact, a " Rcgia AaLi," a true 
Basilica, only the square end has already superseded the apse in the 
chancel. Mr. Scott points out that this difference of style did not cause 
any essential difference in ritual. In the apse the bishop sat in the centre 
of the curve with his priests on either hand and the altar in front of him, 
as he did in Norwich Cathedral, or as the pope would sit in St. John 
Lateran now. In a square-ended church the altar would stand in the 
centre of the chancel, as it does in all English cathedrals, or as it did 
till recently at Deerhurst, and there would be seats round the walls as 
there are at Deerhurst. The stone bench still exists in the chancel at 
Bradford-on-Avon. It must not be supposed that there is anything 
Puritan in the position of an altar which stands out in the body of the 
church or of the chancel and is railed round, for that is exactly the 
position of the altar in the great Roman Basilicas. In English cathedrals 
the altar has never been placed against the east wall ; it has always stood 
out in the open, for the screen or reredos behind it is an appendage of the 
altar rather than a portion of the structure of the church itself. And the 
same arrangement is found in large parish phurches, such as S. Mary 
Redcliff. In the last half of the book Mr. Scott follows the development 
of Church Architecture in England from the rise of the Norman style to 
the close of the Perpendicular. He commences by tracing the similarity 
in plan and general arrangement which existed between the Church of 
S. Stephen at Caen and the Cathedral at Canterbury ; he then passes to 
the magnificent Norman work at S. Alban's, which was built in the 
Conqueror's reign, and deals finally with Durham Cathedral. The essay 
on the Pointed style begins with an account, which is very well worth 
reading, of the development of groined vaulting, and with it the adoption 
•of the pointed arch. The example of Pointed Architecture first taken is 
that of the Church of Abbey Dore, a sketch of the presbytery of which 
forms the frontispiece of the book. It is not a large church, but there is 
hardly a more lovely church in England, and it is certainly strange that it 
has never been visited by our Society. Salisbury Cathedral, Westminster 
Abbey and the presbytery of S. Alban's are then described as examples 
of the type. Characteristic elements of the Perpendicular style are taken 
to be perpendicular tracery in the windows, the invention of the four- 
centered arch and fan-groining; and the Chapel of King's College at 
Cambridge is taken as its great example. A good account is given of the 
way in which a fan-tracery roof was substituted for the groined roof of 
the original design. Though the book is described as an " Essay on the 
History of English Church Architecture," it is really a series of essays, 
•all of which do not deal with architecture. There is, for instance, a 
Discursus on the history of the chasuble. The main subject is thus 



Transactions for the Year 1902 



broken up into fragments in rather a confusing fashion, and the style of; 
writing is far from being clear and consecutive. Still, a careful and 
patient reader will find very much indeed that is interesting, and most 
of us would learn a great deal from the essays. There is a really valuable 
series of ground-plans of Basilicas and early churches of different types ; 
but there is no index of any kind, and it detracts from the value of the 
book that the writer should have felt it needful to say so many unpleasant 
things about the Church from which he went out. 



AIDAN, THE APOSTLE OF ENGLAND. By Alfred C. Fryer, 
Ph.D., F.S.A. London: S. W. Partridge & Co. 1902. 

When iElfric nine centuries ago composed a homily for the Feast of 
S. Gregory, he began by speaking of him as " Gregory the holy Pope, 
Apostle of the English people"; and perhaps it is a mistake to apply 
the time-honoured title to another. For though it is true that the 
Northumbrians and Mercians ultimately derived their Christianity from 
the north, yet, besides the abortive mission of Paulinus, the Gospel first 
came to the East Angles through Felix the Burgundian, who was 
consecrated at Canterbury at least four years before S. Aidan left Iona. 
Angle and Saxon and Jute alike owed their first knowledge of Christianity 
to the mission of S. Gregory. Apart from its title, however, this little 
book gives a clear and interesting account of the circumstances of the 
mission of S. Aidan and of the people to whom he came. There are 
chapters on English Heathendom, the Celtic Schools, the Methods of the 
Celtic Missionaries, and on S. Oswald ; and one who reads the hundred 
pages carefully through will understand the regret with which Bede 
(H.E. iii. 26) records the departure of many of the Celtic missionaries 
after the Synod of Whitby, and the grounds of the tribute which he pays, 
to their self-denying labours and the sincerity of their life. So far as the 
course of S. Aidan's mission was concerned its career was one of unbroken 
success. There were in England no martyrs for Woden and Thor, and 
martyrdom for Christ was not called for in these early days. Teutonic 
heathenism on the Continent was made of sterner stuff, as the twin 
Hewalds and S. Boniface found ; and Odin and Thor owned abundance 
of martyrs to their cause in Scandinavia in later times. Dr. Fryer does 
not attempt to account for this weakness of English heathendom, and it 
is not easy to suggest a reason for it. Perhaps the most likely cause 
assignable is that a worship of personified faces of nature, which centred 
round natural objects, such as trees and rocks and wells, was weakened 
by migration to new abodes, and that there had not been time for the same 
strong attraction to new objects of worship to grow up which had been 



Notices of Publications. 



319 



felt for the old ones. S. Edmund, indeed, two centuries later, was truly 
a martyr ; but the Northmen who slew him had come direct from their 
ancient shrines. The account given of mission work in early times is no 
doubt true of the mission of S. Aidan, which was mission work at its 
very best. How good it was, and how much more pure its Christianity was 
than the Christianity of the age which succeeded it, may be learned from 
a comparison between the passage of Bede's History, already referred to, 
and his letter to Egbert, Bishop of York, on the state of the Northumbrian 
Church seventy years after the Synod of Whitby. The booklet is of 
special interest to readers in this part of England, for Gloucestershire 
Christianity is a direct inheritance from the mission of S. Aidan. Dr. 
Fryer tells how S. Aidan recalled S. Hilda to Northumbria, and frequently 
visited the religious houses over which she ruled, and it was from her 
house at Whitby that Tatfrith, the first Bishop-designate of Worcester, 
and Oftfor, the second Bishop who actually ruled the diocese, were sent 
forth. There is room for a few corrections. The initial line of the hymn, 
"A solis ortus cardine," is misprinted; and though Sir Walter Scott in 
Marmion might write of the church on Holy Island — 

"In Saxon strength that abbey frowned, 
With massive arches broad and round," 

it is scarcely fair in plain prose to describe the beautiful imitation of the 
nave at Durham as a "grand old Saxon abbey." It is true also that the 
walk to Holy Island from Beal is "at best wet and plashy," but anyone 
who will cross the ferries from Bamborough and walk barefoot along the 
four miles of the smooth sands of Ross will find the pilgrimage to Holy 
Island as pleasant an one as he could wish for. The writer has tried both 
ways. Again, when it is said that " not far from S. Oswald's Chapel can 
be seen the northern foss of the wall, also the southern vallum-line and 
the stations and forts," it should be added that the point where the line of 
the Roman wall crosses the short cart-track from General Wade's Road to 
the chapel can be easily distinguished, and the depression caused by the 
vallum can be traced without difficulty in the ploughed field. At any rate, 
these things could easily be seen in the summer of 1901. There is no 
index, though one would be an useful guide even to a small book like 
this. 



HISTORIC BRISTOL. Compiled by Charles Wells. Bristol : 
Times and Mirror Office. 1902. 

This is a series of chatty essays which appeared on the pages of the 
Bristol Times and Mirror during the years 1901 and 1902. They have no 
pretence to originality or to strict accuracy in matters of historical fact, 



320 Transactions for the Year 1902. 

and this much the writer is candid enough to state at the outset. But if 
they are taken as being what they are intended to be, that is to say, light 
and easy reading about the history of the old city, they may serve n( t 
■only to pass an idle hour, but also to interest a reader, who might not 
otherwise care about such things, in the different stages of the lives of 
those to whom Bristol belonged in days gone by. And if this is so, 
they will have served an useful purpose, and one which we may hope the 
writer intended them to serve. This being so, of course they are not open 
to criticism as if they were serious history ; but a few remarks will not 
be out of place. Mr. Wells is modest in his title of Historic Bristol, 
for the essays deal with prehistoric Bristol in what he says about the 
camps on each side of the Avon, and with the Bristol of the imagination 
of Corry, and of some who have come after him. The account of the 
camps is thoroughly well done, but it would have been better if it had 
been clearly stated that there is no more continuity of life between those 
camps and the Saxon borough of Bristol than there is between New York 
or Melbourne and the settlements of the aborigines who squatted on those 
sites five centuries ago. With regard to a statement often made that 
King Edward the Elder built a fortress at Bristol, we may take it as fairly 
certain that he did not do so. The Chronicle tells us that in 918 he 
guarded the southern shore of the Bristol Channel from West Wales to 
Avonmouth. We have a very complete list of West Saxon fortresses of 
King Edward's reign, which mentions such places as Watchet, Athelney, 
Axbridge and Langport ; we have also a list of the fortresses which his 
sister, the Lady of the Mercians, working out from Gloucester, built ; but 
there is absolutely no mention of Bristol, or of any name which can be 
interpreted as referring to Bristol. It is probable that a bridge was built 
to join the Gloucestershire Patchway with the roads of Somerset, and 
that a settlement grew up at the bridge-head, but there is nothing to show 
when this came to pass; but Bristol is not mentioned by name till 1052. 
Mr. Wells seems to have a taste for fortifications, for of his eighteen 
chapters no fewer than seven deal with the camps, the castle, the walled 
town, or the forts of the Civil Wars. There are other chapters on the 
bridge, on some of the old churches and almshouses, also on the inns and 
on the old high cross, while the history of the port extends over more 
than eight centuries — from the time when S. Wulfstan put a stop to the 
shameful export of slaves to the cutting of the first sod of the Royal 
Edward Dock ; so that the little book brings within its range a very wide 
view of the public and social life of the city. With regard, to Burton's 
almshouse in Long Row, the almshouse in the " Langerewe " is mentioned 
in the will of Walter Derby, proved in 1383, and often subsequently, 
and there is really no reason for doubting the tradition that it was founded 
•by Simon de Burton about 1292 ; at any rate, it existed long before the 



Notices of Publications. 



321 



time of John Burton, who lived in the reign of Henry VI. Finally, it 
is not the case that the Pelican Inn ceased to exist after 1665 ; the Vestry 
of S. Thomas ordered, on April 27th, 1789, that the materials already 
taken from the roof of the old church should be sold at the Pelican Inn, 
and the meetings of- the Vestry were held at the Pope's Head and Pelican 
while the church was being rebuilt. 



PROFESSOR EARLE. 

The Rev. John Earle, Professor of Anglo-Saxon in the University 
of Oxford, died in that city on February ist, 1903, aged seventy- 
eight. He was born on January 29th, 1824, at Elston, in the parish 
of Churchstow, near Kingsbridge, South Devon, and was educated 
at Plymouth New Grammar School, where he stayed until, the 
ancient Grammar School at Kingsbridge having been reconstituted, 
he was entered there for the last year before going to Oxford. He 
matriculated in 1842. In 1845 he was placed in the first class of 
Litterse Humaniores, and in 1848 he was elected Fellow of Oriel 
on a Devonshire foundation. In 1849 he was elected Professor of 
Anglo-Saxon, an office at that time tenable for only five years. In 
1852 he hecame College tutor, in succession to Mr. Buckle, late 
Canon of Wells. In 1857 ne was presented by Oriel College to 
the Rectory of Swainswick, near Bath. He was appointed by the 
Bishop of Bath and Wells (Lord Arthur Harvey), in 1871, to the 
Prebend of Wanstrow in Wells Cathedral, and in 1873 to be Rural 
Dean of Bath, an office which he discharged until 1877. In 1876 
he was selected Professor of Anglo-Saxon in the University of 
Oxford, the tenure of this professorship having in the meanwhile 
been made permanent. The following is the list of his chief 
publications: — Gloucester Fragments (St. Sivithun, &c), 1861 ; Bath, 
Ancient and Modem, 1864 ; Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel, 1865 ; 
The Philosophy of the English Tongue, 1871 ; fourth edition, 1887 ; 
A Book for the Beginner in Anglo-Saxon, in 1877 ; third edition, 
1884 ; English Plant Names from the Tenth to the Fifteenth Century, 
1880 ; Anglo-Saxon Literature, 1884 ; A Hand Book of the Land 
Charters and other Saxonic Documents, 1888 ; English Prose : Its 
Elements, History, and Usage, 1890; and The Alfred Jewel, 1901. 
He contributed a paper on the local names in the country round 
Bath to Volume VIII. of our Transactions, and a translation of the 
Woodchester Charter of 896 to Volume V. He had done admirable 
work for old English literature in his time, and to the end of his 
long life he continued to be ever ready to help those who were 
interested in the subject from the abundant stores of his knowledge. 
On his death the Professorship of Anglo-Saxon was united to the 
Merton Professorship of English Language and Literature. 



INDEX. 



Abenhale, Ralph de, 169 
Abingdon Abbey, 246, 247 
Abington, John, Abbot, 36 
Abitot, Urso d', 56 
Acton, Sir John, Arms of, 132 
Adam, John, Prior, 226, 229 
/Elfhere, Ealdorman, 236, 241 — 246, 248, 
249 

^Elfric, Abbot, 241, 242 

#ilfric, Ealdorman, 242, 246 — 249 

^Escwig, Bishop, 235 

^Ethelfiasd, Lady of the Mercians, 15 

^Ethelmaer, Bishop, 234 

^Ethelred, Ealdorman, 15 

^Ethelwine, Ealdorman, 248 

Agelwin, 247 

Alan, Abbot, 90 

Alard, Gervase, Effigy of, 96 

Albertus Lothariensis, 243 

Albi Cathedral, rood-loft in, 134 

Alcmond, 276 

Alcock, John, Bishop, 63 

Aldred, Bishop, 247 

Aldwin, Prior, 56 

Alfred, King, 19, 20, 80 

Alfred, Monk, 38 

Algar, 80 

Alleyne Family, Arms of, 127 
Almeric, 81 

Almondsbury Church, Effigies in, 273— 
276 

Heraldry in, 184 — 186 
Derivation of Name, 276 
Alney Island, 235, 236 
Alphege, St., 69, 230, 231, 235, 236 
Amboise, Bishop Louis d', 134 
Ambrose, William, Prior, 227, 229 
Ampney, Land at, 89 
Andrews Family, Arms of, 116 
Angell Family, Arms of, 117 
Annesley Family, Arms of, 128, 206 
Anselm, Archbishop, 213 
Antingham, Sir Bartholomew, Arms ot, 

109 

Apperley Court, Visit of the Society, 76 
Applewhaite Family, Arms of, 128 
Architecture of Somerset, Freeman's 

Notes on, 1 — 5 
Armorial Bearings of — 

Acton, 132 

Alleyne, 127 

Andrews, 116 

Angell, 117 

Annesley, 128, 206 

Antingham, 109 

Applewhaite, 128 

Arther, 196 

Ashcombe, 203 

Ashe, 210 

Atkins, 157 

Atlay, 188 

Bacon, 109 

Baker, 186 

Banaster, 188 



Armorial Bearings of (continned)- 
Bankes, 107 
Barker, 187 
Barrey, 118, 119 
Barrow, 210 
Basset, 103, 129 
Bat£s, 204 
Batten, 126 
Baylies, 190 
Baynard, 109 
Beauchamp, 44, 103, 207 
Bell, 131 

Berkeley, 102, 115, 122, 127, 132, 
275 

Besford, 202 

Bitton, 117 

Blackbourne, 112 

Blayney, 189 

Bohun, de, 102 

Booth, 113, 192 

Boson, 197 

Boteville, 208 

Box, 122 

Brace, 193, 211 

Bradestone, 103, 184 

Brain, 205 

Brandon, 108, 113 

Brice, 183 

Bridges, 183 

Bright, 125 

Brightwell, 183 

Bristol City, 121 

Bristol Dolphin Society, 120 

Bristol Merchant Venturers, 120 

Bristol, See of, 104, 106, 18S 

Brome, 118 

Browne, 184 

Browning, 186 

Brun, 104 

Buck, 183 

Buerton, 156 

Bulkeley, 191 

Bull, 127 

Bulstrode, 190 

Burley, 42, 50 

Burton, 111, 124, 203 

Bush, 109 

Butler, 124, 210 

Cabell, 211 

Cadicott, 118 

Cadwgan, 189 

Cairnes, 208 

Caley, 108 

Campbell, 127 

Canterbury, See of, 129 

Carpenter, 278 

Carteret, 157 

Carthorp, 191 

Cartwright, 153 

Cary, 113 

Cassey, 75 

Caster ton, 130 

Cave, 189, 190 

Chedder, 11, 117 



3 2 4 



Index. 



Armoriat, Bearings of (continued) — 
Chedle, 191 
Chester, 184 
Chetwynd, 114. 123 
Christopher, 183 
Clanbow, 132 
Clare, 102, 132 
Clevedon, 103, 185, 275 
Clopton, 200, 202, 203 
Cobham, 105, 126 
Cocke, 280 
Codrington, no 
Colston, 120 
Conybeare, 112 
Cookes, 190 
Cookson, 128 
Coote, 126 
Corbet, 200 
Coster, 112 
Couper, 115 
Coventry, 200 
Croun, 104 
Crupes, 264, 266 
Culpepper, 151, 192; 193 
Cumberbatch, 112 
Damory, 47 
Daniell, 125, 126 
Danvers, 204, 205 
Darrell, 201 
Daston, 210 
Daubney, 183 
Day, 237 
Degon, 173 
Delamore, 115 
De la Rivere, 103 
De Monchensi, 45, 47 
Densell, 200 
Despencer, 45, 102 
Dineley, 194 
Dixon, 130 
Dottin, 126 
Dowdall, 127 
Dowdeswell, 124 
Dowell, 186, 187 
Downton, 195 
Doyly, 126 
Doyngell, 173 
Dumbleton, 210 
Dunch, 196 
Durham, See of, 124 
Eden, 203 
Edolphe, 193 

Edward the Confessor, 127, 132 

Edward, Prince, 122 

Ellicott, 130 

Elliott, 108 

Elton, 122, 125 

Elyot, 104, 107, 116 

England, 102 

Entwistle, 199 

Erneley, 193 

Ewbank, 193 

Far way, n 

Fereby, 195 

Ferrers, 114, 187, 206 

Field, 198 

Fielding, 195 

Fillegh, 200 

Fisher, 206, :07 

Fitchett, 279 

FitzAlan, 103 

FitzHamon, 44 

FitzHerbert, 197 

FitzNicholas, 132 

Fletcher, 190, 198, 204 

Forbes, in 

Fortescue, 199, 200 

Freemasons' Company, 203 



Armorial Bearings of [continued) 
Freke, in 
Furneaux, 118 
Gardner, 189 
Gay, 127 
Gee, 130 
George, 130 
Gerbridge, 118, 119 
Gifford, 185 
Girdlestone, 106 
Gist, 208 
Glemham, 108 
Glodrydd, 189 

Gloucester, See of, 121, 188, 207 

Goodhind, 188 

Gore, 121 

Gospatrick, 206 

Gosworth, 206 

Gough, 184 

Gourney, 118 

Graves, 203, 205 

Grenvile, 200 

Grevel, 198 

Greystock, 2c6 

Griffith, 107, 183 

Grossett, 113 

Grosvenor, 191 

Grylls, 130 

Guise, 183 

Gurney, 205 

Guthrie, 106 

Gwilliam, 107 

Hamond, 125 

Hampton, 117 

Harcourt, in 

Hardhill, 192 

Harding, 184 

Hardreshall, 19 

Harington, 114 

Harptree, 118 

Harrison, 189, 201 

Harvie, 117 

Hatherfield, 119 

Havenell, 104 

Hemgrave, 118, 119, 120 

Henderson, 127 

Henry VIII., 113, 122 

Hevyn, 195 

Hicks, 188, 194 

Hill, 279 

Hopton, 195 

Howe, in, 267 

Humfrey, 194 

Hunt, 104, 190 

Ireland, 121 

Ireton, 210 

Ironside, 123 

Jordan, 126 

Kelleway, no 

Kentwood, 186 

Keyt, 198 

Kidwally, igt 

Kingston, 154, 185, 274, 273 
Kynnersley, 206 
Large, 280 
Layard, 111 
Leeche, 118, 119, 120 
Leicester, 115 
Lewknor, 156 
Lingen, 202 
London, See of, 124 
Long, 131 
Loscombe, 115 
Lugg, 158 
Lutzgen, 211 
Macliver, 121 
Manwaring, 115 
Marmaduke, 103 



Index. 



325. 



Armorial Bearings of {continued) — 
Martin, 183 
Masey, 185, 274 
Masfey, 192 
Massy, 275 
Mawtbye, ng 
Maze, 121 
Menseir, 204, 205 
Meredith, 189 
Merley, 206 
Metcalie, no 
Molyneux, 127, 197 
Monk, 107 
Monox, 272 
Montacuto, 103 
Montague, 11 
More, 190 
Morgan, 204, 205 
Mortimer, 105 
Mosley, 107 
Mourse, 122 
Muirhead, 113 
Nemuyt, 117 
Nevill, 184 
Nevvland, 129 
Newton, 116, 119, 120 
Noel, 195, 196 
Norris, 122, 130 
Northcote, 200 
Norton, 125 
Nottidge, 107 
Olney, 197 
Oriel College, 278 
Orreby, 206 
Otvvay, 130 
Palmer, 129 
Parker, 109 
Partridge, 153 
Paston, 118, 119 
Pateshull. 192 
Paule, 2:6 
Peeche, 118, 119 
Peever, 119 
Pennington, 117 
Perott, 117 
Perry, 272 
Peverell, 206 
Phetiplace, 18& 
Phillipps, 209 
Phillips, 115 
Piers, 208 
Pigou, 108 
Pilkington, 130 
Placeway, 208 
Poole, 156 
Porter, 128, 199 
Poynings, 104 
Poyntz, 132 
Probyn, 164 
Prous, in 
Pytts, 194 
Quinci, De, 114 



1s.anua.11, i^z 
Rawson, 191 
Raymond, rn 
Reeve, 125 
Rice, 107 
Rich, 267 

Riley, 113, 116, 199 
Robinson, 123, 124, 205 
Rodbard, 126 
Rodney, 104 
Rogers, 130, 258 
Roper, 131 
Roshill, 125 
Rous, 112 
Rudings, 209 



Armorial Bearings of (continued) — 
St. John, 115 
St. Loe, 105 
St. Maur, 131 
St. Owen, 195 
Salmon, 199 
Sambach, 210 
Samon, 199 
Samwell, no 
Sandys, 151,. 191 
Saunderson, 120 
Savage, 210 
Scobington, 190 
Scott, 107 
Searchfield, 114 
Selleck, 208 
Servington, 105 
Sheldon, 208, 210 
Shephard, 190 
Sherborne, 117 
Sherman, 205 
Shilling, 204 
Shirley, 113 
Smith, 108, 196 
Smithsend, 187 
Smyth, 124 
Somers, 112 
Somerset, 106, 127 
Somerton, 118, 119, 120 
Somerville, 206 
Sore, 185, 275 
Spencer, 201 
Spicer, 196 
Spiney, 197 
Stapleton, 200 
Starkey, 192 
Steele, 204 
Steight, i83 
Stephens, 158 
Steward, 188 
- -Stewart, 188 - 
Stone, 120, 158 
Stourton, 280 
Stovin, 189 
Strangways, 124 
Stubbs, no 
Stutvile, 115, 206 
Styveley, 199 
Sutton, 108 
Swan, 204 
Sykes, 115 
Symes, 183 
Symonds, 115 
Tate, 131 

Taylor, 196, 199, 201, 209 
Tendering, 192 
Tewkesbury Abbey, 44, 45 
Thorpe, 106 
Throgmorton, 197 
Throkmorton, 109 
Thynne, 208 
Tierney, 112 
Tirrell, 196 
Tomes, 207 

Torrington, 185, 274, 27 
Treawin, 200 
Tregarthian, no 
Trinell, 112 
Trubshawe, 189 
Tyndall, 125 
Ufford, 106 
Urian Reged, 107 
Vassmer, 112 
Vaughan, 127 
Veele, 184, 274, 275 
Vere, 105, 106 
Vernon, 115, 191 
Vyel, 274, 275 



326 



Index. 



Armorial Bearings of (continued) — 

Vyell, 185 

Wakehurst, 192 

Walcote, 118, 119 

Waldeshef, 113 

Walker, 116 

Wallis, 131 

Walwyn, 202, 204 

Warenne, 102 

Washbourne, 154 

Washington, 194 

Wastfield, 125 

Watchell, 190 

Watsand, 118, 119 

Weeks, 126 

Wenlock, 42 

Wenman, 193 

Wentworth, 113 

Were, 200 

Westenra, 208 

Westfield, 110 

Whitccmb, 184 

Williams, 116 

Willington, 103, 209 

Withers, 189 

Wolley, 130, 131 

Woodward, in, 203 

Woolery, 130 

Worcester, See of, 278 

Wright, 123 

Wroughton, 156 

Wyat, 194 

Wybbe, 190 

Wylde, 203 

Wynter, 173 

Yate, 122 

Yonge, 129 

Zouche, 131 

See also Heraldry 
Armour, Value of Effigies for Study, 

I39—H7 
Arthur, Prince, 60 
Arthur, William, Arms of, 196 
Ashby de la Zouche, Effigy at, 97 
Ashchurch Church, Heraldry in, 187, 188 
Ashcombe Family, Arms of, 203 
Ashdown, Rev. G. M., Notes on Wrington 

Church, 18 
Ashe Family, Arms of, 210 
Ashton Court, 6 
Assandune, Battle of, 80, 235 
Asser, Bishop. 19 
Athelney Monastery, 80 
Athelstan, Dux, 16 
Athelstan, King, 16 
Atkins, William, 196 
Atkyns, Sir Robert, Jun., Arms of, 157 

Effigy of, 157 
Atlay Family, Arms of, 188 
Audley, Hugh de, Earl of Gloucester, 43 
Augustine, St., 77, 245 
Aure, Land at, 224 
Aylburton Churchyard. Cross, 10 

Bacon, Thomas, Arms of, 109, 113 
Baddeley, St. Clair ; Effigies in Rural 
Deanery of Bisley, 150 — 159 
The Story of the two Lantonys 

(illus.), 212 — 229 
Notes on the Stained Glass in 
Tewkesbury Abbey, 46 — 48 
Baker Family, Arms of, 186 
Baldwin, Abbot, 69, 234, 235, 236, 250 
Banaster, George, Arms and Crest of, 188 
Banbury, Henry de, Prior, 36, 39, 41 
Bankes, Canon, Arms of, 107 
Banwell Camp, Arrow-Heads from (z7/«s.), 
24. 25 



Banwell (continued) — 

Church, Architectural Notes on 
(illus.), 21 — 24 
Architecture of, 2 — 5 
Brass, 24 
Chapel of, ig 

Churchwardens' Accounts, 22 

Screen (illus.), 22, 23 

Views, 4, 5, 20, 22, 23 
Earthworks, 25 
Manor House, 19, 24 
Owners of, 19 — 21 

Proceedings of the Society at, 1 — 25 

Visit of the Society, 19—25 
Bardney, Mathew, Abbot of, 224 
Barker Family, Arms and Crest of, 187 
Barley Wood, 16, 18 
Barlow, Bishop, 7, 21 
Barrey, Sir Edmund, Arms of, 118 — 120 
Barrow, Thomas, Arms of, 210 
Barry, Sir Charles, 18 
Baskerville, Robert de, 90 
Basset, Sir Ancelme, Arms of, 103 

Family, Arms of, 129 
Bates, Thomas, Arms of, 204, 205 
Bath, Wm. Pulteney, Earl of, 16 
Bath, Countess of, 16 
Bath Abbey, 24, 239 

Abbots of, 235 , 236 
Batten Family, Arms of, 126 
Bayeaux, Destruction of, 83 
Baylies, William, Arms of, 190 
Baynard, Robert, Arms of, 109 
Beacon Batch, 19 
Beard, Sculptor, 134 
Beauchamp, Anne, 36 

Richard, Earl of Abergavenny, 36, 
44. 52 
Arms of, 44, 103 

Family, Arms of, 207 
Beaufort, Duchess of, 18 
Becket, St. Thomas a, 90 
Beckford, Girl Healed by a Miracle, 90 
Beckington, Bishop, Effigy of, 98, 145 
Beckington Church, 290 
Bedminster, Wayside Cross, 6 
Belesme, Robert de, 212 
Bell Family, Arms of, 131 
Benedict Biscop, 79 

Benedictine Monks, Mode of Life, 83 — 91 
Bennett, George, 207 
Benthelm, 8 

Beoly, Henry, Abbot, 36, 53, 91, 92 

John, Prior, 92 
Berkeley, Giles de, 63 

Sir Giles de, Effigy of, 257 

Sir John, 255 

Maurice III , Lord, Effigy ot, 139, 
144 

Maurice IV., Lord, Effigy of, 139, 144 
Thomas III., Lord, 176 
Sir Thomas, Effigy of, 144, 254 
Family, Arms of, 102 — 105, 108, in, 
114 — 116, 120, 122, 123, 127, 129, 
132, 184 — 186, 275 
Beikeley-hernesse, Churches of, offered 
to Lantony, 214 
Minster, 35, 244, 248 
Berthric, King, 79 
Besford, Alexander. Arms of, 202 
Betun, Robert, Prior and Bishop, 216— 

220, 228 
Bewdley Church, 289 
Bibles at Wrington Church, 18 
Bicknor, English, Church of St. Mary, 
Effigies in, 146, 167 — 169 
Manor of, 168 
Birkin, Yorks., Effigy at, 97 



Index. 



Bisley Church, Effigy in, 154, 155 
Bitton, Sir John, Arms of, 117 
Bitton Church, Effigies in, 147, 178— 181 
Blackbourne Family, Arms of, 112 
Blackleach, Alderman, Effigy of, 141 
Blayney, Mary, Dowager Lady, 20b 

Robert, 189 

Thomas, Arms of, 189 
Blencowe, Sir John, 165 
Blois, William de, Bishop, 63 
Blount, Edmund, Effigy oi, 277 

Simon, 277 
Bohun, Eleanor de, 227 

Henry de, 224 

Humphrey de (III.), 221 

Humphrey de (IV.), 222, 224, 227 

Margaret de, 224 

Matilda de, 224 

Family, Arms of, 102, 105 
Bolter, Robert, 226 
Booth, Dean, Arms of, 113 

Family, Arms of, 192 
Borough, Sir John de, 202, 203 
Boson, William, Arms of, 197 
Bottreaux Family, 200 
Bourchier, Thomas, 267 
Bourne, Bishop Gilbert, 7, 21 
Bourton-on-the-Hill, Manor of, 232 
Bowly, Mis. C. ; Effigies in Rural 
Deanery of Cirencester, 270 — 273 
Box; John de, Arms of, 122 
Brace, John, Arms of, 193 

Family, Arms of, 211 
Braci, Robert de, Prior, 217, 218, 228 

Effigy of, 95 
Bradestone Family, Arms of, 103, 104 

Crest of, 184 
Bradston, Anthony, 274 

Blanche de, Effigy of, 283 

Sir Edward de, Effigy of, 283 

Robert de, 283 

Sir Thomas, Effigy of, 145, 282 
Bramble, Col. ; Notes on Yatton Church, 
12 — 14 

Brandon, Sir William, Arms of, 108, 113 
Branscombe Church. 289, 290 
Brasses at — 
Banwell, 24 

Deerhurst (illus.), 74, 75 
Brasses of — 

Ferrers, Sir William, 101 

Leigh, Sir Peter, 101 

Martock, John, 24 
Bray, Sir Reginald, 60 
Brayne, James, Arms of, 205 
Breose, Mary de, 222 

William de, 222 
Brian, Guy de, 36, 43, 51, 53 

Effigy of, 139, 143 
Brice Family, Arms of, 183 
Brictric Fitz Algar, 80, 81 
Bridges, Edward, Arms of, 183 

Humfry and Elizabeth, Effigies of, 
270, 271 
Bright Family, Arms of, 125 
Brightwell Family, Arms of, 183 
Brihteah, Abbot;, 241, 244 
Brill Church, 287 

Bristol, Abbey of St. Augustine, Abbot 
and Convent, 8 
Gift to, 214 
Cathedral Heraldry, by F. Were, 
102 — 132 

Church of All Saints, Communion 

Table, 290 
Church of St. Mark, Effigy in, 146 
Church of St. Mary Redcliffe, Archi- 
tecture of, 2 



Bristol, Church of St. Mary Redcliffe 
(continued) — 
Effigies in, 101, 146 
Church of St. Peter, 89 

Communion Table, 290 
Church of St. Philip, 89 
City, Arms of, 121, 123, 129, 130 
Dolphin Society, Arms of, 120 
Merchant Venturers, Arms of, 120, 123. 
Priory of St. James, 85 
See of, Arms of, 104, 106 — 108, 110, 
112, 114, 121, 123, 124, 129, 130, 188 
Temple Church, Effigies in, 142 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeo- 
logical Society. Report of the 
Council, 30 — 33 
Bristow, William, Abbot, 36 
Britric, 35 

Broadway Church, Heraldry in, 209—211 

Middle Hill House, Fleraldry in, 211 

Priory, Heraldry in, 208 
Brockwortrlj Simon de, Prior, 228 
Brome Family, Arms of, 118 
Browne Family, Arms of, 184 
Browning, John, Arms of, 186 
Bruges, Elizabeth, 75 
Brun Family, Arms of, 104 
Bubwith, Bishop, 21 
Buck, Kenelyn, Arms of, 183, 184 
Buckland Church, Heraldry in, 207, 208 
Buckland Abbas Church, 208 
Buerton Family, Arms of, 156 
Bulkeley, Catherine, 192 

Sir Richard, 191 

Thomas, 191 

William de, 191 

Family, Arms of, 191, 192, 193 
Bull Family, Arms of, 1-27 
Bulstrode, Edward, Arms of, 190 
Burg, Maud de, 36 
Burghersh, Elizabeth de, 43 
Burley, Sir John de, 43, 50 
Arms of, 42 

Sir Richard, 43 

Walter de, 43 

Family, Effigy of, 145 
Burrington, 18 

Burton, Robert, Arms of, 203 

Family, Arms of, in, 124 
Bury St. Edmunds, Abbots of, 234, 236 
Bush, Bishop, Arms of, 109 
Bushell, Thomas, 198 
Bushley Park, 86 
Butler, Bishop, 29 

Arms of, 124 

Family, Arms of, 210 
Button, Robert de, Effigy of, 180, 181 

Thomas de, 180 

Cabell Family, Arms of, 211 
Cadbury Hill Camp, 15 
Cadicott, Walter, Arms of, 118 
Cadwgan Famiiy, Arms of, 189 
Cairnes, Sir Alex., Arms of, 208 
Caley Family, Arms of, 108 
Campbell Family, Arms of, 127 
Campden, Chipping — 

Church, Heraldry in, 195—198 

Grammar School, Heraldry in, 195 

Market House, Heraldry in, 194 
Camps — 

Banwell, 24, 25 

Cadbury Hill, 15 

Dolebury, 18, 19' 
Cantelupe, Walter de, Bishop, 56, 84 
Canterbury, See of, Arms of, 129 
Canynge, William, Dean, 278 

Effigies of, 101, 146 



Vol. XXV 



23 



328 



Index. 



Capel, Sir William, 16 
Carhampton, Land at, 20 
Carlisle Priory, 217 
Carpenter, John, Bishop, 58 
Arms of, 276 

Burial Place of, Letters on, 294, 295 

Effigy of, 278 
Carr, George, 86 
Carteret Family, Arms of, 157 
Carthorp Family, Arms of, 191 
Cartwright, Mr., Incumbent of West- 
bury, 295 

Family, Arms of, 153 
Cary Family, Arms of, 113 
Cassey, Alice, 74 

Henry, 76 

Sir John, Brass of, 74, 75 
Effigy of, 99 

William, 75 

Family, Arms of, 75 
Casterton Family, Arms of, 130 
Cathedrals, French, Religious and Civil 

Assemblies in, 135, 136 
Cave Family, Arms of, 189, 190 
Cerney, South, Manor of, 246, 247 
Chad, St., 77 

Challoner, Sir Thomas, 206 
Chancels, Arrangement of, 285 — 293 
Chandos, John de, Prior, 228 

Robert de, 85 
Chartres Cathedral, Fragments of rood- 
loft in, 133 
Chatham, Earl of, 23 
Chaucer, Geoffrey, 43 
Cheddar Minster, 20 
Chedder, Isabel de, 11 

Sir John, Arms of, 117 

Family, 8 
Chedle, Roger, Arms of, 191 
Chedworth, Lord, 269 
Cheltenham, Richard, Abbot, 36 
Cheltenham, Land at, 224 
Cheriton, William, Prior, 228 
Cherrington, Effigy at, 97 
Chester, Thomas, 268 

Arms and Crest of, 184 
Chesterton, Thomas, Abbot, 36 
Chettle, Land at, 90 
Chetwynd, Dean, Arms of, 114, 123 
Chew Magna, Effigy at, 94 
Child's Wickham, Manor of, 250 
Chokke, Sir Thomas, 117 
Christopher Family, Arms of, 183 
Churchill Church, 19 
Church-scot, Meaning of, 240 
Cirencester, Church of St. John Baptist, 
Effigies in, 270 — 273 

Council at, 247 

Priory, 217 
Clanbow, Sir Thomas, Arms of, 132 
Clare, Eleanor de, 44, 48 

Elizabeth de, 47 

Gilbert de, Earl of Gloucester, 36, 

45—48, 54- 56, 63, 87 
Isabel de, 36 

Richard de, Earl of Gloucester, 36 

Family, Arms of, 102, 104, 132 
Clare, Squire, 291 
Clarence, George, Duke of, 36, 44 
Claverham, Manor of, 7 
Clevedon. John, Arms of, 185, 275 
Cleveland, Dukes of, 16 
Clifton Reynes, Effigy at, 99 
Clivedon, Sir John, Arms of, 103 
Clopton, Sir John, 200, 201 

Sir William, 202, 203 

Family, Arms of, 200 — 203 
Clovis, 134 



Cnut, King, 20, 69, 235 
Cobham Family, Arms of, 105, 126 
Cock, William, Arms of, 280, 281 
Codrington, Robert, Arms of, no 
Colchester, Priory of Austin Canons, 214, 
215 

Coin S. Denys, Manor of, 232 
Colston Family, Arms of, 120 
Colwall, 55 

Communion Tables, position and ar- 
rangements of, 285 — 293 
Compton, Little, Manor of, 232 
Compton Martin, Effigy at, 97 
Connington, Effigy at, 99, 100 
Conybeare, Bishop, Arms of, 112 
Cookes, Thomas, Arms of, 190 

William, 190 
Cookson, Joseph, Arms of, 128 
Coote Family, Arms of, 126 
Corbet Family, Arms of, 200 
Cornwall, Richard, Earl of, 48, 70, 82 
Corse, Manor of, 232 

Cossins, John and Martha, Monuments 
to, 281 

Coster, Thomas, Arms of, 112 
Costume. Value of Effigies for Study, 

140—147 
Cotes, John, Abbot, 36 
Couper Family, Arms of, 115 
Courthose, Robert, Effigy of, 143 
Coutances, Bishop of, 7 
Coventry, Francis, Arms of, 200, 201 
Coventry, St. Michael's Church, 287, 291 
Cowley Church, Effigy in, 147, 251, 252 
Cranbourn Priory, 34, 80, 82, 85 
Cressy, Battle of, 43 
Crosses at — 

Aylburton, 10 

Yatton, 10 
Croun Family, Arms of, 104 
Crupes, Richard de, Effigy and Arms of, 

264 — 266 
Cubberley Church, 63 

Effigies in, 144, 252 — 257 
Culpepper, John, 192, 193 

Martin, 193 

Mercy, 193 

Nicholas, 192 

Walter, 193 

William, 193 

Family, Arms of, 151, 192, 193 
Cumberbatch Family, Arms of, 112 
Cuthred, King, 20 

Damory, Sir Richard, Arms of, 47 

Daniell Family, Arms of, 125, 126 

Danish Invasions, 79, 80 

Danvers Family, Arms of, 204, 205 

Darrell, Walter, Arms of, 201 

Dartmouth Church, 287 

Daston, Anthony, Arms and Crest of, 210 

Daubney Family, Arms of, 183 

David, St., 213, 214 

Davies, H., 277 

Day, Richard, Arms and Crest of, 207 
Dean, Henry, Prior and Abp., 226, 229 
Deerhurst — 

Abbot's Court, 233 

Church, Architectural notes on, 
70—76 

Arrangement of the Chancel, by 
R. H. Murray, 2S5 — 293 

Brasses (illus.), 74, 75 

Deerhurst, Pershore, and West- 
minster, by Rev. C. S. Taylor, 
230 — 250 

Effigy at, gg 

Ground Plan, 69 



Index. 



Deerhurst, Church (continued)— 

Historical Notes on, 68 — 70 

Odda Stone, 72, 81 

Saxon Chapel, 76 

Subject to Tewkesbury Abbey, 

. 7o, 85 
View of Interior, 71 
Windows, 75 
Ecclesiastical Hundred, 35 
Manor of, 232, 233, 235, 236 
Visit of the Society, 68—76 
Deerhurst Walton, Manor of, 232 
Degon Family, Arms of, 173 
Delamore Family, Arms of, 115 
De la Rivere Family, Arms of, 103 
Delfer, Earl, 81, 242 
De Monchensi, Dionisia, 45 

Family, Arms of, 45, 47 
Denins, Sir Walter, 174 
Dennis Family, 284 
Densell, Richard, Arms of, 200 
Despencer, Sir Edward, 36, 46 

Effigy of, 36, 43. 52, 94, 139,145,146 
Elizabeth, Effigy of, 146 
Elizabeth, Lady, 36 
Hugh, 36, 44 

Arms of, 45, 102 

Effigy of, 36, 43, 46, 49, 50, 139, 140, 
144 

Hugh, Earl of Gloucester, 36, 43, 44, 
45. 48, 50 

Isabel, 36 

Richard, Lord, 36 

Thomas, Lord, 36 
Devereux, Almeric, Earl of Gloucester, 36 
De Wyck Family, 11, 14 
Dickleston, John, 202 
Didcote, Land at, 79, 81 
Dineley, Edward, Arms of, 194 
Dixon, John, 191 

Family, Arms of, 130 
Dodford, Effigy at, 91 
Dodo, Duke, 34, 78, 80, 81, 83, 243 
Dolebury Camp, 18, 19 
Dottin Family, Arms of, 126 
Dowdall Family, Arms of, 127 
Dowdeswell, Charles, Arms of, 124 
Dowdeswell, Rev. E. R. , 29 
Dowdeswell, Rev. E. R. ; The Monks ot 
the Monastery ot St. Mary, at 
Tewkesbury, 77 — 93 

Presidential Address, 33, 34 
Dowdeswell Church, Effigy in, 257, 258 

Derivation of Name, 78 
Dowell Family, Arms of, 186, 187 
Downton, Roger, 195 

Thomas, Arms of, 195 
Doyly Family, Arms of, 126 
Doyngell Family, Arms of. 173 
Drokensford, Bishop, 8 
Dublin Castle, 221 

Dudeston Hundred, Derivation of Name, 
78 

Duduc, Bishop, 20 
Dumbleton Family, Arms of, 210 
Dunch Family, Arms of, 196 
Dunstan, St., 79, 80, 236 
Dunstaple Priory, 217 
Durham, See of, Arms of, 124 
Dymoke, Land at, 224 
Dyrham Church, Effigies in, 172—174 
Manor of, 174, 238, 239 



Eales, Rev. F., Report on Effigy in Lydney 

Churchyard, 167 
Report on Fragments of Effigies in 

Ruardean Church, 169, 170 
Earle. Rev. John, Obituary Notice of, 320 
Earl's Colne Priory, Effigy at, 99 
Ebi ington Church, Heraldry in, 198—201 
Eden Family, Arms of, 203 
Edgar, King, 236, 237, 241, 242, 245 
Edith, Queen, 23r, 233, 235, 236, 244, 246 

—249 

Edmund Ironsides, 69, 235 

Edolphe, Symon, Arms and Crest of, 193 

Edred, King, 16 

Edward the Elder, King, 15, 20 
Edward the Confessor, 8r, 233,234,236 
241 

Arms of, 127,-^32 
Edward I., 54 

Edward II., Effigy of, 139, 140, 142 

EdwarcLIV., 68 

Edward, Prince, Arms of, 122 

Effigies, List of. in Bristol and Gloucester- 
shire, ed. by M. E. Bagnall- 
Oakeley, 148— 181, 251—284 
Monumental Effigies in Bristol and 
Gloucestershire, by A. Harts- 

HORNE, I39 — 147 

On certain rare Monumental Effigies, 
by A. Hartshorne, 94 — 101 

Portraiture in, 50 — 52 
Egbert, King, 276 
Egelward, Ealdorman, 241 
Eleanor, Queen, Effigy of, 142 
Elfric, 70, 72, 76, 230, 233, 235, 236, 241 

—244, 246, 247 
Elizabeth, Princess, 96 
Elkington, Thomas, 274 
Elliott, Dean, Arms of, 108, 121 
Elmham, Thomas de, Prior, 229 
Elmham, North, Church, 288 
Elmstone Hardwick, Manor of, 232 
Eltham, John of, Effigy of, 99 
Elton Family, Arms of, 122, 125, 128 
Elyot Family, Arms of, 104, 107, 129, 132 
England, Arms of, 102, 104, 114, 129, 132 
Entwistle Family, Arms of, 199 
Ermington Church, 290 
Erneley Family, Arms of, 193 
Ernisi, Prior of Lantony, 213 — 216, 228 
Ernie, John, 268 
Essex, Earl of, 16 
Eth-lfrith, 16 
Ethelmund, 69 

Ethelred the Unready, 240, 246 
Ethelric, 69, 249 
Ethel ward, Bishop, 80 
Ethelwold, St., 236 
Eveleigh, Margaret, 192 
Evesham, Abbot of, 240 

All Saints' Church, Heraldry in 
189, 190 
Ewbank Family, Arms of, 193 
Ewias, Lord of, 214 

Vale of, 212, 213, 219, 222, 225 

Fairford Church, 89 
Falai-e, Siege of, 82 
Farnborough, Manor of, 246 
Fereby, John, Arms of, 195 
Ferrars, John Lord, 168 
Ferrers, Robert, Arms of, 206 
Thomas, 206 

William, Earl of Derby, 206 
William de, Arms of, 114 
Sir William, Brass of, 101 
Family, 207 

Arms and Crest of, 187 



Eadfled, 246, 247 
Eadgifu, Abbess, 248 
Eadmund, Abbot, 244 
Ealdred, Archbishop, 81, 233 

23 A 



330 



Index. 



Fettiplace, Dorothy, 76 
Ffitznicol), Thomas, 132 
Fiddington, Land at, 89 
Field, Nicholas, Crest of, 198 
Fielding, William, Arms of, 195 
Fillegh, John, Arms of, 200 
Fisher, Sir Edward, 206 

Family, Arms of, 206, 207 
Fitchett Family, Arms of, 279 
FitzAlan, Roger, 221 

Family, Arms of, 103 
FitzCount, William, 85 
FitzHamon, Robert, 46, 47 

Arms of, 44 

Founder of Tewkesbury Abbey, 82, 
83,88 

Grant of the Manor of Tewkesbury 
to, 35 

Fitzharding, Robert, 214 
FitzHerbert, Elizabeth, 197, 198 

Eustace, Arms of, 197 

John, 197 
Fitzjohn, Cecilia, 218 

Pain, 217, 218 
FitzOsbern, William, 212 
FitzRoger, Walter, 215 
FitzRoy, Robert, Earl of Gloucester, 
45. 47 

Flax Bourton Church, 7 
Fletcher, Blandford, 289 

Family, Arms of, 190, 198, 204, 205 
Flint Implements — 

Arrow-heads from Banwell (illtts.), 24, 
25 

Florence of Worcester, 244, 245 
Foldbriht, Abbot, 237, 241 
Foliet, Abbot, Effigy of, 147 
Forbes, Alexander, Arms of, in 
Forrest, Edmund, Prior, 229 
Fortescue, Sir John, Arms of, 2co 
Martin, 200 

Col. Robert, Arms and Crest of, 199, 
200 

Forthampton, Robert of. Abbot, 90 
Forthampton, Abbot of Tewkesbury's 

house, 87, 92 
Forthington, Robert, Abbot, 36 
Freeman's, E. A. "Churches of Somer- 
set," Extracts from, 1—5 
Freemasons' Company, Arms of, 203 
Freke, Philip, Arms of, 111 
Furneaux, Matthew, Arms of, 118 

Gardner, Samuel, 190 

Family, Arms and Crest of, 189, 190 
Gaunt, Maurice de, Effigy of, 143 
Gay Family, Arms of, 127 
Gee Family, Arms of, 130 
Gelasius II., Pope, 214 
George Family, Arms of, 130 
Gerald, Abbot, 82, 88, 89. 90 
Gerbridge, Sir John, Arms of, 118, 119 
Gerland, John, Prior, 229 
Germaine, Lady Betty, 144 
Giffarde, Godfrey, Bishop, 91 
Gifford, Sir F., 261 

John, Effigy of, 144 

Sir John, 261 
Effigy of, 94 

Family, Arms of, 185 
Effigies of, 260, 261 
Girdlestone, Canon, Arms of, 106, 121 
Gist, Josiah, 208 

Family, Arms of, 208 
Glastonbury Abbey, Grant of Land to, 16 
Glemham, Dean, Arms of, 108, 109, 113 
Glinton, Effigy at, 97 
Glodrydd Family, Arms of, 189 



Gloucester, Earls of, 35, 36 
Robert, Earl of, 220 
Thomas de, Prior, 228 
Gloucester Cathedral, Effigies in, 139, 
142, 143 

Position of Communion Table, 
286 

Rood-loft in, 138 
Constables of, 215, 217 
Hyde, or Castle-mead, 218 
King Stephen at, 218 
Lantony Priory, Story of (illns.), 

212 — 229 

See of, Arms of, 121, 129, 188, C07 

Tenements ot Lantony in, 223 

William I. at, 234 
Gloucester and Berkeley Canal, 227 
Godestre, Roger, Prior, 228 
Godwin, Earl, 235, 244, 248 
Godwyn, Bishop, 24 

Motto of, 19 
Goldcliff Church, 85 
Goodhind Family, Arms of, 188 
Gore, William, Arms of, 121 
Gorges, Sir Edmund, 117 
Gornay Family, Arms 01, 106 
Gosworth, Lucy, Arms of, 206 
Gough, George, 166 

Jeremy, Arms of, 184 
Gournay, Robert de, Effigy of, 143 
Gourney, Thomas, Arms of, 118 

William, Arms of, 205 
Grafton, William, Badges of, 208 
Graves, Eliz.Ann, 204 

John, 204 

Morgan, 204 

Richard, 204, 205 

Samuel, 204 

Family, Arms of, 203 — 205 
Gray, Sir John, 48 
Grenvile, Sir Bevile, Arms of, 200 
Grevel, William, Arms of, 198 
Greystock, Baron, Arms of, 206 

John, 206 

William, 206 
Griffith Family, Arms of, 107, 183 
Grobham, Sir Richard, 267 
Grossett Family, Arms of, 113 
Grosvenor, Randoll, Arms of, 191, 192 
Grylls Family, Arms of, 130 
Guaide, Jean, 134 
Guise Family, Arms of, 183 
Guthrie, Canon, Arms of, 106 
Gwilliam Family, Arms of, 107 
Gwinnet, George, 184 
Gyrih, Earl, 234 
Gytha, 248 

Habyngton, Dr. Thos., 58 
Haines, Dr., Statue of, 281 
Halswell, Grace, 200 
Hamond Family, Arms of, 125 
Hampton Family, Arms of, 117 
Hanley Castle, 56 
Harcourt Family, Arms of, m 
Hardhill Family, Arms of, 192 
Harding Family, Arms of, 184, 186 
Hardreshall, Sir John, Arms of, 192 
Harescombe Chapel, 221 
Haresfield Castle, 220 
Harford, William Henry, 18 
Harington Family, Arms of, 114 
Harold, King, zo, 247 
Harptree, William, Arms of, 118 
Harrison, Henry, Arms of, 189 

Kev. John, 14 

Thomas, Arms of, 189 

William, Arms of, 201 



Index. 



33 1 



Hart, Richard, Prior, 229 

Hartshorne, Albert; Monumental 
Effigies in Bristol and Glou- 
cestershire, 139 — 147 
On certain rare Monumental Effigies, 
94—101 

Notes on Effigies in Tewkesbury 
Abbey, 48—53 
Harvie Family, Arms of, 117 
Hastinges, Emmote de, Effigy of, 181 
Hastings, Leonard de, Effigy of, 97 
Hatherfield Family, Arms of, 119 
Hatterel Hills, 213 
Hauteville, Sir John de, 94 
Havenell Family, Arms of, 104 
Haw, The, 232 

Hawkesbury, Manor of, 238, 239 
Hayles Abbey, 48 

Cost of Building, 82 

Church, 287 
Haylward, Duke, 80 
Hemgrave Family, Arms of, 118— 120 
Henderson Family, Arms of, 127 
Henelawe, Geoffrey de, Prior, 221,224, 228 
Henry I., 83, 213—215, 217 

Laws of, 240 
Henry II., 63, 220 

Effigy of, 142 
Henry III., Arms of, 102 

Effigy of, 142 
Henry VII., 36 
Henry VIII., 36 

Arms of, 113, 122 

Divorce from Q. Catharine, 91, 92 
Heraldry in Bristol Cathedral, by F. 
Were, 102 — 132 
In various churches and houses in 
Gloucestershire and Worcester- 
shire, read by F. Were, 183 — 211 
Herberd, Thomas, 202 
Hereford, Roger, Earl of, 218, 220, 227 
Hereford, Bishops of, 216—219 
Cathedral, 166 
Earldom of, 219, 220, 222 
Priory of St. Peter, 214, 215 
See of, connection with Lantony 
Priory, 212, 217 
Hevyn, John, Arms of, 195 
Heyward, John, Prior, 229 
Hicks, Robert, 196 

Family, Arms and Crest of, 188, 194— 
196 

Hidcote House, Heraldry on, 201 

Hill, Sir Richard, Effigy and Arms of 

279, 280 
Hodenay, River, 216 
Hollaway, John, 186, 274 
Holme Castle, 46 
Hopton, John, Arms of, 195 

William, 195 
Hoptyn, Robt., 22, 23 
Horewell, Lands in, 63 
Horton, Manor of, 238, 239 
Howe, Anne, 268 

Bridget, 267—269 

Charles, 268 

Elizabeth, 268 

George, 26S 

John, Effigy and Arms of, 266 — 269 

John Grobham, 268 

Richard Grobham, 268 

Susanna, 268 

Thomas Grobham, 268 

William, 268 

Family, Arms of, 111 
Howell, John, 165 
Hugford Family, 202 
Hughenden, Effigies at, 95, 96 



Hugo, Earl, 79 

Humfrey, Richard, Arms of 194 
Hungerford, Elizabeth, 197 
Hunt, Abbot, Arms of, 104 

Family, Arms of, 190 
Hwiccas, The, Missionary to, 34 

Ine, Laws of, 240 

Ingham, Sir Oliver, Effigy of, 94 

Ingham, Effigies at, 94, 99 

Ireland, John, Arms of, 121 

Ireton, Family, Arms of, 210 

Iron Acton Church, Effigies in, 174—177 

Ironside Family, Arms of, 123 

James, Margaret, 166 
Jansen, Sir Cornelius, 152 
Jennetts, Humphrey, 190 
Jervys, Wm., 22 
John, Kihg, Coffin of, 100 

Effigy of, 142 
John the Dane, 7 
Jones, Inigo, 6 

Jordan Family, Arms of, 126, 129 
Joyce, Sir John, Effigy of, 159, 160 

Lady, Effigy of, 160, 161 
Jubes. See Rood-lofts 

Kelleway, John, Arms of, no 
Kelston, Manor of, 239 
Kemerton, Manor of, 232, 250 
Kempsey, Thomas, Abbot, 36 
Kempsford, 69 

Kentwood Family, Arms of, 186 
Kerdeston, Sir Roger de, Effigy of, 99 
Keynes, Sir Robert de, Effigy of, 94 
Keynsham Abbey, 85, 177 
Keyt, Francis, 201 

John, 199, 201 

Thomas, 201 

William, 199, 201 

Sir William, 200 

Family, Arms and Crest of, 198 — 201 
Kidderminster Church, 291 
Kidwally Family, Arms of, 191 
Kinardesley, John, Arms of, 206 
King, Bp. Oliver, 24 
Kingston, William, Arms of, 154 
Effigy of, 153, 154 

Family, Arms of, 185, 274, 275 
Knight, William, Medallion of, 158 
Knights Hospitallers, Lord Prior of, 101 
Knotsforde, John, 57 

Laci, Adeliza de, 215 

Gilbert de, 220, 221 

Hugh de (I.), 212, 214, 217, 220, 223 

Hugh de (II.), 22r, 222 

Hugh de (III.), 222 

Sibylla de, 218 

Walter de, 212, 214 

Walter de (III.), 222, 226 

Walter de, Abbot, 212, 218 
Landor, Walter Savage, 227 
Langland's " Piers Ploughman," 56 
Langley Church, 287 
Lantony Priories. The Story of the 
two Lantonys, by W.St. Clair 
Baddeley {ilhts.), 212 — 229 

Food Supplies, 216 

Priors, 215 — 229 

Remains, 222 

View of West Front, 222 

View from the South side, 223 
Large, John, 274 

M. Rose, Effigy of, 280, 281 

Family, Arms of, 280 
Latimer, Bishop, 57 



332 



Index. 



Laud, Archbishop, 286, 287, 289 — 292 
Lawrence, Rev. A., 265 
Layard, Dean, Arms ot, in 
Leckhampton Church, Effigies in, 94, Td.4 

258—263 
Manor of, 260 
Ledene, Manor of, 243 
Lee, Dr. Samuel, 23 
Leeche, William, Arms of, 118— 120 
Leeds Parish Church, 291 
Leeves, Rev. Win., Memorial Tablet to, 18 
Le Faouet, Rood-loft in Church of St. 

Fiacre, 135 
Legh, Thos. de, Abbot, 36 
Leicester Family, Arms of, 115 
Leigh, Sir Peter, Brass of, 101 
Leigh, The, 232 

Le Mans Cathedral, Effigies in, 142 
Lemington, Land at, 89 
Leofsi, Bishop, 241 
Leofstan, Abbot, 234 
Leominster Abbey, 248 
Lewknor Family, Arms of, 156 
Lichfield, Abbot, 190 
Lichfield Cathedral, 18 

St. Chad's Foundation, 77 
Lingen, John, Arms of, 202, 203 

Sir John, 203 

Thomas, 203 
Lire, Robert, Abbot of, 166 
Locke, John, Birthplace of, 16, 18 
London — 

Holy Trinity Priory, 214, 215 

St. Mai tin's Ongar, Cannon St., 290 

St. Matthew's Church, City, 288 

St; Michael's, Cornhilll, 2-8 

Priory of St. Martin, 215 

See of, Arms of, 124 
Long Family, Arms of, 131 
Loscombe Family, Arms of, 115 
Loversal, Effigy at, 97 
Ludlow Church, 288 
Lugg Family, Arms of, 158 
Lugthburgh, Monsire de, 50 
Lutterworth, Brass at, 101 
Lutzgen, Daniel, Arms and Crest of, 211 
Lyddington, Vicar of, 289 
Lydney Church, Effigy in Churchyard, 
Patronage of, 166 

Manor of, 250 

Macliver Family, Arms of, 121 
Magna Charta, Copy at Tewkesbury, 90 
Maiden Bradley, Ancient Road through, 25 
Malvern Chase, 54, 57 

Visit of the Society, 54, 56 
Malvern, Great, Priory- 
Architectural Notes on, 57 — 61 
Effigy at, 95 

Guesten Hall, 61 (illus.), 62 

Historical Notes on, 56—58 

Misereres, 61 

Tiles, 60, 61 

View of, 55 

Windows, 58 — 60 
Malvern, Little, Priory — 

Architectural Notes on, 63 

Window, East (illus.), 63, 66 
Mandeville, Geoffrey, Earl of Gloucester, 
35 

Mangotsfield Church, Effigies in, 276, 277 
Manwating Family, Arms of, 115 
Margaret, Queen, 68 
Marmaduke Family, Arms of, 103 
Marshal, Isabel, 48 
Marshfield Church, Effigy in, 177 
Marston, Long, Heraldry in Church, 207 
Martin, George, Arms of, 183 



Martock, John, Brass of, 2\. 

Massy Family, Arms of, 185,192,274,275 

Master, Sir William, Effigy of, 270 

Mather, Rev. F. A., 12 

Matilda, Queen, 35, 82, 213, 214, 217 

Coronation of, 20 
Maud, Empress, 217, 219 
Mawtbye, John, Arms of, 119, 120 
Maze Family, Arms of, 121 
Meath County, 221 
Mellitus, St., 245 
Mellwydd Church, 287 
Melton Mowbray Church, 288 
Menseir Family, Arms of, 204, 205 
Meredith Family, Arms of, 189 
Merley, Roger de, Arms of, 206 
Metcalfe Family, Arms of, no 
Mickleton Church, Heraldry in, 203—207 
Middleland, Land at, 89 
Milewater, Thomas, 203 
Milo, Constable of Gloucester and Earl 

of Hereford, 217—221, 224, 227 
Milverton Church, 290 
Miserden Church, Effigies in, 150 — 154 
Moccas, Effigy at, 94 
Molyneux, Cecily, Arms of, 197 

Sir Thomas, Arms of, 127 
Monastic Life of Benedictines, 83 — 91 
Monk, Bishop, Arms of, 107 
Monox, George, Arms of, 272 

George and Maria, Effigiis of, 271, 272 
Montacute, Elizabeth, 43, 50, 52 

Family Arms of, 103 
Montague, Bishop, 291 
Montfort, Richard de, 95 

Simon de, 134 
Moore, T. W., Address to the Society, 

28, 29 

More, Mrs. Hannah, 16 

Monument to, 18 

Family, Arms of, 190 
Morgan, Capt. Thomas, Arms of, 204,205 
Morris, John, 201 

Mortimer, Edmund, Earl of March, 226 

Roger, Arms of, 105 
Moseley, Canon, Arms of, 107, 121 
Mourse Family, Arms of, 122 
Muchegros, Cecilia de, Effigy of, 168, 169 

Hawisia de, Effigy ot, 16^, 169 

Robert de. 168 
Muirhead Family, Arms of, 113 
Murray, John, 208 

Murray, R. H. ; The Arrangement of the 
Chancel at Deerhurst, 285—293 

Nailheart, Abbot, Badge of, 129 
Naunton, Lands in, 63 
Nevill, Thomas, Arms of, 184 
Neville, Isabel, 44 
Nevinson, Elizabeth, 192 
Newenham, Land at, 224 
Newland, Abbot, Badge of, 129, 132 
Newland Church, Effigies in, 97, 146, 159 — 

165 •' 
Newmarch, Bernard de, 224 
Newton, Sir John, Monument to, 11 

(illus.), 13 
Sir Richard, Monument to (illus.), 

10, 11 

Richard Cradock, Arms of, 116, 117, 

119, 120 
Family, 8, 13 
Crest, 11 
Noel, Andreas, 195 

Baptist, Viscount Campden, 195 
Edward, 196 
Penelope, 156 

Family, Arms and C est of, 195, 196 



Index. 



333 



Norris Family, Arms of, 122, 130 
Northcote, Sir John, Arms of, 200 
Norton, Richard de, Abbot, 36 

Family, Arms of, 125 
Norwich, John de, Abbot, 224 

Roger de, Prior, 221, 228 
Nottidge Family, Arms of, 107 

Oakeley, Mary E. Bagnall ; Effigies 
in South Forest Rural Deanery, 
159—170 

Effigies in Rural Deanery of Bitton, 
170— 181 

(Ed.) List of Monumental Effigies 
in Bristol and Gloucestershire, 
148— 181, 251—284 

Odda, Ealdorman, 230, 233, 236, 241 — 249 

Oddo, Duke, 34, 70, 72, 76, 78, 80, 81, 83, 243 

Odell, Nicholas, 199 

Olney, Robert, Arms of, 197 

Olney, near Deerhurst, 69 

Ordgar, 243 

OrdriCj 250 

Orreby, Herbert, 206 

John de, Arms of, 206 

Os nund, Richard, Effigy of, 273 

Osric, 231 

Oswald, 231, 249 

Oswald, St., 35, 80, 100, 236, 248, 249 
Otlee, Walter de, 169 
Otway Family, Arms of, 130 
Over Court, Heraldry in, 187 

Manor of, 274 
Oxford, Merton College Chapel, 24 

Oriel College, 278 
Arms of, 278 

Painswick Castle, 220 

Church, Advowson of, 223 
Effigy in, 159 

Lord of, 2 20 
Pakington, Elizabeth, 194 

Col. Sir Henry W., 194 
Palmer Family, Arms of, 129 
Paris, Abbey ot St. Denys, possessions 
in Gloucestershire, 231 — 235 

Rood-loft in Church of St. Etienne 
du Mont, 134 
Parker, Sir Henry, Arms of, 109 

Thomas, Abbot, 36, 88 
Partridge, Anthony, Arms of, 153 

Anthony and Alice, Effigies of, 152, 153 
Paschal II., Pope, 214 
Paston, Sir Thomas, Arms of, 118 — 120 
Pateshull Family, Arms of, 192 
Paule Family, Arms of, 206 
Peacock, William, 288 
Peeche, Simon, Arms of, 118, 119 
Peever Family, Arms of, 119 
Penint, Sir John, 195 
Pennington Family, Arms ot, 117 
Pequeminton, Land at, 90 
Perott, Sir Thomas, Arms of, 117 
Perowne, Bishop, 46 
Perry Family, Arms of, 272 
Pershoi e Abbey, 80 

Deerhurst, Pershore, and West- 
minster, by Rev. C. S. Taylor, 
230 — 250 
Possessions of, 237 — 214 

Manor of, 233, 238 
Peveiell, William, Arms of, 206 
Phetiplace, William, 186 

Family, Arms of, 186 
Phillipps, 1 nomas, Arms and Crest of, 209 

Sir Thomas, Arms and Crest of, 209 
Phillips Family. Arms of, 115 
Philpotts, Rev. T., 167 



Piers Family, Arms of, 208 

Pigou, Dean, Arms of, 108 

Pilkington Family, Arms of, 130 

Pitt, William, 23 

Placeway Family, Arms of, 208 

Poding, John, 226 

Poole, Sir Devereux, Effigy of, 156 

Sir Henry, Arms of, 156 

and Anne, Effigies of, 155, 156 
Porchalion, Thomas, 52, 145 
Porter, Arthur, 227 

Thomas, Arms of, 199, 200, 201 

Family, Arms of, 128 
Powell, Judge, 72, 81 
Poynings, Richard, Arms of, 104 
Poyntz, Anne, Effigy of, 175 

Sir John, Effigy of, 176 

Robert, Effigy of, 175, 176 

Family, Arms of, 132 
Prescote',' Land at, 78, 81 
Preston-on-Stour, Land at, 69, 232 
Prince's Risborough, Land at, 15 
Pritchard, Mr. J. E., 25 
Probyn, Sir Edmund, Arms of, 164 
Effigy of, 164, 165 

Elizabeth Ann, 165 

John, 164 
Prous Family, Arms 01, in 
Pucklechurch Church, Effigies in, 170—172 
Puddleton Church, 287 
Pull Court, 86 

Visit of the Society, 66 
Purdey, Mr., 288 
Pym, Thomas, 274 
Pytts, Edward, Arms of, 194 

Quinci, Roger de, Arms of, 114 
Quinton Church, Heraldry in, 202, 203 

Ragg Family, Arms of, 125 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, Poem by, 97 

Ramelin, Bishop of Hereford, 216 

Ramsey Monastery, 248 

Randall Family, Arms of, 122 

Rawson, William, Arms of, 191, 192 

Raymond Family, Arms of, in 

Redland Chapel, Monuments in, 281 

Reepham, Effigy at, 99 

Reeve Family, Arms of, 125 

Reviews and Notices of Publications 

296-319 
Reynes Family, Effigy of, 99 
Rice Family, Arms of, 107 
Rich, Edmund, Archbishop, 84 

Thomas, Arms of, 267 
Richard III., 58 
Richelieu, Cardinal, 134 
Ridley, Bishop, 86 
Riley, Edmond, Arms of, 199 

Eglantine, 201 

Family, Arms of, 113, 116 
Ripple, Boy healed by a miracle, 90 
Robert, Duke of Normandy, 213, 215 
Robinson, Bi-hop, Arms of, 123, 124 

John, Arms of, 205 
Rochester, See of, 77 
Roabard Family, Arms of, 126 
Rodney Family, Arms of, 104 
Rogers, Richard, 258 

William, Effigy and Arms of, 258 

Family, Arms of, 130 
Roof-lofts. Notes on French Jubes, by 

F. F. Tuckett, 133—138 
Roper Family, Arms of, 131 
Roshill Family, Arms of, 125 
Rossrnore, Baron, 2.8 
Rous, Thomas, Arms of, 112 
Rowdon, Walter, 75 



334 



Index. 



Ruardean Church, Fragments of Effigies 

in, 169, 170 
Rudings, Edward, Arms of, 209 
Rushton, Effigy at, 101 
Russell, John, 63 

St. Briavel's Castle, 167 

Church, Effigies in, 165 — 167 
St. David's, Bishop of, 224 
St. Denys, Abbey of, 70 
St. Fagan's, 185 

St. George Family, Arms of, 105 
St. John, Edward, Prior, 228 

Sir John, 268 

Family, Arms of, 1 15 
St. Loe Family, Arms of, 105 
St. Maur Family, Arms of, 131 
St. Owen, John, i v 6 

Thomas, Arms of, 195 
Salis, John de, Abbot, 36 
Salmon, Eleanor, 199 

John, Arms of, 199, 200, 201 
Sambach Family, Arms of, 2ro 
Samon Family, Arms of, 199, 201 
Samwell, Richard, Arms of, 110 
Sandys, Anne, 193 

Cicely, 193 

Sir Edwin, 191, 192 

Elizabeth, 194 

George, 191 

Joyce, 194 

Lady Margaret, Effigy of, 150—152 

Col. Samuel, 194 

Sir Samuel, 191, 193, 194 

William, 191 

Sir William, 193 

Arms of, 151 

Effigy of, 141, 150 — 152 
Family, Arms and Crest of, 191, 192, 
193 

Sapperton Church, Effigies in, 155 — 157 

Saunderson Family, Arms of, 120 

Savage, Anne, 57 

Rev. Thomas, Arms of, 210 

Scobington Family, Arms of, 190 

Scott Family, Arms of, 107 

Seaman, John and Anne, Effigies of, 159 

Searchfield, Bishop, Arms of, 114 

Seeker, Archbishop, 29 

Selleck Family, Arms of, 208 

Servington Family, Arms of, 105 

Seymour, Margaret, 277 

Shadwell, Charles L., Letter on grave of 
Bishop Carpenter, 295 

Shaftesbury Abbey, 239 

Shakespeare's Gloucestershire refer- 
ences, 46 

Sheldon, Ralph, Arms and Crest of, 208, 
209, 210 
William, 209 
Shephard Family, Arms of, 190 
Sheppard, John, 22 

Sherborne, Nicholas, Arms of, 117, 120 
Sherman Family, Arms of, 205 
Shilling, Capt. Andrew, 205 

Family, Arms of, 204, 205 
Shillingford Church, 287 
Shipway Frauds, 277 
Shirley Family, Arms of, 113 
Shotswell Church, 287 
Shrivenham Church, 287 
Sipton, Hervey de, Prior, 36, 39, 88 
Siward, 250 

Smith, Miles, Bishop, 286 

Thomas, 197, 198 

Family, Arms of, 108, 196, 197 
Smithsenti Family, Arms and Crest of, 
187, 188 



Smyth, George, Arms of, 124 
Somers Family, Arms of, 112 
Somerset, Abbot, Arms of, 106 
Somerset, Duke of, 21 
Somerset Family, Arms of, 127, 128 
Somerton, John, Arms of, 118 — 120 
Somerville. Edmund, 206 

Robert de, Arms of, 206 

Family, 207 
Sore Family, Arms of, 185, 186, 275 
Southcott, Anna, 192 
Southwick Park, 46 
Southwyke Priory, 217 
Spencer, William Lord, Effigy of, 152 

Sir William, Arms of, 201 
Spicer Family, Arms of, 188, 196 
Spiney, Guido, Arms of, 197 
Sponne, Archdeacon, Effigy of, 98 
Stanley Pontlarge, Land at, 89 
Stanley St. Leonard's Church, 290 
Stanway, Abbot of Tewkesbury's House, 
87 

Land at, 78, 81, 89 
Stapleton, Sir Brian de, Effigy of, 99 

Sir Miles, Arms cf, 200 
Starkey Family, Arms of, 192 
Staverton, Manor of, 232 
Steele, John Maxwell, Arms of, 204 
Steight, Nicholas Spicer, Arms of, 188 
Stephen, King, at Gloucester, 218, 219 
Stephens, Thomas, Arms of, 158 

Effigy of, 157—159 
Steward, Charles Holden, Arms of, 188 
Stewart Family, Arms of, 188 
Stigand, Archbishop, 247' 
Stokes, Thos. de, Abbot, 36 
Stone, Nicholas, Monuments Carved by, 
141, 152 

Family, Arms of, 120, 158 
Stothard, Charles A., 49, 53, 140, 142 
Stourton Family, Arms of, 280 
Stovin Family, Arms of, 189 
Stowe, Manor of, 167 
Strangways Family, Arms of, 124 
St'-ensham, John, Abbot, 36 
Stroud Parish Church, Effigies in, 157 — 
159 ...... v . 

Stubbs, William, Arms of, 110 
Sturden, Hugo de, Effigy of, 284 
Stutvile Family, Arms of, 115, 206 
Styvekey Family, Arms of, 199, 201 
Sunderland, Emanuel, Earl of, 268 
Sutton Family, Arms of, 108 
Sutton Brailes, Manor of, 232 
Swan, Capt. Richard, Arms of, 204, 205 
Swegen, 248 
Swilgate, River, 46 
Sykes Family, Arms of, 115 
Symes, Thomas, Arms of, 183 
Symonds Family, Arms of, 115 



Talbot, John, Arms of, 201 

Family, Arms of, 107 
Tarent, Manor of, 89 
Tate Family, Arms of, 131 
Taylor, Charles, Arms and Crest of, 196 
Taylor, Rev. C. S., 25 
Taylor, Rev. C. S. ; Deerhurst, Pershore, 

and Westminster, 230 — 250 
Taylor, William, Arms and Crest or 
199, 200, 201 

Family, Arms and Crest of, 209 
Tendebury, William de, Prior, 228 
Tendering Family, Arms of, 192 
Tewkesbury Abbey, 177, 227 

Abbot's expenses, 87, 88 

Abbots, List of, 35, 36 



Index. 



335 



Tewkesbury Abbey (continued) — 

Abbots summoned to Parliament, 90, 

9 ' 

Architecture of, 38 — 42 

Arms, 44, 45 

Bosses in Nave, 41, 43 

Building of, 82 

Chapel, Founder's, 44 

Chapel of Countess of Warwick, 36, 44 

Chapel of Eustatius, 36, 39 

Chapel of St. Edmund, 44 

Chapel of St. James, 36, 41 

Chapel of St. Nicholas, 36, 39, 41 

Copy of Magna Charta at, 90 

Dates of Buildings, 35, 36 

Dissolution, 91 — 93 

Effigies and Monuments, 36, 42, 43, 

48—53. 94. i.-9, 140, 143—146 
Endowments and Possessions, 85, 86 
Gate or Guesten House, 36, 38 
Ground Plan, 37 

Monks of the Monastery of St. Mary, 
by Rev. E. R. Dowdeswkll, 77~93 
Possession of Deerhurst, 70, 85 
Tiles, 44 
Tower, 36, 39, 41 
Vicar's House, 53 
Views, 38—42 

Visit of the Society, 34 — 53 
Windows, 36, 40, 44—48 
Tewkesbury Academy, 29 
Baptist Meeting House, 29 
Battle of, 29, 42, 68 
King John's Bridge, 28, 29 
Lords of the Manor, 35, 36, 46 
Mills, 89 

Proceedings of the Society at, 26 — 76 

St. Mary's Church, 29 

Wall, 29 
Teynton, Manor of, 234 
Theoc, Missionary, 34, 77 
Theodore, Archbishop, 79 
Thorpe, Archdeacon, Arms^of, 106 
Thoydon Garnon Church, 289 
Throgmorton, Catherine. 197, 198 

Sir George, 197 

Sir Thomas, Arms of, 197 

Thomas de, 197 
Throkmorton, Sir Nicholas, Arms of, 109 

Thomas, 202 
Thurstan, Abbot, 244 
Thynne, James, Arms of, 208 
Tierney Family, Arms of, 112 
Tinchebrai, Battle of, 213 
Tirrell, Hugh, Arms of, 196 
Toddington, Land at, 78, 81, 89 
Todenham, Land at, 69, 232 
Todeni, Robert de, 239 
Tomes, Fisher, Arms and Crest of, 207 
Torrington Family, Arms of, 185, 186,274, 
275 

Towcester, Effigy at, 98 
Towerhead, Bishop's house, 19, 21 
Treawin Family, Arms of, 200 
Tregarthian Family, Arms of, nc 
Tresham, Sir Thomas, Effigy of, 101 
Trinbeye, Nicholas de, Prior, 226, 228 
Trinell Family, Arms of, 112 
Troyes, Rood-loft in Church of Ste. Ma- 
deleine, 133 
Trubshawe Family, Arms of, 189 
Tuckett, F. F. ; Effigies in Rural 
Deanery of Stapleton, 273 — 277 
Effigies in Winterbourne Church, 
281—284 

Notes on French Jubes or Rood-lofts 
and the three stone ones still 
existing in France, 133— 138 



Turner, Rev. Joseph, 23 

Rev. W. H., 23 
Turpin, Dick, 54 
Twyning Common, 54 
Tyndale, Edward, 86 
Tyndall Family, Arms of, 125 

Uckington, Manor of, 232 
Ufford Family, Arms of, 106 
Urban, Bishop of Llandaff, 216 
Urian Reged, Arms of, 107 

Vane, Rev. John, 18 
Vassmer Family, Arms of, 112 
Vaughan, Sir Charles, Arms of, 127 
Veele, Agnes, 274 

Edward, 186, 274 

Edward and Katherine, Effigies 
273—275 

Elizabeth, 274 

Margaret, 274 

Peter, 185 • 

Robert, 185 

Susan, 274 

Thomas, 185 

William, 185, 186 

Family, 281 

Arms of, 184 — 186, 274, 275 
Vere, Hugh de, 45 

Richard de, Effigy of, 99 

Family, Arms of, 105, 106 
Vernon, Sir Nicholas de, Arms of, 191 

Family, Arms of, 115 
Vivon, Petronilla de, 180 
Vyell Family, Arms of, 185, 186, 274,275 

Wadsworth, Effigy at, 97 
Wakehurst, Richard, Arms of, 192 
Wakeman, John, Abbct, 36, 91, 92 

Effigy of 43, 52 
Walcher, Prior, 56 
Walcote Family, Arms of, 118, 119 
Waldeshef Family, Arms of, 113 
Walfarshill, 22 
Walker, John, Abbot, 36 

Family, Arms of, 116 
Wailis Family, Arms of, 131 
Waltham Church, 287 
Walwyn, Anne, Arms of, 204, 205 

Family, Arms of, 202, 203 
Wansdike, Course of, 6 
Warenne Family, Arms of, 102, 105 
Warren, Isabell, 186 

William and Maiiania, Effigies of 
166, 167 

Warwick, Edward, Earl of, 36 

Elizabeth, Countess of, 52 

Henry, Duke of, 36 

Isabel, Countess of, 36, 145 

Richard, Earl of, 36 
Washbourne, John, Arms of, 154 

Mary, 154 
Washbourne, Land at, 89 
Washington, Penelope, Arms of, 194 
Wastfield Family, Ai ms of, 125 
Watched Family, Arms of, 190 
Watsand Family, Arms of, 118, 119 
Weeks Family, Arms of, 126 
Welford, Manor of, 232 
Wellington, John de, 226 
Wells Cathedral, 21 

Bishops of, 7, 8, 20, 21 

Effigy in, 98 

Grant to, 21 

Prebend of, 8 

Prebendary of, 24 
Church of St. Cuthbert, 16 



336 



Index. 



Welsh hatred of Monks of Lantony, 

215—217 
Wenlock, Lord, 42, 50 

Arms of, 42 
Wenman, Sir Francis, Arms of, 193 
Wentworth, Sir Richard, Arms of, 113 
Were, F. ; Bristol Cathedral Heraldry, 

102 — 132 

Heraldry in various Churches and 
Houses in Gloucestershire and 
Worcestershire, 183 — 211 
Were, William, Arms of, 200 
Werstan, St.. 54, 61 

Martyrdom of (iilus.), 59 
Westbury-on-Trym Church, Communion 
Table, 290 
Dean of, 101 
Effigies in, 278- 281 
Grave of Bishop Carpenter, Letters 
on, 294, 295 
Westenra Family, Arms of, 208 
Westerleigh Church, 4 
Westfield, Bishop, Arms of, no 
Westminster Abbey, 8 1 

Deerhurst, Pershore, and West- 
minster, by Rev. C. S. Taylor, 
230—250 

Possessions in Gloucestershire, 
232 

Houses of Parliament, Victoria 
Tower, 16, 18 
Weston, John de, Effigy of, 96 
Whichendon, Over, Church, 287 
Whitcomb Family, Arms of, 184 
White, Mr., Wrington, 18 
Whitefield Court, Visit of the Society, 76 
Whittington Church, Effigies in, 144, 
263—266 
Manor of, 264 
Wickhamford Church, Heraldry in, 191 — 
194 

Wiggenhall Church, 287 
Wigmore, Edmund, 189 

Richard, 189 
Wilfred, St., 79 

Wilkins, H. J.; Letter on grave of Bp. 

Carpenter, 294 
William I., 20, 35, 247 

Grants by, 231, 233, 234, 236, 241 
William Rufus, 213 

William, Hermit of Lantony, 213, 214, 217 
Williams, Bishop, 289 

Family, Arms of, 116 
Willington Family, Arms of, 103, 209 
Willsbury, Manor of, 167 
Wilson, Rev. C. H., 254 
Wimboi ne Minster, 287 
Winchcombe Castle, 220 

Church, 287 

Land at, 90 
Winchelsea, Effigy at, 95, 96 
Winchester Cathedral, Grant to, 20 

William I. at, 234 
Winter, Robert, 197, 198 

Roger, 197, 198 

William, 198 



Winterbourne Church, Effigies in, 144, 
281-284 

Heraldry in, 183, 184 
Winvvick, Lanes., Brass at, 101 
Withers Family, Arms of, 189 
Withington Church, Effigies in, 266 — 270 
WolJey Family, Arms of, 130, 131 
Wolston, Manor of, 232 
Woodward, Rev. John, 132 

Family, Arms of, in, 203 
Worcester, Symon, Bishop of, 218 
Worcester, Bishopric cf, 69 

Cathedral, Dedication of, 239 

Diocese, 91 

King John's Coffin, 100 
St. Michael's Church, 288 
See of, Arms of, 278 
Wormegay Church, 287 
Wright, Bishop, Arms of, 123 

Thomas, 113 
Wrington Church, Architectural Notes 
on, 2 — 5 (illus.), 16 — 18 
Chained Books, 18 
Monuments, 18 
Views, 14, 15, 17, 19 
Owners of, 16 

Proceedings of the Society at, 1, 19 

Visit of the Society, 15—18 
Wroughton, Sii William, 155 

Arms of, 156 
Wulstan, St. and Bishop, 56, 100, 233, 241 
Wulfwig, Bishop, 233 
Wyat, Sir Francis, Arms of, 194 
Wych, John, Prior, 229 
Wycombe, William of, Prior, 218, 219, 

220, 228 
Wylde Family, Arms of, 203 
Wynter, George, Arms of, 173 

and Anna, Effigies ot, 172 — 174 

Sir William, 174 
Wyrall, Junk. Effigy of, 146, 162, 163 

Family, Effigy of a Bow Bearer, 146 
164 

Wyrrall, Eli^bbeth, 197 



Yanley Lane, 6 
Yate, Charles, Arms ox, 122 
Yatton Church, Architectural Notes on 
3 — 5 (illus.), 8 — 14 
Effigies (illus.), 10 — 14 
Prebend of Wells, 8 
Views, 7—10, 13 
Churchyard Cross, 10 
Court de Wyck, 7 
Domesday, mention, 7 
Manor, Possessors of, 7, 8 
Proceedings of the Society at, 1— 15 
Visit of the Society, 7—15 
Yonge, Sir John, Tomb and Arms of 
128, 129 



Zouche, Eleanor, Lady de la, 44 

William, Lord de la, 44, 45, 47, 48 
Family, Arms of, 131 



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John E. Pritchard, Esq., F.S.A., 8 Cold Harbour Road, 
Redland, Bristol. 



1bon. (Beneral Secretary. 

Rev. Canon Bazeley, M.A., Matson Rectory, Gloucester. 



YICE-PRESIDENTS, MEMBERS OF COUNCIL, AND 
HON. LOCAL SECRETARIES. 



October, 1903. 

City of Bristol. — Vice-Presidents : The Right Worshipful the Lord 
Mayor of Bristolf ; The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of Bristol, F.S.A. ; 
F. F. Tuckett, F.R.G.S. ; Council Proper : James Baker, F.R.G.S. ; 
Alfred C. Fryer, Ph.D., F.S.A. ; A. E. Hudd, F.S.A. ; John Latimer ; 
J. J. Simpson. Secretary: John E. Pritchard, F.S.A. 

Gity of Gloucester.— Vice-Presidents : The Right Worshipful the 
Mayor of Gloucester!; H. W. Bruton ; F. S. Waller, F.S.A. Council 
Proper: Oscar W. Clark, M.A., M.B.; F. J. Cullis, F.G.S.; C. H. 
Dancey ; H. Medland. Local Secretary: H. T. Bruton. 

Cirencester Division. — Council Proper : Christopher Bowly. Local 
Secretaries: Cirencester — Rev. Canon J. S. Sinclair. Stow-on-the-Wold — 
Rev. F. E. Broome Witts, M.A. 

Forest of Dean Division. — Council Proper: C. Bathurst, Junr.; 
Douglas J. Wintle. Local Secretaries: Lydney — G. W. Keeling. Chepstow 
— Godfrey Seys. 

Stroud Division. — Vice-Presidents : Rev. S. E. Bartleet, M.A., F.S.A. ; 

F. A. Hyett, B.A. ; W. Leigh. Council Proper : W. St. Clair Baddeley ; 
A.J.Morton-Ball. Local Secretaries : Stroud — W.J.Stanton. Dursley — 
Rev. W. H. Silvester Davies, M.A. Nailsworth — A. E. Smith. 

Thornbury Division. — Vice-President: F. F. Fox, F.S.A. Council 
Proper : Rev. W. E. Blathwayt, M.A. ; Rev. Canon Ellacombe, M.A. 
Local Secretaries: Berkeley — Rev. Canon Stackhouse, M.A. Wotton- 
under-Edge — Vincent R. Perkins. 

Tewkesbury Division. — Vice-Presidents : The Right. Hon. Sir J. E. 
Dorington, Bart., M.A., M.P. ; G. B. Witts, C.E. Council Proper: 

G. S. Blakeway ; T. Dyer-Edwardes, M.A. ; E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A. 
Local Secretaries : Tewkesbury — F. W. Godfrey, Junr. Chipping 
Campden— Rev. CO. Bartlett, M.A. 

Cheltenham. — Vice-Presidents : Sir Brook Kay, Bart. ; R. V. Vassar- 
Smith ; A. le Blanc ; Council Proper : C. E. Gael. Local Secretary : 

H. A. Prothero, M.A. 

Not Assigned.— Vice-Presidents : John Beddoe, M.D., F.R.S. ; J. G. P. 
Palmer Hallett, M.A. Council Proper : Rev. J. M. Hall, M.A. ; 
A. T. Martin, M.A., F.S.A.; Rev. W. Symonds, M.A. ; Francis Were, 
t When a Member of this Society. 



SUBSCRIBING MEMBERS, 1903. 



Names of Life Members are given in heavier type 

An asterisk is affixed to the names of Members of Council for 1902-3. 

The Treasurer will feel obliged if Members will inform him of any 
change in their address. 

Abbot, H. Napier, M.A., 5 Downfield Road, Clifton. 
Ackers, B. St. John, Huntley Manor, Gloucester. 
Adams, J. W., Glanmire, Glencairn Park Road, Cheltenham. 
Adams, W. Avery, The Guildhall, Bristol. 
Addie, Peter, City Estate Office, Broad Street, Bristol. 
Alexander, A. J., 103 Pembroke Road, Clifton. 

Allen, Rev. William Taprell, M.A., 36 Ampthill Road, Fulwood Park, 
Liverpool. 

Andrews, Hugh, Toddington, Winchcombe, R.S.O., Glos. 
Archer, Lieut. -Col. G. W., R.E., The Rookery, Frensham, Farnham. 
Armitage, W. H., Lyley House, Wotton-under-Edge. 
Armstrong, F. A. W. T., 42 St. Michael's Hill, Bristol. 
Arrowsmith, j. W., 6 Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Asher & Co., 13 Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 
Ashman, Sir Herbert, Cooks Folly, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
Atherton, Rev. W. Bernard, B.A., Taynton House, Taynton, near 
Gloucester. 

"Baddeley, W. St. Clair, Castle Hale, Painswick, Stroud. 
Bagnall-Oakeley, Mrs. W., Tre Cefu, Monmouth. 
Baker, A., The Old Bank, Tewkesbury. 

Baker, Arthur, Henbury Hill House, Henbury, near Bristol. 

Baker, Miss E. M., 8 Vyvyan Terrace, Clifton. 

Baker, Granville E. Lloyd, Hardwicke Court, Gloucester. 
♦Baker, James, F.R.G.S., F.R. Hist. S., Sewelle Villa, Goldney Road, 
Clifton, Bristol. 

Baker, W. Proctor, Sandhill Park, near Taunton. 
*Ball, A. J. Morton, The Green, Stroud. 

Banks, C, 6 Westneld Terrace, Longford, Gloucester. 

Barclay, Rev. Chas. W., M.A., Little Amwell Vicarage, Hertford Heath, 
Herts. 

Barnsley, A. E., Pinbury Park, Cirencester. 
♦Bartleet, Rev. S. E., M.A., F.S.A., Dursley Rectory, Gloucestershire. 
*Bartlett, Rev. C. O., M.A., Willersey Rectory, Broadway, Worcestershire. 

Bate, Mrs. Frazer, 

*Bathurst, Charles, Junr., 3 Stone Buildings, Lincolns Inn, London. 
Batten, Lieut. -Col. Herbert Cary George, Leigh Lodge, Abbot's Leigh, 

Clifton, Bristol. 
Baxter, Wynne E., D.L., Granville Cottage, Stroud. 
Baylis, Philip, Whitemead Park, Coleford, Glos. 

*Bazeley, Rev. Canon, M.A., Matson Rectory, Gloucester (Hon. Member), 

(Hon. General Secretary and Librarian). 
Bazley, Gardner S., M.A., Hatherop Castle, Fairford, Glos. 
Bazley, Sir Thomas S., Bart., Winterdyne, Chine Crescent Road, 

Bournemouth West, Hants, 



5 



Beach, The Rt. Hon. Sir Michael E. Hicks, Bart., D.L., M.P., 

Coin St. Aldwyn's, Fairford. 
Beach, Rev. W. H. ( M.A., The Mythe, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
Beaufort, Her Grace the Duchess of, c/o Ward Soame, Esq., Estate 

Offices, Badminton, Chippenham. 
•Beddoe, John, M.D., F.R.S., The Chantry, Bradford-on-Avon. 
Bennet, Jno. Ryan, 3 Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, c/o Kegan Paul, Trench Trubner & Co., 

Paternoster House, Charing Cross Road, W.C. 
Biddell, Sidney, New University Club, St. James' Street, London, S.W. 
Biddulph, Michael, M.P., Ledbury. 
Birchall, J. Dearman, Bowden Hall, Gloucester. 
Birchall, Miss, Lanesfield, Lansdown Road, Cheltenham. 
*Blakeway, G. W. S., Staniforth, Tuffley, Gloucester. 
Blathwayt, Geo. W. Wynter, Melksham House, Melksham, Wilts. 
*Blathwayt, Rev. "Wynter Edward, M. A. , Dyrham, Chippenham. 
Blathwayt, Rev. Wynter T., M.A., Dyrham Park, Chippenham. 
Blathwayt, Lieut. -Col. Linley, Eagle House, Batheaston, Bath. 
Blood, G. E., 15 Clyde Road, Redland, Bristol. 
Blood, John N., 3 Berkeley Street, Gloucester. 
Blosse, Rev. R. C. Lynch, Tidenham Vicarage, Chepstow. 
Blyth, W. D., The Limes, Bayshill, Cheltenham. 
Bodleian Library (E. W. Nicholson, Librarian), Oxford. 
Bond, Fredk. Bligh, F.R.I.B.A., Star Chambers, St. Augustine's, Bristol. 
Boucher, Chas. Ernest, B. Sc. Lond., 6 Cold Harbour Road, Redland, 

Bristol. 

Boutflower, Chas. E. D., 9 Hurle Crescent, Clifton. 
*Bowly, Christopher, Siddington House, Cirencester. 
Braikenridge, W. Jerdone, 16 Royal Crescent, Bath. 
Bramble, Lieut. -Col. James Roger, F.S.A., Seafield, Weston- 
super-Mare. 

Bravender, T. B., 96 Oakfield Road, Anerley, London, S.E. 
Briggs, William, Exchange, Bristol. 

♦Bristol, The Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of (George Forrest Browne, 

D.D., D.C.L., F.S.A.), The Palace, Bristol. 
Bristol Museum and Library, Queen's Road, Bristol. Chairman — 
W. R. Barker. 

British Museum, c/o Messrs. Dulau & Co., 37 Soho Square, London, W. 

Brown, Rev. G. H., 39 Downleaze, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

Brown, Walter, M.B., Carlton House, Gloucester. 

Browne, Rev. A. H., D.D., Kempsford Vicarage, Fairford, Glos. 

Bruton, Basil V., Bewick House, Gloucester. 
*Bruton, H. T., 4 Alexandra Terrace, Gloucester. 
"Bruton, H. W., Bewick House, Wotton, Gloucester. 

Bruton, James, Wotton Hill Cottage, Gloucester. 

Bryan, H. Dare, F.R.I.B.A., Croome Cottage, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

Bubh, Henry, Ullinwood, near Cheltenham. 

Burges, P., The Ridge, Chipping Sodbury. 

Burn, Charles, 19 Elmdale Road, Clifton. 

Burroughs, Jno. Beamies Cooper, 23 Bridge Street, Bristol. 

Bush, Edward, The Grove, Alveston, R.S.O., Gloucestershire. 

Bush, G. de Lisle, Standish House, Stonehouse, Glos. 

Bush, John, 9 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Bush, R. C, 1 Winifred's Dale, Cavendish Road, Bath. 

Bush, T. S., 20 Camden Crescent, Bath. 

Butt, Rev. Walter, M.A.., Arle Court, Cheltenham. 

Cardew, C. E., A.M.I.C.E., Insein, Lower Burmah. 
Cardew, G. A., 5 Fauconberg Villas, Cheltenham. 
Carpenter, R. H., 43 Canynge Road, Clifton. 
Carter, T. M., M.R.C.S., 28 Victoria Square, Clifton. 



6 



Cave, Sir Charles D., Bart., M.A., D.L., Stoneleigh House, Clifton 
Park, Bristol. 

Cave, Charles H., B.A., Rodway Hill House, Mangotsfield, Glos. 
Chance, T. H., Journal Office, St. John's Lane, Gloucester. 
Charles, E. J., Seisdon Hall, near Wolverhampton. 
Cheesman, Rev. A. H., Derby Road, Gloucester. 
Cheltenham College (A. A. Hunter, Bursar). 
Cheltenham Permanent Library, Royal Crescent, Cheltenham. 
Cheltenham Public Library (Librarian, W. Jones, Cheltenham). 
Child, Mrs. Robert, Chosen Hill, near Cheltenham. 
Chilton, George Horace David, 14 Cambridge Park, Bristol. 
Chilton, Guy, Churchfield, Westbury-on-Trym, near Bristol. 
Church, A. H., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., Shelsley, Kew, Surrey. 
*Clark, Oscar W., M.A., M.B., S. Luke's House, Spa Road, Gloucester. 
Clarke, Alfred Alex., Vicar's Close, Wells, Somerset. 
Clarke, W. Sefton, B.A., Camb., 28 Broad Street, Bristol. 
Clifton, The Right Rev. the Bishop of (Dr. George Crompton 

Burton), Bishop's House, Clifton. 
Clifton College Library, Clifton, Bristol. 
Cockshott, Arthur, 7 Pittville Crescent, Cheltenham. 
Codrington, Rev. R. H., D.D., St. Richard's Walk, Chichester. 
Collett, Jno. Hy., Guy's Clyffe, Gloucester. 
Collett, John M., Guy's Cliff, Wotton, Gloucester. 
Conder, Edw., F.S.A., The Conigree, Newent, Glos. 
Cooke, P. B., Lismore, Wotton, Gloucester. 

Cornock, Nicholas, 7 Marjorie Grove, Clapham Common, London, S.W. 
Cornwall, Rev. Allan Kingscote, M.A., Burghope, Worsley, 

Bradford-on- Avon . 
Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club (S. S. Buckman, Hon. Sec), Charlton 

Kings, Cheltenham. 
Covey, Rev. R. C, Alderton Rectory, Winchcombe, R.S.O., Glos. 
Crawley-Boevey, A. W. , 24 Sloane Court, London, S.W. 
Crawley-Boevey, Rev. R., M.A., Duntisborn Abbot's Rectory, Cirencester. 
Crawley-Boevey, Sir T. H., Bart., Flaxley Abbey, Newnham, 

Gloucestershire. 
Creese, C. R., Enderley House, Tewkesbury. 
Crewdson, Theodore, Norcliffe Hall, Handford, Manchester. 
Cripps, Henry Kater, Redcliffe, Clifton Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Croggan, Edmund, 4 Beaufort Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Crooke, Wm., Langton House, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 
Cullimore, J., Christleton, Chester. 
*Cullis, F. J., F.G.S., Barnwood Court, Gloucester. 
Cullis, Miss, Barnwood Court, Gloucester. 
"Currie, G. M., 26 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham (Hon. Treasurer). 

*Dancey, Charles Henry, 6 Midland Road, Gloucester. 
Dancey, H. A., Midland Road, Gloucester. 
Daubeny, Capt., 10 Pitville Lawn, Cheltenham. 
Davies, E. Jenner, Haywardsend, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. 
Davies, Rev. John Silvester, M.A., F.S.A., Adelaide House, Enfield, 
London, N. 

*Davies, Rev. W. H. Silvester, M.A., Horsley Vicarage, Stroud. 
Davis, Cecil Tudor, Public Library, Wandsworth, London, S.W. 

De Ferrieres, Baron, Bayshill House, Cheltenham. 
De Freville, Rev. H. P., The Horsepools, Stroud, Gloucestershire. 
De Sausmarez, F. B., M.A., 5 Queen's Parade, Cheltenham. 
Dening, Edwin, Manor House, Stow-on-the-Wold, Gloucestershire. 
Derham, Henry, Sneyd Park, Bristol. 

Derham, Walter, M.A., F.G.S., 96 Lancaster Gate, London, W. 
Dickinson, J. L., Park House, Eastfield Park, Weston-super-Mare. 



7 



Dix, J. W. S., Hampton Lodge, Durdham Down, Bristol. 
Dobell, C. Faulkner, Whittington Court, Andoversford, Cheltenham. 
Dobell, Clarence Mason, The Grove, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 
Doggett, Hugh Greenfield, Springhill, Leigh Woods, Clifton, Bristol. 
Dominican Priory, Rev. Prior of, Woodchester, Stonehouse, Gloucester- 
shire. 

*Dorington, The Right Hon. Sir J. E., Bart., M.A., M.P., Lypiatt 
Park, Stroud. 

Dowdeswell, Rev. E. R., M.A., Pull Court, Tewkesbury. 
Dowding, W. L., 13 Kingsley Road, Gotham, Bristol. 
Drew, Joseph, M.D., Montrose, Battledown, Cheltenham. 
Drysdale, Col., The Mythe House, Tewkesbury. 

Ducie, The Right Hon. the Earl of, P.O., F.R.S., Tortworth 

Park, Falfield, R.S.O. 
Dugdale, R. W., 112 London Road, Gloucester.'' 
Duke, Col. J. C, South Court, Leckhampton Road, Cheltenham. 
Dumas, Rev. Jas., Grammar School, Chipping Sodbury, Gloucestershire. 
*Dyer-Edwardes, Thomas, M.A., Prinknash Park, Painswick, Stroud. 

Eager, Reginald, M.D., Northwoods, Winterbourne, Bristol. 
Eberle, J. Fuller, 96 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Edwards, Herbert G., 5, Perceval Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
*Ellacombe, Rev. Canon H. N., M.A., The Vicarage, Bitton, Bristol. 
Ellicott, A. B., His Honour, M.A., (The Chancellor of the Diocese), The 

Culls, Stroud. 
Elliot, Major-Gen., 1 Fauconberg Villas, Cheltenham. 
Ellis, T. S., 6 Clarence Street, Gloucester. 

Emeris, Rev. William, C, M.A., Taynton Vicarage, Burford, Oxon. 
Evans, Arnold, 4 Litfield Place, Clifton, Bristol. 
Evans, Horace L., 4 Litfield Place, Clifton, Bristol. 

Fawcett, Miss E. A., 12 Spa Buildings, Cheltenham. 

Floyd, Walter C. L., M.I.C.E., 13 Miles Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Fluck, J. A., The Limes, Longford, Gloucester. 

Flux, Edward Hitchings, 144 Leadenhall Street, London, E.C. 

Forbes, Col. G. H. A., R.A., Rockstowes, Dursley. 

Ford, Andrew Hamill, Wraxall Court, Wraxall, near Bristol. 

Ford, Roger, Kensington Lodge, Kensington Park, Clifton. 

Foster, R. G., 2 Spa Villas, Gloucester. 

*Fox, Francis Frederick, F.S.A., Yate House, Yate, R.S.O., Glos. 
Foxcroft, E. T. D., D.L., Hinton Charterhouse, Bath. 
Fraser, Surgeon Major-General D. A. Campbell, 13 Lypiatt Terrace, 
Cheltenham. 

Frost, Walter, The Red House, Almondsbury, R.S.O., Gloucestershire. 
Fry, Claude Basil, Howcroft, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
Fry, Francis J., Cricket St. Thomas, Chard, Somerset. 
Fry, Lewis, The Right Hon., Goldney House, Clifton, Bristol. 
*Fryer, Alfred C, Ph.D. and M.A. Leipsic, F.S.A., 13 Eaton 
Crescent, Clifton, Bristol. 

•Gael, C. E., Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 
Gainsborough, The Right Hon. the Earl of, Campden House, Chipping 
Campden. 

Gardner, Rev. G. L., All Saints Vicarage, Cheltenham. 

Gardner, W. J., " Record" Office, 7 Barton Street, Tewkesbury. 

George, Ch. W., 51 Hampton Road, Bristol. 

George, Frank, 7 Ellenborough Crescent, Weston-super-Mare. 

George, Rev. P. E., M.A., St. Winifred's, Bath. 

George, W. E. ? Downside, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 



8 



Ghewy, Albert B., Bewell House, Woodchester Stroud. 

Gibbs, H. Martin, Barrow Court, Flax Bourton, R.S.O., Somerset. 

Gilchrist, Jas., 24 College Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Giller, William Thomas, 16 Tisbury Road, Hove, Brighton. 

Gilliat, Rev. E., The Grange, Bitton, Bristol. 

Gloucester, the Worshipful the Mayor and Corporation of, c/o Librarian, 

Public Free Library, Gloucester. 
* Godfrey, F. W., Junr., Tewkesbury. 
Godfrey, Miss M. M., The Greenway, near Cheltenham. 
Golding, Mrs., Tudor Lodge, The Park, Cheltenham. 
Goodden, Jno. Hy., 6 Canynge Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Gresley, Rev. Nigel W., M.A., The Rectory, Ozleworth, Wotton-under- 
Edge. 

Griffiths, John S , M.R.C.S., 25 Redland Park, Bristol. 
Griffiths, L. M., M.R.C.S., 11 Pembroke Road, Clifton. 
Grimes, H. W., Horton Road, Gloucester. 

Grosvenor, Wilshaw W., B.A., M.D., 4 Clarence Street, Gloucester. 
Guise, Sir W., Bart., Elmore Court, Gloucester. 
Gurney, W. Gerald, 12 Wellington Square, Cheltenham. 
Gwynn, Humphrey T. M. 0., Somerset House, Clifton. 

Haigh, Rev. W. E., M.A., St. Paul's Lodge, Clifton, Bristol. 

Haines, Basil John, Manor House, Queen Charlton, near Bristol. 

Hale, Maj.-Gen. Robert, Alderley, Wotton-under-Edge. 
•Hall, Rev. J. M., M.A., The Rectory, Harescombe, Stroud. 
•Hallett, J. G. P. Palmer, M.A., Claverton Lodge, Bath. 

Hallett, Mrs., Claverton Lodge, Bath. 

Hammond, Wm., Belmont Lodge, Rockleaze, Sneyd Park, Bristol 
Harding, E. B., Chasefield, Upper Knowle, Bristol. 
Harding', Rev. Canon John Taylor, M.A., Pentwyn, Monmouth. 
Hardy, Mrs., Rowcroft, Stroud, Glos. 

Harford, William H., Oldown, Tockington, R.S.O., Gloucestershire. 
Hart land, Ernest, M.A., F.S.A., Hardwicke Court, Chepstow (Hon. Member). 
*Hartland, E. Sidney, F.S.A., Highgarth, Gloucester. 
Harvard College, U.S.A., c/o Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co., 

Paternoster House, Charing Cross Road, London, W.C. 
Harvey, Alfred, M.B., Ewelme, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol. 
Harvey, Edward A., 26 Victoria Square, Clifton, Bristol. 
Hawkesbury, The Right Hon. Lord, F.S.A., Kirkham Abbey, 

Yorkshire. 

Hawkins, J. G., Staunton Court, Gloucester. 

Hayes, C. A., Ashley House, Ashley Down Road, Bristol. 

Hayward, The Venerable Archdeacon, M.A., College Green, Gloucester. 

Healing, Saml. H., 17 College Green, Gloucester. 

Heaven, Geo. H., 2 Greenway Road, Redland Park, Bristol. 

Heberden, Rev. H. B., Oddington Rectory, Stow-on-the-Wold. 

Helps, Arthur S., Barton Street Gloucester. 

Hemmons, W. Crofton, 8 Berkeley Square, Clifton, Bristol. 

Herapath, Howard M., 14 Manilla Road, Clifton. 

Herbert, Arthur Grenville, 28 Elvaston Place, Queen's Gate, 
London, W. 

Herbert, "W. Hawkins, Paradise House, Painswick, Glos. 
Higgins, Henry, Willsbridge House, near Bristol. 
Hirst, Francis J., M.A., 12 Westbury Park, Durdham Down, Bristol. 
Hirst, H. C. M., A.R.I.B.A., 22 Duchess Road, Clifton. 
Hodson, Rev. Thos., The Vicarage, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 
Holbrow, Rev. Thomas, B.A., Shaw Well, Corbridge-on-Tyne. 
Holford, Capt. G. L., C.V.O., c/o D. Lindsay, Esq., Estate Office, 
Tetbury, Glos. 

Holmes, James G., Thorne Lodge, Oal<field Grove, Clifton, Bristol. 



9 



Holt, Rev. Vernon, M.A., The Cathedral, Bristol. 

Horlick, James, Cowley Manor, Cheltenham. 

Horner, John Richard, 5 Elton Road, Bishopston, Bristol. 

Household, W. H., College Court, Gloucester. 

Howard, Edward Stafford, 9 Egerton Place, London, S.W. 

Howell, Jas. H., 104 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Howell, Rev. W. C, M.A., Holy Trinity Vicarage, Tottenham, London, N. 
*Hudd, Alfred E., F.S.A., Sea Walls, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

Hughes, W. W., Downfield Lodge, Clifton, Bristol. 

Huntley, Rev. O. C, Boxwell Court, Wotton-under-Edge, Glos. 

Hutton, Rev. W. H., The Great House, Burford, Oxon. 
*Hyett, F. A., B.A., Painswick House, Painswick, Stroud. 

Isacke, Miss, Stratford Abbey College, near Stroud. 

Jebb, Mrs., Oaklands, Brock worth, Gloucester. 
Jenkins, Frederick A., 58, St. John's Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Jennings, Rev. A. C, M.A., King's Stanley Rectory, Stonehouse, 
Gloucestershire. 

Johnstone, Charles J., 14 Henleaze Road, Durdham Down, Bristol. 
Johnstone-Vaughan, W. J., The Old Rectory, Wotton, Gloucester. 
Joicey, James, Poulton Court, Fairford, Glos. 
Jose, W. W., 2 West Mall, Clifton. 

Judge, Frederick, 90 Richmond Road, Montpellier, Bristol. 

*Kay, Sir Brook, Bart., Stanley Lodge, Battledown, Cheltenham 

(President of Council). 
* Keeling, George William, 10 Lansdown Terrace, Cheltenham. 

Kennedy-Skipton, H. S.; 11 Lansdowne Terrace, Cheltenham. 

Kerr, Russell J., The Haie, Newnham-on-Severn. 

Kerr, Capt. W. G. W , Prestbury Court, Cheltenham. 

King, Miss, Avonside, Clifton Down, Bristol. 

King, P. L., 2 Worcester Avenue, Clifton, Bristol. 

Knowles, Henry, Egerton House, The Spa, Gloucester. 

Landale, Dy. -Surgeon-General, Dunholme, The Park, Cheltenham. 
*Latimer, John, 3 Trelawny Place, Cotham, Bristol. 

Law, Ernest, B.A., F.S.A., The Pavilion, Hampton Court Palace, London. 

Lawrence, R. Gwynne, Middleton Hall, Llanarthney, South Wales. 
*Le Blanc, Arthur, The Hayes, Prestbury, near Cheltenham. 

Lefroy, Rev. F. A., Haresfield Vicarage, Stonehouse, Glos. 

Leigh, E. Egerton, D,L., Broadwell Manor House, Stow-on-the-Wold. 
*Leigh, William, Woodchester Park, Stonehouse, Glos. 

Lewis, Archibald M., 3, Upper Byron Place, Clifton, Bristol. 

Lewis, Rev. George, The Rectory, Icomb, Stow-on-the-Wold, Glos. 

Lewis, M. Barry, Bell Lane, Gloucester. 

Little, E. Caruthers, Tracy House, Pittville Lawn, Cheltenham. 
Little, E. P., Lansdown, Stroud. 
Liverpool Free Library, Liverpool. 
Llewellin, John, C.E., Hazeland, Devizes, Wilts. 
Llewellin, W. M., C.E., 15 King Square, Bristol. 
London Library, 12 St. James' Square, London, S.W. 
Long, The Right Hon. Walter H., D.L., M.P., Rood Ashton, Trow- 
bridge, Wilts; and 11, Ennismore Gardens, London, S.W. 
Long, Col. William, Woodlands, Congresbury, R.S.O., East Somerset. 
Lowe, C. J., 8 St. Stephen's Street, Bristol. 
Lynes, Rev. W., M.D., Cinderford Vicarage, Newnham. 
Lysons, Rev. Danl. Geo., The Vicarage, Deerhurst, Tewkesbury, Glos. 

Machen, C. E., Bicknor, Coleford, Gloucestershire. 
Maclaine, William Osborne, D.L., Kineton, Thornbury] 
Macpherson, J., Sorrento, San Diego, California, U.S.A. 



Malleson, Miss, Dixton Manor, Winchcombe, R.S.O., Glos. 
Manchester Library (Charles W. Sutton, Sec), Manchester. 
Mardon, Heber, 2 Litfield Place, Clifton. 
Margetson, William, Brightside, Stroud. 
Marling, Stanley, Stanley Park, Stroud. 

Marrs, Kingsmill, South Park, Saxonville, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 
Marshall, Mrs., The Red House, Newent. 
'Martin, A. T,, M.A., F.S.A., The School House, Bath College, Bath. 
Martin, C. T., B.A., F.S.A., Public Record Office, Chancery Lane, London, 
W.C. 

Martin, Dr. J. M., Fir Tree House, Rodborough, Stroud, Glos. 
Martin, It. B., M.P., Overbury Court, Tewkesbury, Glos. 
Master, Mrs. Chester, Knole Park. Almondsbury, R.S.O., Glos. 
Matthews, J. A., Lewishurst, The Spa, Gloucester. 
May, Arthur C, Avon House, Sneyd Park, near Bristol. 
McMurtrie, Jas., F.G.S., 5 Belvedere Road, Durdham Park, Bristol. 
*Medland, Henry, Clarence Street, Gloucester. 
Meredith, W. Lewis, 7 Midland Road, Gloucester. 
Middlemore-Whithard, Rev. T. M., M.A., Hawkesley, Exmouth, Devon 
Miles, Rev. Henry Edmund, M. A., The Rectory, Huntley, near Gloucester. 
Miles, P. Napier, Kir gsweston, near Bristol. 
Miller, Chas., Llanfoist House, Clifton Down, Bristol. 
Mills, H. Hamilton, Sudgrove House, near Cirencester. 
Mills, J. Elliott, 13 Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Mitchell, A. C., Highgrove, Tetbury, Glos. 

Mitchinson, The Right Rev. Bishop, D.D., Pembroke College, Oxford. 
Moffatt, H. C, Goodrich Court, Ross. 
Moline, William, 19 The Avenue, Clifton, Bristol. 
Morgan, E. T. 91 Coronation Road, Bristol. 

Morgan, Miss, c/o Miss Balguy, The Highlands, S. Norwood Hill, London. 
Morris, R. Groves, 5 Beaufort Buildings, Spa, Gloucester. 
Moxley, W. S., 9 Elgin Park, Redland, Bristol. 
Mullings, John, Cirencester. 

Nash, Rev. Canon R. S., M.A., Old Sodbury, Chipping Sodbury. 

New York Library, c/o B. F. Stevens & Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, 

London, W.C. 
Noel, Col. W. F. N., Great House, North Nibley, Glos. 
Norman, George, Alpha House, Bayshill, Cheltenham. 
Norman, George, 12 Brock Street, Bath. 
Norris, Herbert E., The Market Place, Cirencester. 

Oatley, G. H., F.R.I.B.A., Church House, Clifton. 

Oman, C. W. C, M.A., F.S.A., All Souls' College, Oxford. 

Oman, Mrs., Avalon, St. George's Road, Cheltenham. 

Osborn, J. Lee., F.R. Hist. S., Elmcroft, Winterbourne Down, nr. Bristol. 

Osborne, H. B., Osborne Lodge, The Park, Cheltenham. 

Osburn, Miss, The Edge House, near Stroud. 

Overbury, Thos., 1 York Villas, Cheltenham. 

Owen, Rev. Canon Richard Trevor, M.A., F.S.A., Llangedwyn, Oswestry, 
Salop. 

Page, Arthur W., 19 Northumberland Road, Redland, Bristol. 
Paine, A. E, W., Churcham Court, Gloucester. 

Parker, Rev. Canon Charles J., M.A., Upton House, Bitton, Bristol. 
Parsons, H. F., M.R.C.S., The Heath, Sneyd Park, Clifton, Bristol. 
Paul, J. E., Ferncliff, Leckhampton, Cheltenham. 
Paull, Rev. W. Major, 4 Duchess Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Pearson, George, Bannerleigh, Tyndall's Park, Clifton. 



II 



Pennsylvania Historical Society, Philadelphia, U.S.A., c/o Messrs. B. F 
Stevens & Brown, 4 Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, London, W.C. 

Perceval, Cecil H. Spencer, Longwitton Hall, Morpeth, Northumberland. 

Percival, E. H., Kimsbury House, Gloucester. 

Percival, Mrs. L., 4 Pittville Crescent, Cheltenham. 
* Perkins, Vincent R., Wotton-under-Edge, Glos. 

Peters, Geo., Southville Lawn, Brunswick Square, Gloucester. 

Phillimore, W. P. W., M.A., B.C.L., 124 Chancery Lane, London, W.C. 

Philp, Capt. J. Lamb, Pendoggett, Timsbury, Bath. 

Pippet, Rev. W. A., The Rectory, Clifford Chambers, Stratford-on-Avon. 

Pitcairn, Rev. D. Lee, M.A., Bushey House, Monkton Combe, 
Bath. 

Pitt, Theophilus, 143 Minories, London, E.C. 

Playne, Arthur T., Longfords, Minchinhampton. 

Pollock, Erskine, K.C., Avening Court, Avening, near Stroud, Glos. 

Ponting, Albert J., Tocknells, Painswick, Stroud. 

Ponting, C. E., F.S.A., Lockeridge, Marlborough, Wilts. 

Pope, Jno. R., Wotton Hill, Gloucester. 

Porter, Mrs., Hill House, Stroud, Glos. 

Power, Edward, F.S.A., 16 Southwell Gardens, London, S.W. 
Price, L. Ralph, Claverham House, Claverham, near Yatton, Somerset. 
Prichard, Edgar A., 28 Berkeley Square, Clifton. 

*Pritchard, John E., F.S.A., 8 Cold Harbour Road, Redland, Bristol. 

(Hon. Secretary for Bristol). 
"Prothero, H.A., M.A., 13 Promenade, Cheltenham. 

Pruen, G. G., Leconfield, College Road, Cheltenham. 

Purnell, Rev. R. H., M.A., The Old Vicarage, Staverton, nr. Cheltenham. 



Redesdale, Right Hon. Lord, Batsford Park, Moreton-in-Marsh. 
Reid, Walter, The Woodlands, Woodland Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Richards, Rev. C. H., Leighterton Rectory, Wotton-under-Edge, R.S.O., 
Glos. 

Ringer, Surgeon-General, 20 Lansdown Terrace, Cheltenham. 

Robbins, Rev. J. W. E., 23 Campden Hill Square, London, N. 

Roberts, Mrs., 9 Oxford Parade, Cheltenham. 

Robertson, J. L., 13 Royal Crescent, Cheltenham. 

Roper, Miss I. M., 4 Woodfield Road, Redland, Bristol. 

Routh, Col. W. R., 2 Oriel Villas, Cheltenham. 

Rowe, J. Brooking, F.S.A., Castle Barbican, Plympton, Devon. 

Sadler, G. W., Keynsham Villa, High Street, Cheltenham. 

Sampson, Walter A., Delamere, Severn Road, Weston-super-Mare. 

Sawyer, John, Glevum Lodge, Battledown, Cheltenham. 

Scears, Charles, Sunnymede, Keynsham, near Bristol. 

Science and Art Department, South Kensington Museum, London, S.W. 

Scobell, Rev. Canon E., M.A., Upton St. Leonard's Rectory, Gloucester. 

Scott, Charles, Beaufort House, Spa, Gloucester. 

Scott, Rev. G. M., The Vicarage, Nailsworth. 

Selwyn-Payne, Major J. H., Badgworth Court, near Cheltenham. 

Sessions, Frederick, F.R.G.S., M.R.A.S., The Brant, Kendall. 

Sessions, Herbert, Quedgeley Court, Gloucester. 

Sewell, Edward C, The Beeches, Cirencester. 
*Seys, Godfrey, Wirewood's Green, Chepstow. 

Shaw, J. E., M.B., 23 Caledonian Place, Clifton, Bristol. 

Sherborne, Rt. Hon. Lord, 9 St. James' Square, London, S.W. 

Shum, Frederick, F.S.A., 17 Norfolk Crescent, Bath. 

Shute, Mrs., 46 Prince's Gate, London, S.W. 

Sibbald, J. G. E., Mount Pleasant, Norton St. Philip, Bath. 
*Simpson, J. J., Osborne House, Cotham Park, Bristol. 



12 



Sinclair, Rev. Hon. C. A., Hempsted Vicarage, Gloucester. 
Sinclair, Rev. Canon J. S., The Vicarage, Cirencester. 
Slater, Alfred, Horton Lawn, Gloucester. 
* Smith, Alfred Edward, The Hollies, Nailsworth. 
Smith, J. Hudson, 42 Apsley Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Smith, Richard Henry, The Kestrels, Rodborough. Stroud. 
Smith, T. Sherwood, F.S.S., 22 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Smithin, J. A., Lloyd's Bank, Gloucester. 
Sneath, Rev. T. A., The Lawn, Woodchester, Stroud. 
Society of Merchant Venturers, The Worshipful the Master of the, Bristol 
Soutar, J. G., M.B., Barnwood House, Gloucester. 
Soutar, Mrs., Barnwood House, Gloucester. 

Spofforth, Fairfax, 21 Belgrave Road, Tyndall's Park, Clifton, Bristol. 

Stables, Mrs., 2 College Lawn, Cheltenham. 
*Stackhouse, Rev. Canon, The Vicarage, Berkeley. 

Stanton, Rev. Canon, M.A., Hasleton Rectory, Cheltenham. 

Stanton, Charles Holbrow, M.A., Field Place, Stroud. 

Stanton, J. Y., The Leaze, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. 

Stanton, Rev. W. D., Toddington Vicarage, Winchcombe, Glos. 
*Stanton, Walter John, Stratford Lodge, Stroud. 

Stephen, Jno., The Lodge, Gloucester. 

Stephens, Albert J., 29 Denmark Road, Gloucester. 

Strachan, Charles, Tower Leaze, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

Street, Ernest E., C.E., Leny, Clifton Park, Clifton, Bristol. 

Stubs, Peter, Blaisdon Hall, Newnham, Gloucestershire. 

Sturge, Francis, Foster's Chambers, 17 Small Street, Bristol. 

Sturge, Theodore, 14 Hurle Crescent, Clifton. 

Sturgeon, Wentworth, 4 King's Bench Walk, Temple, London, W.C. 
Swann, E. J., D.L., The Gables, Leigh Woods, Bristol. 
Swayne, Miss, 129 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
*Symonds, Rev. W., M.A., Sherston Vicarage, Malmesbury. 

Tait, C. W. A., M.A., 26 College Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Tagart, Francis, F.L.S., F.R.G.S., Old Sneyd Park, near Bristol. 

Tarr, F. J., Westaway, Yatton, R.S.O., Somerset. 

*Taylor,Rev. C.S.,M.A.,F.S. A.., Banwell Vicarage, Somerset, R.S.O. 
Taylor, Edmund J., Town Clerk, Council House, Bristol. 
Tebbs, Rev. Stephen N., M.A., Hillside, Westbury-on-Trym, near 
Bristol. 

Thompson, Mrs., Endcliffe, Henbury, near Bristol. 

Thorpe, Thomas, Osborne House, Frocester, nr. Stonehouse, Gloucester- 
shire. 

Thursby, Piers, Broadwell Hill, Stow-on-the-Wold. 
Tibbitts, John, 5 Theresa Place, Gloucester. 
Tinson, C. J., The Cleevelands, Marie Hill, Cheltenham. 
Tombs, R. C, I.S.O., 37 Henleaze Gardens, Westbury-on-Trym, nr. Bristol. 
Townsend, Charles, St. Mary's, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
Trapnell, Alfred, 15 Upper Belgrave Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Trenfield, J. D. B., Hill House, Chipping Sodbury. 
Trower, G. Oakeley, Meldon Lodge, Cheltenham. 
Tryon, Stephen, 5 Beaufort Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Tucker, Miss, The Studio, Sheepscombe House, Stroud. 
*Tuckett, Francis Fox, F.R.G.S., Frenchay, near Bristol. 
Tudway, Clement, Cecily Hill, Cirencester. 
Tyndall, Miss, The Fort, Bristol. 

Vassall, R. L. Grant, Oldbury Court, Fishponds, Bristol. 
*Vassar-Smith, R. Vassar, Charlton Park, Cheltenham. 
Vaughan-Hughes, Gerald M., Wyelands, Chepstow. 
Veasey, Rev. A. H., The Vicarage, Kemble, Glos. 



13 



Venner, Capt., The Reddings, Storehouse, Gloucestershire. 
Waddy, H. Edw., Rhossili, Brunswick Road, Gloucester. 
Wait, H. W. K., 2 Worcester Villas, Clifton. 
'Waller, Frederick S., F.S.A., F.R.I. B.A., Gloucester. 
Walls, John, Callander House, Clifton Hill, Bristol. 
Walters, Rev. C, M.A., The Vicarage, Forthampton, Tewkesbury. 
Ward, H. W., Frenchay, near Bristol. 
Wardell-Yerburgh, Rev. O. P., The Abbey, Tewkesbury. 
Warren, Robert Hall, F.S.A., 9 Apsley Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Waterman, A. N., 20 Hughenden Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Webb, W. E., Capital and Counties Bank, Bristol. 
Welch, Miss, Arle House, Cheltenham. 
Wells, Charles, F.J. I., 134 Cromwell Road, Bristol. 
Wenden, James Gordon, The Chantry, Dursley. 

•Were, Francis, Gratwicke Hall, Barrow Gurney, Flax Bourton, R.S.O., 

Somerset. 
Weston, John, 8 The Avenue, Clifton. 

Weston, Arthur E. St. Aubyn, The Cottage, Didbrook, Winchcombe. 

Whitcombe, George, The Wotton Elms, Gloucester. 

White, George, Cotham House, Tyndall's Park, Clifton, Bristol. 

Whitfield, G. T., Tuffley, Gloucester. 

Whitwill, Mark, 19 Hanbury Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Wilkinson, Rev. L., M.A., The Rectory, Micheldean, Glo'stershire. 

Willcox, Robt., Craigside, 31 Whiteladies Road, Clifton. 

Williams, Oliver, J. P., Ivydene, Hewlett Road, Cheltenham. 

Williams, P. Watson, M.D., 4 Clifton Park, Clifton. 

Williams, Thos. Webb, Flax Bourton, near Bristol. 

Wills, Sir Frederick, Bart.; M.P., Manor Heath, Bournemouth. 

Wills, G. A., Burwalls, Leigh Woods, near Bristol. 

Wilson, Robert, M.B., Millbrook, Nailsworth. 

Winstone, Benjamin, 53 Russell Square, London, W.C. 

Wintle, Charles, 57 Queen Square, Bristol. 
*Wintle, Douglas J., The Old House, Newnham, Gloucestershire. 

Winwood, Rev. H. H., M.A., F.G.S., 11 Cavendish Crescent, Bath. 

Wise, William Henry, The Council House, Bristol. 

Witchell, E. Northam, Lansdown, Stroud. 
* Witts, Rev. F. E. Broome, M. A. .Upper Slaughter Manor, Lower Slaughter, 
R.S.O., Glos. 

♦Witts, G. B., C.E., Hill House, Leckhampton, Cheltenham. 
Wollaston, Gr. H., M.A. 
Wollaston, Mrs. S. C. 

Wood, Fred A., Highfield, Chew Magna, near Bristol. 
Wood, Walter B., 12 Queen Street, Gloucester. 

Woodward, Miss E. K., M.A., High School, College Green, 
Gloucester. 

Woollright, Major, Junr. U.S. Club, Charles Street, London, S.W. 
Worsley, Capt. H. Mant, Lulworth House, Keynsham, near Bristol. 
Wright, Major, Hidcot House, Chipping Campden, Glos. 
Wright, Jno. Alfred, C.E., 122 Brynland Avenue, Bishopston, Bristol. 

Yabbicom, Col. T. H., C.E., Isleworth, Oakfield Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Young, C.E.B., Daylesford House, Chipping Norton, Oxon 



Zachary, Henry, Bartonbury, Cirencester, 



Literary Societies exchanging Transactions with this Society : 



The Society of Antiquaries of London, Burlington House, Piccadilly, 
London, W. 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, National Museum of Antiquities, 
Queen Street, Edinburgh. 

The Royal Society of Antiquaries (Ireland), Dublin. 

The Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 20 
Hanover Square, London, W. 

The British Archaeological Association, 32 Sackville Street, London, W. 

The Birmingham and Midland Institute, Archaeological Section, Birming- 
ham. 

The Cambrian Archaeological Society, 28 Great Ormond Street, London, 
W.C. 

The Clifton Antiquarian Club, Hon. Sec, A. E. Hudd, Esq., F.S.A., 94 
Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

The Royal Institute of Cornwall, Museum, Truro, Cornwall. 

The Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club, Hon. Sec, S. S. Buckman, Esq., 
Ellborough, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 

The Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Hon. Sec, 
Percy N. Currey, Esq., 3 Market Place, Derby. 

The Essex Archaeological Society, The Lawn, Coggeshall, Essex. 

The Kent Archaeological Society, Museum, Maidstone, Kent. 

The Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, The Castle, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

The Powys Land Club, Museum and Library, Welshpool. 

The William SaH Archaeological Society, Stafford, Hon. Sec, Major-Gen. 
The Hon. G. Wrottesley. 

The Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, The Castle, 
Taunton. 

The Shropshire Archaeological and Nat. Hist. Society, Hon. Sec, F. Goyne, 
Esq., Dogpole, Shrewsbury. 

The Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History, Hon. Sec, V. 
B. Redstone, Esq., Woodbridge, Mill Hill, Suffolk. 

The Surrey Archaeological Society, Castle Arch, Guildford. 

The Sussex Archaeological Society, Lewes, Sussex. 

The Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Devizes, Wilts. 

The Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Association, Hon. 
Librarian, E. K. Clarke, Esq., 10 Park Street, Leeds. 

The Bureau of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S A, 



TERMS OF ADMISSION TO THE SOCIETY. 



Those who are desirous of joining the Society, can be admitted, after 
election by the Council, on the following conditions : 

I As Life Members for a Composition of £5, and an Admission 
Fee of 10s. 6d., which will entitle them to receive gratuitously 
for life, the annual volumes of Transactions of the Society that 
may be issued after the date of payment. 

II. As Annual Members upon payment of 10s. 6d. Entrance Fee, and 
an annual subscription of 10s. 6d., which will entitle them to 
receive gratuitously, the annual volume of Transactions for 
every year for which their subscriptions are paid. 

The Annual Subscription becomes due on the 1st of January, and the 
Hon. Treasurer, Mr. G. M. Currie, will be obliged if members 
will send their subscriptions to him at 26 Lansdown Place, 
Cheltenham. 

By order of the Council, the Transactions of the Society are only issued 
to those members who have paid their subscriptions for the 
corresponding year. 

Application for admission as members to be made to one of the 
Hon. Local Secretaries, or to the 

REV. CANON WILLIAM BAZELEY, M.A., 
Matson Rectory, 

Gloucester, 

Hon. General Secretary.